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G.    W.    KITCHIN,    D.D. 







[ 'All  rights  reserved'} 


THE  First  Book  oJhthe^Faery  Queene  pourtrays  the  struggles 
and  final  victory  q£  Truth,^  intellectual  and  spiritual,  under  the 
name  of  Holiness.  The  Second  Book  sets  forth  the  temptations- 
and  triumphs  of  Moral  Purity,  under  the  name_oJLTemperancc. 
The  two^  Detween  tnem,  contain  the  substance  of  (man's  fdith 
and  duty.  In" the  First  Book  the  Christian  comes  out  firmly 
assured  in  his  belief,  and  that,  not  as  a  mere  effort  of  the  imagi 
nation,  or  as  a  devotional  sentiment,  but  as  a  severe  intellectual 
enquiry  and  sifting  of  the  truth,  a  "  proving  all  things"  in  order 
to  "  hold  fast  that  which  is  good."  For  this  combination  of 
reason  with  religion  was  deemed  not  only  allowable  but  essential 
in  the  sixteenth  century,  and  bore  fruit  in  the  appeals  to  men's 
judgment  and  personal  reason  as  against  authority,  to  common 
sense  as  against  the  iron  rules  and  quibbles  of  the  later  Scholastics, 
to  the  personal  study  of  the  Bible  as  against  a  blind  reliance  on  a 
traditional  and  sacerdotal  system.  In  the  Second  Book  we  have 
^fc_Christian  working  out,  with  many  lets  and  slips^hejnoral 
ends  of  his  existence,  moderate  and  manly,  the  true  '  gentleman ' 
in  the  right  sense  of  the  word.  The  Book  expresses,  in  fact,  the 
profound  belief  of  the  age  in  morality  as  the  natural  sequel  of 
a  true  and  enlightenedjfaith :  and  Duessa  and  Archimago  are 
introduced  at  the  opening  of  the  "  pageant,"  as  Spenser  calls  it, 
not  merely  to  act  as  artistic  links,  binding  Book  with  Book,  but 
more  especially  to  indicate  this  close  connection  of  religion  with 
morality.  For  falsehood  and  the  false  Church,  said  the  age, 
fight  against  purity  of  life  as  well  as  against  truth  of  doctrine, 
and  the  magician  and  the  witch  go  on  "deceiving  and  deceived" 
to  the  end. 

It  follows  that  Spenser,  having  risen  to  this  high  conception 



of  the  purpose  of  these  Books,  is  obliged  to  bre'ak  away  fron, 
the  plan  he  laid  down  for  himself  in  his  well-known  Letter  to 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  To  have  worked  out  the  twelve  Books  as 
representing  "  the  twelve  moral  virtues,"  each  with  its  own 
knight  and  its  own  adventures,  would  have  demanded  a  far 
narrower  treatment  of  these  two  opening  Books.  Instead  of 
ranging  over  the  whole  extent  of  human  life  and  interests  as  they 
do,  pourtraying  Holiness  and  Temperance,  we  should  have  had 
the  adventures  of  the  liberal  soul  struggling  against  extravagance 
or  stinginess,  or  the  brave  man  attacked  by  temptations  of  rash 
ness  or  of  cowardice.  The  genius  of  the  poet  happily  delivered 
him  from  his  own  bonds,  and  enabled  him  to  deal  with  his 
subject  with  a  dignity  and  completeness  which  makes  each  Book 
a  work  by  itself,  and  a  commentary  on  the  whole  breadth  of 
human  life. 

But  though  we  may  look  on  each  of  these  Books  as  a  whole, 
still  the  author  is  mindful  to  link  the  different  "  gests"  together, 
by  likeness  of  structure,  by  reference  to  the  original  design,  by 
the  introduction  of  the  old  actors  at  the  beginning  of  the  new 
piece,  and  especially  by  the  granderjguxes^of  Arthur  and  the 
Faery  Queene,  who  appear  dimly /n^ughpatv*  The  image  of 
the  Queen  looking  down  on  the  action  is  never  absent  from  the 
Books :  in  a  veiled  form  she^atfmally  enters  on  the  stage,  the 
divine  huntress,  chaste  and^beautiful  as  Artemis  herself,  and 
ennobles  the  work^wathner  presence  and  her  high-souled  words. 
The  Prince^jivfjuest  of  her  through  the  world,  full  of  a  myste 
rious  loye'and  allegiance  to  her,  appears  in  each  Book  to  help 
ing  knights.  This  fink  is  so  artfully  contrived,  that 
it  carries  on  the  mysterious  undercurrent  of  the  action,  it 
does  not  diminish  the  interest  felt  in  the  main  actors.  Prince 
Arthur  comes  as  a  deliverer  when  the  heroes  are  reduced  to 
helplessness:  he  delivers  them,  but  he  does  not  do  their  work 
for  them  His  work  is  noble  and  perfect;  but  it  only  tends 
in  these  Books  to  restore  the  knights  to  themselves,  and  so  to 
nable  them  to  work  out  their  proper  ends  for  themselves. 

In  this  respect,  and  in  many  others,  the  two  Books  run  upon 
parallel  lines.  It  may  be  worth  while  to  notice  some  of  these 


While  Error's  hateful  figure  forms  a  very  striking  introduction 
to  the  treatment  of  the  subject  of  the  search  after  Truth,  the  sad 
picture  of  the  fall  of  MordantTancl  the  consequent  miseries 
of  Amavia  give  us,  in  the  same  way,  the  key-note  of  the  Second 
Book,  pourtraying  the  terrible  power  of  moral  evil,  if  not  resisted  ; 
it  gives  Sir  Guyon  the  clue  to  his^jath  in  life,  as  avenger  of  theij^ 
innocent  babe.  _  Acrasia  is  thus  brought  before  us,the  central 
figure .  of  evil,  foreseen  "irTthe  effects  ot  her  poisonous fascina- 
tions :  "  Sin,  when  it  hath  conceived,  bringeth  forth  death." 

The  House  of  Pride  may  be  contrasted  with  Alma's  Castle  ; 
the  description  of  the  Cave  of  Despair,  and  the  discussion  on 
suicide  which  follows  it,  stand  over  against  the  account  of  Mam 
mon's  Cave,  and  the  disquisition  held  in  it  respecting  the  use  and 
value  of  riches,  and  man's  proper  aim  in  life. 

Again,  as  in  Canto  VIII  of  the  First  Book  we  have  the  over 
throw  of  Orgoglio  (that  most  formidable  enemy  of  the  religious 
character,  Pride)  by  the  hand  of  Arthur;  so  in  Canto  VIII  of 
the  Second  Book  we  meet  the  same  Prince  doing  to  death  the 
various  forms  of  angry  passion  and  fiery  temper,  which  had  all 
but  undone  the  weakened  and  prostrate  Sir  Guyon. 

Una  corresponds,  in  a  sort,  to  the  Black  Palmer  ;   though  we 
may  raiik  the  religious  purity  of  the  snow-white  maiden  higher 
than  the  moral  equanimity  of  the  sad-robed  sober  Mentor.     Una  ^ 
guides  the  Red  Cross  Knight,  the  Palmer  Sir  Guyon :   they  are  ' 
parted  from  one    another  under  circumstances   suitable  to  the 
character  of  each  Book.    The  Red  Cross  Knight  loses  his  com 
panion  through  false  illusions  :  Sir  Guyon  parts  with  his  Palmer 
in  order  that  he  may  pass  with  Idleness,  in  the  boat  that  goes 
without  an  oar,  across  the  Idle  Lake. 

And,  lastly,  the  tenth  Canto  of  each  book  is  dedicated  to  the 
preparation  of  the  hero  of  each  for  the  crowning  work  of  his 
calling.  When  the  Red  Cross  Knight  is  taken  to  the  House  of 
Mercy,  it  is  that  his  mind  may  be  enlightened,  and  that  his  soul 
may  obtain  glimpses  of  heavenly  truth  before  his  last  struggle 
with  the  Old  Serpent,  the  Father  of  Lies.  When  Guyon  reaches 
the  Castle  of  Alma,  he  betakes  himself  to  the  study  of  the 
"  Antiquities  of  Faery  Land,"  in  order  that  he  may  prepare 
himself  by  high  example  and  the  tranquil  study  of  the  great 


actions  of  the  past  to  discern  the  difference  between  the  glitter 
and  allurement  of  Acrasia  and  the  true  greatness  of  a  temperate 
and  upright  life. 

There  are  also,  on  the  other  hand,  special  characteristics  and 
points  of  difference  between  the  two  Books,  -arising  from  the 
different  themes  treated  in  them.  The  Second  Book  stands 
quite  alone  in  English  literature  for  its  melodious  diction  and 
beautiful  descriptions  of  a  false  Fairyland ;  while  the  First  Book 
is  full  of  fighting  and  gnm_pictures,  some  of  them_reyolting  rather 
than  terrible.  The  Dragon,  laid  low  over  acresofjand,  horrible 
even  in  death,  fills  the  mind  witj^jramful  images :  on  the  other 
ha"nd,  AcrasiaTTair  and  frail,  carried  away  in  bonds,  not  tormented 
nor  slain,  her  slaves  released,  and  restored  to  human  form ;  her 
bower  broken  down,  her  garden  defaced,  may  be  sad,  but  is  not 
horrible.  Again,  the  First  Book  is  naturally  far  fuller  of  historical 
allusions  to  the  time  in  which  it  was  written  than  the  Second : 
for  the  latter  dealt  simply  with  the  development  of  each  man's 
moral  nature,  while  the  former  treated  of  the  great  religious  and 
political  questions  which  were  agitating  the  world.  For  the  same 
reason  the  allegorical  character  of  the  First  Book  is  more 
strongly  marked  -than  that  of  the  Second,  though  we  have  the 
general  similitude  of  the  struggle  against  temptation,  and  the 
detailed  and  interpolated  allegories  of  the  House  of  Moderation 
and  of  the  Castle  of  the  Soul. 

"""It  may  be  well  to  trace  the  way  in  which  this  allegory  is 
worked  out. 

We  have  already  noticed  how  the  episode  of  Mordant  and 
Amavia,  with  their  bloody-haflded  babe,  sets  the  action  of  the 
story  into  its  right  course.  They  save  us  from  forgetting  that 
all  the  struggles  of  the  earlier  Books  are  only  preparatory  to  the 
main  issue  yet  to  come.l  It  seems  that  Spenser  originally  in 
tended  to  have  given  this  key-note  even  earlier;  for  in  the 
Letter  to  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  he  describes  the  Palmer  as 
coming  in  (at  the  very  outset)  to  the  Queen's  presence,  bearing 
the  babe  in  his  arms,  and  seeking  redress  for  him ;  he  goes  on 
to  say  that  the  task  was  assigned  to  Sir  Guyon,  who  went  £  jrth 
at  once  to  fulfil  it.  But  the  poet  has  happily  deviated  from  his 
plan :  otherwise  we  must  have  waited  till  the  never-written 


Twelfth  Book  for  the  history  of  the  babe  and  the  grievance 
against  Acrasia.  The  hero  of_the  Book  is  drawn  as  an  honest, 
manly  gentleman/ tried  as  man  is,  but  (fortified  by  the  wise 
counsels  of  his  calmer  "coliirade)  finally  victorious  over  all 
temptations.  And  just  as  the  episode  of  the  bloody-handed 
babe  brings  before  us  the  evil  to  be  overcome,  so  does  the 
Castle  of  Medina,  in  the  second  Canto,  lay  out  the  general 
principle  which  is  to  run  through  all  morality,  the  Aristotelian 
principle  that  Virtue  lies  in  the  mean  between  the  extremes 
of  excess  and  defect.  ,  Yet  even  here  thejpoet  deviates  from 
the  philosopher.  His  'defect,'  the  frowning  Elissa,  is  not 
merely  too  little  of  the  quality  of  which  'excess,'  the  gay 
Perissa,  is  too  much;  but  each  of  them  is  a  definite  and 
independent  obliquity.  The  one  is  too  fond  of  pleasure;  the 
other  is  too  morose  and  gloomy.  The  knight,  devoting  him 
self  to  moderation,  will  be  called  on  to  contend  now  against 
the  one,  now  against  the  other ;  for  Spenser  tacitly  divides  the 
moral  trials  of  the  knight  into  those  of  pleasure  and  those  of 
pain ;  those  of  anger  and  spite,  and  those  of  idleness  and  license.  I 
The  earlier  Cantos  deal  with  painluL  struggles  7  against  the 
passions  of  wrath  and  malignity,  the  latter  ones  with  the 
passions  of  desire.  We  may  say,  in  passing,  that  the  episode 
of  Braggadocchio  and  Trompart,  in  the  third  Canto,  is 
intended  both  to  be  quasi-comic,  as  a  foil  to  the  grave 
nobleness  of  the  hero,  and  also  to  complete  the  general 
treatment  of  the  subject  by  adding  a  picture  of  cowardice  and 
low  knavery.  It  would  have  been  impossible  to  have  subjected 
Sir  Guyon  himself  to  temptations  to  that  moral  deficiency, 
the  merest  suspicion  of  which  would  have  damaged  the 
dignity  of  the  knightly  character.  Braggadocchio  is,  therefore, 
drawn  and  left  alone,  after  being  contrasted  with  the  splendid 
vision  of  the  Virgin  Queen. 

The  serious  business  of  the  Book  begins  with  the  fourth 
Canto.  There  Guyon  encounters  and  overcomes  Fury  and 
the  hag  Occasion;  and  we  have  in  the  episode  of  Phedon  a 
pleasing  if  not  original  illustration  of  the  evils  against  which 
the  knight  is  now  struggling— the  evils  of  unbridled  anger  and 
revenge.  The  Book  continues  "In  the  same  strain :  to  Fury 


and  Occasion  succeed  tjie  varlet  Strife  knd  the  fiery  Pyrocles. 
But  in  the  sixth  Canto  the  transition  to  the  other  series  of 
temptations  begins  in  the  introduction  pf  Phaedria,  the  spirit 
of  idleness.  The  Knight,  after  these 

into  her  hands,  and  is  parted  from  the  wise  Palmer.  This 
incident  relieves  the  action,  and  also  prepares  the  way  for  what 
is  to  come.  The  loose  merriment  of  Phaedria,  the  love-song 
in  praise  of  idleness,  the  floating  island,  the  idle  lake,  the  little 
gliding  skippet, — all  foreshadow  the  yet  more  soft  and  alluring 
beauties  of  the  Bower  of  Bliss. 

With  the  sight  of  the  agony  and  burning  wounds  of  Pyrocles, 
the  utter  misery  and  pain  of  ungoverned  wrath,  this  division  of 
the  Book  comes  to  an  end. 

Thus  far  Passion  (ro  OV/JLLKOV)  ;  now  Desire  (TO  eTndvp.rjTiKov). 
And  first  the  temptations  of  wealth  and  ambition  in  Mammon's 
Cave,  overcome  by  Guyon,  but  with  so  much  stress  on  him 
that  he  lies  senseless  and  as  dead  on  his  return  to  the  upper 
air.  In  this  condition  he  is  attacked  by  the  fiery  brothers. 
Cymocles  and  Pyrocles,  and  would  have  perished  had  not 
Prince  Arthur  appeared  to  rescue  him  and  to  overthrow  them 

Then  we  have  the  Castle  of  the  Soul,  and  the  venomous 
assaults  of  its  myriad  foes,  the  twelve  troops  of  temptation — 
five  attacking  the  five  senses,  and  seven  representing  the  seven 
deadly  sins- — led  by  their  gaunt  captain  Maleger.  The  curious 
and  very  dull  episode  of  the  British  annals  delays  the  action 
through  a  long  Canto,  and  mars  its  unity  and  forward 
movement.  But  in  the  last  two  Cantos  the  struggle  draws  to 
its  end.  Arthur  delivers  the  beleaguered  soul,  destroying  the 
devilish  captain  and  scattering  the  villains  away ;  and  Guyon, 
passing  undismayed  through  many  marvellous  risks,  reaches  at 
last  his  goal  the  Bower  of  Bliss,  and  (thanjks  to  a  power 
guiding  him  stronger  than  himself)  resists  all  the  most  subtle 
temptations  of  the  flesh,  and  destroys  for  ever  the  charmed 
domains  of  luxury  and  intemperance. 

Thus  in  Mammon's  Cave,  the  World  is  overcome ;  in  the 
person  of  Maleger,  Arthur  resists  the  Devil ;  in  Acrasia's  bower, 
Guyon  wrestles  with  the  flesh,  and  prevails  against  it.  So 


the  three   great   enemies   are   smitten   down,   and  the   task  is 

If  the  First  Book  drew  the  portrait  of  the  English  Christian, 
this  Book  may  be  said  to  draw  that  of  the  English  gentleman, 
as  Spenser  conceived  it.  He  says  as  much  in  the  opening 
stanzas  of  the  third  Canto,  where  Braggadocchio  cannot  manage 
the  steed.  The  thought  also  runs  through  the  Book :  on  it 
are  based  the  principles,  the  actions,  even  the  temptations  of 
the  knight.  Spenser  draws  with  a  loving  hand  the  picture  of 
a  true  Englishman  doing  his  duty  to  God  and  his  Queen,  in 
the  noble  lines  in  which  Belphoebe  covers  Braggadocchio  with 
scorn.  Those  words  may  be  regarded  as  the  utterance  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  herself,  speaking  for  the  re-awakened  national  life 
of  this  country.  They  are  her  protest  against  all  lowness  of 
aim,  idleness,  worldliness,  self-indulgence.  To_  be  simple,  indus.-  /L- 
tripus,  truthful,  pure — this  is  the  ideal  set  before  the  Englishmanjlp- 
this  is  the  moral  teaching  of  the  Book. - 

Let  this  then  be  our  excuse  for  laying  this  little  volume 
before  the  students  of  English  history  and  literature.  It  is  essen 
tially  an  ennobling  book,  giving  us  a  full  and  admirable  conception 
of  the  ideal  of  man's  best  estate  as  a  moral  agent,  as  it  was  un 
derstood  in  those  days  of  the  young  life  of  this  country.  Axid 
to  this  a  nobility  of  tone  and  aim,  a  splendour  of  imagery  never  ^  / 
excelled,  exquisite  beauty__of_language,  dignity  of  thought,  ever-  j" 
variecTmcident,  graphic  touches  of  character,  ceaseless  variety  of 
illustration  and  accessories,  and  we  have  a  book  well  worthy  to 
be  ranked,  forgotten  thougn  it  has  been,  among  the  masterpieces 
of  that  age  of  masters. 

One  word  as  to  this  edition.  As  before,  the  text  is  founded 
on  the  editions  of  1590  and  1596,  collated  afresh  by  the  Rev. 
W.  H.  Bliss,  M.A.,  of  the  Bodleian  Library.  My  best  thanks 
are  due  to  him  for  his  valuable  help,  and  for  the  extreme  care 
with  which  he  has  secured  the  accuracy  of  the  text.  The 
natural  rule  in  the  case  of  two  editions  issued  in  an  author's 
lifetime  and  under  his  eye,  is  to  trust  almost  entirely  to  the  later. 
But  unfortunately  this  rule  does  not  hold  here.  The  edition 
of  1596  shows  throughout  signs  of  great  carelessness  and  haste. 
It  is  full  of  misprints  and  errors:  when  it  does  make  corrections 


they  are  often  for  the  worse ;  and  one  is  almost  tempted  to 
think  that  the  edition  of  1590,  with  its  page  of  "  Faults  Es 
caped  "  at  the  end,  would  have  been  a  safer  guide  by  itself  alone. 
It  is  possible  that  Spenser  (who  was  far  busier,  probably,  in  1596 
than  in  1590)  confined  his  attention  almost  entirely  to  the  Fourth, 
Fifth,  and  Sixth  Books,  then  for  the  first  time  appearing a. 

The  Notes  to  this  Book  are  bulkier  than  those  to  the  First, 
in  consequence  of  the  very  large  amount  of  historical  allusion, 
especially  in  the  tenth  Canto.  I  have  tried  to  shorten  them 
by  omitting  most  of  the  explanations  of  idiomatic  and  peculiar 
phrases;  thinking  that  many  of  them  have  been  already  given 
in  the  First  Book ;  and  also,  indeed,  believing  that  the  student 
is  not  the  better  for  being  over-helped. 

The  Notes  of  this  volume  have  had  the  very  great  advantage 
of  the  oversight  of  Professor  Cowell,  to  whom  this  little  book 
and  I  owe  much. 

a  The  editio  princeps,  1590,  contains  only  the  first  three  ttooks. 

A  NEW  and  enlarged  Glossary  was  compiled  for  the  Sixth  edition 
by  the  Rev.  A.  L,.  Mayhew,  M.A.,  of  Wadham  College,  and  has 
been  carefully  revised  by  him  for  the  present  edition. 

OXFORD,  1887. 




EegcnD   of  Jfctr  CSugotx, 
or  of 



Or  J 

1  RIGHT  well  I  wote,  most  mighty  soveraine, 
That  all  this  famous  antique  history, 

Of  some  th'  aboundance  of  an  idle  braine 
Will  judged  be,  and  painted  forgery, 
Rather  then  matter  of  just  memory, 
Sith  none,  that  breatheth  living  aire,  does  kno\v' 
Where  is  that  happy  land  of  Faery, 
Which  I  so  much  doe  vaunt,  yet  no  where  show, 
But  vouch  antiquities,  which  nobody  can  know. 

2  But  let  that  man  with  better  sence  advize, 
That  of  the  world  least  part  of  us  is  red  : 
And  daily  how  through  hardy  enterprize 
Many  great  regions  are  discovered, 
Which  to  late  age  were  never  mentioned. 
Who  ever  heard  of  th'  Indian  Peru? 

r  who  in  venturous  vessell  measured 

he  Amazons  huge  river,  now  found  trew? 

fruitfullest  Virginia  who  did  ever  vew  ? 


3  Yet  all  these  were,  when  no  man  did  them  know; 
Yet  have  from  wisest  ages  hidden  beene; 

And  later  times  thinges  more  unknowne  shall  show. 
Why  then  should  witlesse  man  so  much  misweene, 
That  nothing  is,  but  that  which  he  hath  scene? 
What  if  within  the  moones  fayre  shining  spheare  ? 
What  if  in  every  other  starre  unseene 
Of  other  worldes  he  happily  should  heare  ? 
He  wonder  would  much  more :  yet  such  to  some  appeare. 

4  Of  Faerie  lond  yet  if  he  more  inquire, 

By  certaine  signes,  here  sett  in  sundry  place, 
He  may  it  find:  ne  let  him  then  admire, 
But  yield  his  sence  to  bee  too  blunt  and  bace, 
That  no'te  without  an  hound  fine  footing  trace. 
And  thou,  O  fairest  princesse  under  sky, 
In  this  fayre  mirrhour  maist  behold  thy  face, 
And  thine  own  realmes  in  lond  of  Faery, 
\And  in  this  antique  image  thy  great  auncestry. 

5  The  which,  O  pardon  me  thus  to  enfold 
In  covert  vele,  and  wrap  in  shadowes  light, 
That  feeble  eyes  your  glory  may  behold, 

Which  else  could  not  endure  those  beames  bright, 
But  would  bee  dazled  with  exceeding  light. 
O  pardon,  and  vouchsafe  with  patient  eare 
The  brave  adventures  of  this  Faery  knight, 
The  good  Sir  .Guy on,  gratiously  to  heare, 
In  whom  great  rule  of  Temp'raunce  goodly  doth  appeare. 


CANTO    I. 

Guy  on,  by  Arcbimage  abnsd, 

The  Redcrosse  knight  awaytes; 

Fyndes  Mordant  and  Amavia  slainc 

With  pleasures  poisoned  baytes. 

r  THAT  cunning  architect  of  cancred  guile, 
Whom  princes  late  displeasure  left  in  bands, 
For  falsed  letters,  and  suborned  wile, 
Soone  as  the  Redcrosse  knight  he  understands 
To  beene  departed  out  of  Eden  landes, 
To  serve  againe  his  soveraine  Elfin  Queene ; 
His  artes  he  moves,  and  out  of  caytives  hands 
Himselfe  he  frees  by  secret  meanes  unseene ; 

His  shackles  emptie  lefte,  himselfe  escaped  cleene. 

2  And  forth  he  fares,  full  of  malicious  mynd, 
To  worken  mischiefe  and  avenging  woe, 
Whereever  he  that  godly  knight  may  fynd, 
His  onely  hart  sore  and  his  onely  foe ; 
Sith  Una  now  he  algates  must  forgoe, 
Whom  his  victorious  handes  did  earst  restore 
To  native  crowne  and  kingdom  late  ygoe: 
Where  she  enjoyes  sure  peace  for  evermore, 

As  wether-beaten  ship  arriv'd  on  happie  shore. 

3  Him  therefore  now  the  object  of  his  spight 
And  deadly  food  he  makes:  him  to  offend 

By  forged  treason,  or  by  open  fight,  , 

He  seekes,  of  all  his  drifte  the  aymed  end : 
Thereto  his  subtile  engins  he  does  bend, 
His  practick  wit  and  his  fayre  filed  tong, 

ith  thousand  other  sleights:   for  well  he  kend 

credit  now  in  doubtfull  ballaunce  hong; 
'or  hardly  could  be  hurt,  who  was  already  stong. 

B    2 


4  Still  as  he  went,  he  craftie  stales  did  lay 
With  cunning  traynes  him  to  entrap  unwares, 
And  privie  spials  plast  in  all  his  way, 

To  we  etc  what  course  he  takes,  and  how  he  fares ; 
To  ketch  him  at  a  vantage  in  his  snares. 
But  now  so  wise  and  warie  was  the  knight 
By  tryall  of  his  former  harmes  and  cares, 
That  he  descride,  and  shonned  still,  his  slight : 
The  fish,  that  once  was  caught,  new  bait  will  hardly  bite. 

5  Nath'lesse  th'  enchaunter  would  not  spare  his  payne, 
In  hope  to  win  occasion  to  his  will; 

Which  when  he  long  awaited  had  in  vaine, 
He  chaunged  his  mind  from  one  to  other  ill: 
For  to  all  good  he  enimy  was  still. 
Upon  the  way  him  fortuned  to  meet, 
Faire  marching  underneath  a  shady  hill, 
A_goo_djy  knight,  all  armd  in  harnesse  meete, 
That  from  his  head  no  place  appeared  to  his  feete. 

6  His  carriage  was  full  comely  and  upright; 
His  countenance  demure  and  temperate^; 
But  yet  so  sterne  and  terrible  in  sight, 

That  cheard  his  friendes,  and  did  his  foes  amate : 
He  was  an  Elfin  borne,  of  noble  state 
And  mickle  worship  in  his  native  land; 
Well  could  he  tourney,  and  in  lists  debate, 
And  knighthood  tooke  of  good  Sir  Huons  hand, 
When  with  king  Oberon  he  came  to  Faerie  land. 

7  Him  als  accompanyd  upon  the  way 

A  comely  palmer,  clad  in  black  attire, 
Of  ripest  yeares,  and  haires  all  hoarie  gray, 
That  with  a  staffe  his  feeble  steps  did  stire, 
Least  his  long  way  his  aged  limbes  should  tire: 
And,  if  by  lookes  one  may  the  mind  aread, 
He  seemed  to  be  a  sage  and  sober  sire, 
And  ever  with  slow  pace  the  knight  did  lead, 
Who  taught  his  trampling  steed  with  equall  steps  to  tread. 

CANTO  I.  5 

8  Such  whenas  Archimago  them  did  view, 

He  weened  well  to  worke  some  uncouth  wile : 
Eftsoones,  untwisting  his  deceiptfull  clew, 
He  gan  to  weave  a  web  of  wicked  guile ; 
And  with  a  faire  countenance  and  flattring  stile 
To  them  approching,  thus  the  knight  bespake; 
Fayre  sonne  of  Mars,  that  seeke  with  warlike  spoile, 
And  great  atchiev'ments,  great  your  self  to  make, 
Vouchsafe  to  stay  your  steed  for  humble  misers  sake. 

9  He  stayd  his  steed  for  humble  misers  sake, 
And  bad  tell  on  the  tenor  of  his  plaint ; 
Who  feigning  then  in  every  limb  to  quake 
Through  inward  feare,  and  seeming  pale  and  faint, 
With  piteous  moan  his  percing  speach  gan  paint: 
Deare  lady  how  shall  I  declare  thy  cace, 

Whom  late  I  left  in  languorous  constraynt  ? 
Would  God  thyselfe  now  present  were  in  place 
To  tell  this  ruefull  tale;  thy  sight  could  win  thee  grace.  V^ 

10  Or  rather  would,  O  would  it  so  had  chaunst, 
That  you,  most  noble  Sir,  had  present  beene 
When  that  lewd  ribauld,  with  vile  lust  advaunst, 
Laid  first  his  filthy  hands  on  virgin  cleene, 

To  spoyle  her  dainty  corse,  so  faire  and  sheene, 
As  on  the  earth,  great  mother  of  us  all, 
With  living  eye  more  faire  was  never  scene 
Of  chastitie  and  honour  virginall: 
Witnes  ye  heavens,  whom  she  in  vaine  to  help  did  call. 

11  How  may  it  be,  (sayd  then  the  knight  halfe  wroth,) 
That  knight  should  knighthood  ever  so  have  shent? 
None  but  that  saw,  (quoth  he,)  would  weene  for  troth, 
How  shamefully  that  mayd  he  did  torment: 

Her  looser  golden  lockes  he  rudely  rent, 
And  drew  her  on  the  ground,  and  his  sharpe  sword 
Against  her  snowy  brest  he  fiercely  bent, 
And  threatned  death  with  many  a  bloudie  word ; 
Toung  hates  to  tell  the  rest,  that  eye  to  see  abhord. 


12  Therewith  amoved  from  his  sober  mood, 

And  lives  he  yet,  (said  he,)  that  wrought  this  act, 
And  doen  the  heavens  afford  him  vitall  food  ? 
He  lives,  (quoth  he,)  and  boasteth  of  the  fact, 
Ne  yet  hath  any  knight  his  courage  crackt. 
Where  may  that  treachour  then,  (said  he,)  be  found, 
Or  by  what  meanes  may  I  his  footing  tract? 
That  shall  I  shew,  (said  he,)  as  sure  as  hound 
The  stricken  deare  doth  chalenge  by  the  bleeding  wound. 

13  He  staid  not  lenger  talke,  but  with  fierce  ire 
And  zealous  hast  away  is  quickly  gone 

To  seeke  that  knight,  where  him  that  craftie  squire 
Supposed  to  be.     They  do  arrive  anone 
Where  sate  a  gentle  lady  all  alone, 
With  garments  rent,  and  haire  discheveled, 
Wringing  her  hands,  and  making  piteous  mone; 
Her  swollen  eyes  were  much  disfigured, 
And  her  faire  face  with  teares  was  fowly  blubbered. 

14  The  knight,  approching  nigh,  thus  to  her  said, 
Faire  lady,  through  fowle  sorrow  ill  bedight, 
Great  pittie  is  to  see  you  thus  dismaid, 

And  marre  the  blossome  of  your  beautie  bright: 
Forthy  appease  your  griefe  and  heavie  plight, 
And  tell  the  cause  of  your  conceived  payne. 
For  if  he  live,  that  hath  you  doen  despight; 
He  shall  you  doe  dew  recompence  againe, 
Or  else  his  wrong  with  greater  puissance  maintaine. 

1 5  Which  when  she  heard,  as  in  despightfull  wise 
^She  wilfully  her  sorrow  did  augment, 

And  offred  hope  of  comfort  did  despise: 
Her  golden  lockes  most  cruelly  she  rent, 
And  scratcht  her  face  with  ghastly  dreriment ; 
Ne  would  she  speake,  ne  see,  ne  yet  be  scene, 
But  hid  her  visage,  and  her  head  downe  bent, 
'  Either  for  grievous  shame,  or  for  great  teene, 
As  if  her  hart  with  sorrow  had  transfixed  beene. 

CANTO  I.  7 

1 6  Till  her  that  squire  bespake,  Madame  my  liefe, 
For  Gods  deare  love  be  not  so  wilfull  bent, 
But  doe  vouchsafe  now  to  receive  reliefe, 
The  which  good  fortune  doth  to  you  present. 
For  what  bootes  it  to  weepe  and  to  wayment. 
When  ill  is  chaunst,  but  doth  the  ill  increase, 
And  the  weake  minde  with  double  woe  torment? 
When  she  her  squire  heard  speake,  she  gan  appease 

Her  voluntarie  paine,  and  feele  some  secret  ease. 

17  Eftsoone  she  said,  Ah  gentle  trustie  squire, 
What  comfort  can  I  wofull  wretch  conceave. 
Or  why  should  ever  I  henceforth  desire 

To  see  faire  heavens  face,  and  life  not  leave, 
Sith  that  false  traytour  did  my  honour  reave? 
False  traytour  certes,  (saide  the  Faerie  knight) 
I  read  the  man,  that  ever  would  deceave 
A  gentle  ladie,  or  her  wrong  through  might: 
Death  were  too  little  paine  for  such  a  fowle  despight. 

1 8  But  now,  faire  ladie,  comfort  to  you  make, 

And  read,  who  hath  ye  wrought  this  shamefull  plight, 
That  short  revenge  the  man  may  overtake, 
Where  so  he  be,  and  soone  upon  him  light. 
Certes,  Csaid  she,)  I  wote  not  how  he  hight, 
But  under  him  a  gray  steede  he  did  wield, 
Whose  sides  with  dapled  circles  weren  dight ; 
Upright  he  rode,  and  in  his  silver  shield 
He  bore  a  bloodie  crosse,  that  quartred  all  the  field. 

19  Now  by  my  head,  (saide  Guyon,)  much  I  muse, 
How  that  same  knight  should  doe  so  foule  amis, 
Or  ever  gentle  damzell  so  abuse: 

For  may  I  boldly  say,  he  surely  is 
A  right  good  knight,  and  trew  of  word  ywis : 
I  present  was,  and  can  it  witnesse  well, 
When  armes  he  swore,  and  streight  did  enterpris 
Th'  adventure  of  the  errant  damozell ; 
In  which  he  hath  great  glorie  wonne,  as  I  heare  tel. 


20  Nathlesse  he  shortly  shall  againe  be  tryde, 
And  fairely  quite  him  of  th'  imputed  blame, 
Else  be  ye  sure  he  dearely  shall  abyde, 

Or  make  you  good  amendment  for  the  same: 
All  wrongs  have  mends,  but  no  amends  of  shame. 
Now  therefore  ladie  rise  out  of  your  paine, 
And  see  the  salving  of  your  blotted  name. 
Full  loth  she  seemd  thereto,  but  yet  did  faine; 
For  she  was  inly  glad  her  purpose  so  to  gaine. 

21  Her  purpose  was  not  such,  as  she  did  faine, 
Ne  yet  her  person  such,  as  it  was  scene, 
But  under  simple  shew  and  semblant  plaine, 
Lurckt  false  Duessa  secretly  unseene, 

As  a  chast  virgin,  that  had  wronged  beene : 
So  had  false  Archimago  her  disguisd, 
To  cloke  her  guile  with  sorrow  and  sad  teene ; 
And  eke  himselfe  had  craftily  devisd 
To  be  her  squire,  and  do  her  service  well  aguisd. 

22  Her  late  forlorne  and  naked  he  had  found, 
Where  she  did  wander  in  waste  wildernesse, 
Lurking  in  rockes  and  caves  farre  under  ground, 
And  with  greene  mosse  cov'ring  her  nakednesse 
To  hide  her  shame  and  loathly  filthinesse, 

Sith  her  Prince  Arthur  of  proud  ornaments 
And  borrow'd  beautie  spoyld.     Her  nathelesse 
Th'  enchanter  finding  fit  for  his  intents 
Did  thus  revest,  and  deckt  with  due  habiliments. 

23  For  all  he  did,  was  to  deceive  good  knights, 
And  draw  them  from  pursuit  of  praise  and  fame 
To  slug  in  slouth  and  sensuall  delights, 

And  end  their  daies  with  irrenowmed  shame. 
And  now  exceeding  griefe  him  overcame, 
To  see  the  Redcrosse  thus  advaunced  hye ; 
Therefore  this  craftie  engine  he  did  frame, 
Against  his  praise  to  stirre  up  enmity e 
Of  such,  as  vertues  like  mote  unto  him  allye. 

CANTO   7.  9 

24  So  now  he  Guy  on  guydes  anyuncouth  wayJ^ 

Through  woods  and  mountaines,  till  they  came  at  last 

Into  a  pleasant_dale,  that  lowly  lay 

Betwixt  two  hils,  whose  high  heads  overplast. 

The  valley  did  with  coole  shade  overcast; 

Through  midst  thereof  a  little  river  rold, 

By  which  there  sate  a  knight  with  helme  unlast, 

lifmselfe  refreshing  with  the  liquid  cold, 

After  his  travell  long  and  labours  manifold. 

25  Lo  yonder  he,  cryde  Archimage  alowd, 

That  wrought  the  shameful  facj^which  I  did  shew; 
And  now  he  doth  himselfe  in  Regret  slirowjj^ 
To  fly  the  vengeance  for  his  outrage  "dew""; 
But  vaine:  for  ye  shall  dearely  do  him  rew, 
So  God  ye  speed,  and  send  you  good  successe 
Which  we  farre  off  will  here  abide  to  vew. 
So  they  him  left,  inflam'd  with  wrathfulnesse, 
That  streight  against  that  knight  his  speare  he  did  addresse. 

26  Who  seeing  him  from  farre  so  fierce  to  pricke, 
His  warlike  armes  about  him  gan  embrace, 
And  in  the  rest  his  readie  speare  did  sticke ; 
Tho  when  as  still  he  saw  him  towards  pace, 
He  gan  rencounter  him  in  equall  race. 

They  bene  ymet,  both  readie  to  affrap, 
When  suddenly  that  warriour  gan   abace 
His  threatned  speare,  as  if  some  new  mishap 
Had  him  betidde,  or  hidden  daunger  did  entrap. 

27  And  cryde,  Mercie,  sir  knight,  and  mercie,  lord, 
For  mine  offence  and  heedelesse  hardiment, 
That  had  almost  committed  crime   abhord, 
And  with  reprochfull  shame  mine  honour  shent, 
Whiles  cursed  steele  against  that  badge  I  bent, 
The  sacred  badge  of  my  Redeemers  death, 
Which  on  your  shield  is  set  for  ornament: 

But  his  fierce  foe  his  steed  could  stay  uneath, 
Who,  prickt  with  courage  kene,  did  cruell  battell  breath, 


28  But  when  he  heard  him  speake,  streight  way  he  knew 
His  errour,  and  himselfe  inclyning,  sayd ; 

Ah  deare  Sir  Guyon,  well  becommeth  you, 
.    But  me  behoveth  rather  to  upbrayd, 

Whose  hastie  hand  so  far  from  reason  strayd, 
That  almost  it  did  haynous  violence 
On  that  fayre  image  of  that  heavenly  mayd, 
That  decks  and  armes  your  shield  with  faire  defence :    * 
Your  court'sie  takes  on  you  anothers  due  offence. 

29  So  bene  they  both  attone,  and  doen  upreare 
Their  bevers  bright,  each  other  for  to  greete ; 
Goodly  comportance  each  to  other  beare, 

And  entertaine  themselves  with  court'sies  meet. 
Then  said  the  Redcrosse  knight,  Now  mote  I  weet, 
Sir  Guyon,  why  with  so  fierce  saliaunce, 
And  fell  intent  ye  did  at  earst  me  meet; 
For  sith  I  know  your  goodly  gouvernaunce, 
Great  cause,  I  weene,  you  guided,  or  some  uncouth  chaunce. 

30  Certes,  (said  he,)  well  mote  I  shame  to  tell 
The  fond  encheason,  that  me  hether  led. 

A  false  infamous  faitour  late  befell 
Me  for  to  meet,  that  seemed  ill  bested, 
And  playnd  of  grievous  outrage,  which  he  red 
A  knight  had  wrought  against  a  ladie  gent ; 
Which  to  avenge,  he  to  this  place  me  led, 
Where  you  he  made  the  marke  of  his  intent, 
And  now  is  fled:  foule  shame  him  follow,  where  he  went. 

31  So  can  he  turne  his  earnest  unto  game, 
Through  goodly  handling  and  wise  temperaunce. 
By  this  his  aged  guide  in  presence  came; 

Who  soone  as  on  that  knight  his  eye  did  glance, 
Eft  soones  of  him  had  perfect  cognizance, 
Sith  him  in  Faerie  court  he  late  avizd ; 
And  said,  Fayre  sonne,  God  give  you  happie  chaunce, 
And  that  deare  Grosse  uppon  your  shield  devizd, 
Wherewith  above  all  knights  ye  goodly  seeme  aguizd. 


32  Joy  may  you  have,  and  everlasting  fame,, 

Of  late  most  hard  atchiev'ment  by  you  donne, 
For  which  enrolled  is  your  glorious  name 
In  heavenly  registers  above  the  sunne, 
"Where  you  a  saint  with,  saints  your  seat  have  wonner 
But  wretched  we,  where  ye  have  left  your  marke, 
Must  now  anew  begin  like  race  to  runne. 
God  guide  thee,  Guyon,  well  to  end  thy  warke, 
And  to  the  wished  haven  bring  thy  weary  barke. 

33  Palmer,  (him  answered  the  Redcrosse  knight,) 
His  be  the  praise,  that  this  atchiev'ment  wrought, 
Who  made  my  hand  the  organ  of  His  might; 
More  then  goodwill  to  me  attribute  nought; 
For  all  I  did,  I  did  but  as  I  ought. 

But  you,  faire  sir,  whose  pageant  next  ensewes, 
Well  mote  yee  thee,  as  well  can  wish  your  thought, 
That  home  ye  may  report  thrise  happy  nevves  ; 
For  well  ye  worthy  bene  for  worth  and  gentle  thewes. 

34  So  courteous  conge  both  did  give  and  take, 
With  right  hands  plighted,  pledges  of  good  will. 
Then  Guyon  forward  gan  his  voyage  make, 
With  his  blacke  palmer,  that  him  guided  still. 
Still  he  him  guided  over  dale  and  hill, 

And  with  his  steadie  staffe  did  point  his  way; 

His  race  with  reason,  and  with  words  his  will, 
he  oft  did  stay, 
hastie  steps  to  stray. 

inis  race  wita  reason,  anu  wiui  wuruis  juis>  > 
From  fowlejintemperance  he  oft  did  stay, 
nd  suffred  not  in  wrath  his"  hastie  steps  to  si 

35  In  this  faire  wize  they  traveild  long  yfere, 
Through  many  hard  assayes,  which  did  betide  ; 
Of  which  he  honour  still  away  did  beare, 
And  spred  his  glorie  through  all  countries  wide. 
At  last  as  chaunst  them  by  a  forest  side 
To  passe,  for  succour  from  the  scorching  ray, 
They  heard  a  ruefull  voice,  that  dearnly  cride 
With  percing  shriekes  and  many  a  dolefull  lay  ; 

Which  to  attend,  awhile  their  forward  steps  they  stay. 


36  But  if  that  carelesse  hevens,  (quoth  she,)  despise 
The  doome  of  just  revenge,  and  take  delight 
To  see  sad  pageaunts  of  mens  miseries, 

As  bownd  by  them  to  live  in  lives  despight, 
Yet  can  they  not  warne  death  from  wretched  wight. 
Come  then,  come  soone,  come  sweetest  death  to  mee, 
And  take  away  this  long  lent  loathed  light: 
Sharpe  be  thy  wounds,  but  sweete  the  medicines  be, 
That  long  captived  soules  from  wearie  thraldome  free. 

37  But  thou,  sweete  babe,  whom  frowning  froward  fate 
Hath  made  sad  witnesse  of  thy  fathers  fall, 

Sith  heven  thee  deignes  to  hold  in  living  state, 
Long  maist  thou  live,  and  better  thrive  withall 
Then  to  thy  lucklesse  parents  did  befall : 
Live  thou,  and  to  thy  mother  dead  attest, 
That  cleare  she  dide  from  blemish  criminall : 
Thy  litle  hands  embrewd  in  bleeding  brest 
Loe  I  for  pledges  leave.     So  give  me  leave  to  rest. 

38  With  that  a  deadly  shrieke  she  forth  did  throw, 
That  through  the  wood  reechoed  againe, 

And  after  gave  a  grone  so  deepe  and  low, 
That  seemd  her  tender  hart  was  rent  in  twaine, 
Or  thrild  with  point  of  thorough-piercing  paine  ; 
As  gentle  hynd,  whose  sides  with  cruell  steele 
Through  launched,  forth  her  bleeding  life  does  raine, 
Whiles  the  sad  pang  approching  shee  does  feele, 
Brayes  out  her  latest  breath,  and  up  her  eyes  doth  seele. 

39  Which  when  that  warriour  heard,  dismounting  straict 
From  his  tall  steed,  he  rusht  into  the  thicke, 

And  soone  arrived  where  that  sad  pourtraict 
Of  death  and  dolour  lay,  halfe  dead,  halfe  quick, 
In  whose  white  alabaster  brest  did  stick 
A  cruell  knife,  that  made  a  griesly  wownd, 
From  which  forth  gusht  a  stream  of  gore  blood  thick, 
That  all  her  goodly  garments  staind  arownd, 
And  into  a  deep  sanguine  dide  the  grassie  grownd. 

CANTO  I.  13 

40  Pitifull  spectacle  of  deadly  smart, 
Beside  a  bubbling  fountaine  low  she  lay, 
Which  she  increased  with  her  bleeding  hart, 
And  the  cleane  waves  with  purple  gore  did  ray; 
Als  in  her  lap  a  lovely  babe  did  play 

His  cruell  sport,  in  stead  of  sorrow  dew; 
For  in  her  streaming  blood  he  did  embay 
His  litle  hands,  and  tender  joints  embrew; 
Pitifull  spectacle,  as  ever  eye  did  vew. 

41  Besides  them  both,  upon  the  soiled  gras 

The  dead  corse  of  an  armed  knight  was  spred, 
Whose  armour  all  with  bloud  besprinckled  was; 
His  ruddie  lips  did  smile,  and  rosy  red 
Did  paint  his  chearefull  cheekes,  yet  being  ded; 
Seemd  to  have  beene  a  goodly  personage, 
Now  in  his  freshest  flowre  of  lustiehed, 
Fit  to.  inflame  faire  ladie  with  loves  rage, 
But  that  fiers  fate  did  crop  the  blossome  of  his  age. 

42  Whom  when  the  good  Sir  Guyon  did  behold. 
His  hart  gan  wexe  as  starke  as  marble  stone, 
And  his  fresh  bloud  did  frieze  with  fearefull  cold, 
That  all  his  sences  seemd  bereft  attone : 

At  last  his  mightie  ghost  gan  deepe  to  grone, 
As  lion,  grudging  in  his  great  disdaine, 
Mournes  inwardly,  and  makes  to  himselfe  mone ; 
Till  ruth  and  fraile  affection  did  constraine 
His  stout  courage  to  stoupe,  and  shew  his  inward  paine. 


43  Out  of  her  gored  wound  the  cruell  steel 

He  lightly  snatcht,  and  did  the  floudgate  stop 
With  his  faire  garment :  then  gan  softly  feel 
Her  feeble  pulse,  to  prove  if  any  drop 
Of  living  blood  yet  in  her  veynes  did  hop : 
Which  when  he  felt  to  move,  he  hoped  faire 
To  call  backe  life  to  her  forsaken  shop: 
So  well  he  did  her  deadly  wounds  repaire, 
That  at  the  last  she  gan  to  breath  out  aire 


44  Which  he  perceiving,  greatly  gan  rejoice, 
And  goodly  cotinsell,  that  for  wounded  hart 

Is  meetest  med'cine,  tempred  with  sweet  voice ; 
Ay  me,  deare  lady,  which  the  image  art 
Of  ruefull  pitie,  and  impatient  smart, 
What  direfull  chance,  armd  with  avenging  fate, 
Or  cursed  hand  hath  plaid  this  cruell  part, 
Thus  fowle  to  hasten  your  untimely  date  ? 
Speake,  O  dear  lady,  speake :  help  never  comes  to  late. 

45  Therewith  her  dim  eie-lids  she  up  gan  reare, 
On  which  the  drery  death  did  sit,  as  sad 

As  lump  of  lead,  and  made  darke  clouds  appeare ; 
But  when  as  him  all  in  bright  armour  clad 
Before  her  standing  she  espied  had, 
As  one  out  of  a  deadly  dreame  affright, 
She  weakely  started,  yet  she  nothing  drad: 
Streight  downe  againe  her  selfe  in  great  despight 
She  groveling  threw  to  ground,  as  hating  life  and  light. 

46  The  gentle  knight  her  soone  with  carefull  paine 
Uplifted  light,  and  softly  did  uphold : 

Thrise  he  her  reard,  and  thrise  she  sunke  againe, 
Till  he  his  armes  about  her  sides  gan  fold, 
And  to  her  said ;  Yet,  if  the  stony  cold 
Have  not  all  seized  on  your  frozen  hart, 
Let  one  word  fall  that  may  your  grief  unfold, 
And  tell  the  secrete  of  your  mortall  smart; 
He  oft  finds  present  helpe,  who  does  his  griefe  impart. 

47  Then  casting  up  a  deadly  looke,  full  low- 
She  sight  from  bottome  of  her  wounded  brest. 
And  after,  many  bitter  throbs  did  throw 
With  lips  full  pale  and  foltring  tongue  opprest, 
These  words  she  breathed  forth  from  riven  chest ; 
Leave,  ah  leave  off,  whatever  wight  thou  bee, 

To  let  a  weary  wretch  from  her  dew  rest, 
And  trouble  dying  soules  tranquilitee. 
Take  not  away  now  got,  which  none  would  give  to  me. 

CANTO  I.  15 

40  Ah  far  be  it,  (said  he,)  dear  dame,  fro  mee, 

To  hinder  soule  from  her  desired  rest, 

Or  hold  sad  life  in  long  captivffeeT: 

For,  all  I  seeke,  is  but  to  have  redrest 

The  bitter  pangs  that  doth  your  heart  infest. 

Tell  then,  O  lady  tell,  what  fatall  priefe 

Hath  with  so  huge  misfortune  you  opprest? 

That  I  may  cast  to  compas  your  reliefe, 
Or  die  with  you  in  sorrow,  and  partake  your  griefe. 

49  With  feeble  hands  then  stretched  forth  on  hye, 
As  heaven  accusing  guiltie  of  her  death, 

And  with  dry  drops  congealed  in  her  eye, 
In  these  sad  wordes  she  spent  her  utmost  breath; 
Heare  then,  O  man,  the  sorrowes  that  uneath 
My  tongue  can  tell,  so  far  all  sense  they  pas: 
"Loe  this  dead  corpse,  that  lies  here  underneath, 
The  gentlest  knight,  that  ever  on  greene  gras 
Gay  steed  with  spurs  did  pricke,  the  good  Sir  Mordant  was. 

50  Was,  (ay  the  while,  that  he  is  not  so  now) 

My  lord,  my  love ;   my  deare  lord,  my  deare  love, 
So  long  as  heavens  just  with  equall  brow 
Vouchsafed  to  behold  us  from  above. 
One  day,  when  him  high  courage  did  emmove. 
As  wont  ye  knights  to  seeke  adventures  wilde, 
He  pricked  forth,  his  puissant  force  to  prove, 
Me  then  he  left  enwombed  of  this  child, 
This  lucklesse  child,  whom  thus  ye  see  with  bloud  defild. 

51  Him  fortuned  (hard  fortune  ye  may  ghesse) 
To  come,  where  vile  Acrasia  does  wonne, 
Acrasia  a  false  enchaunteresse, 

That  many  errant  knightes  hath  fowle  fordonne : 
WithirLa  wandring  island,  that  doth  ronne"^     j&  |o^vcj  BB* 
AnTltrajrJnjperilous  gnlfe,  her  dweTTmJTjSyJ 
Fa~yfe~liir,  if  ever  there  ye  travell,  shonne 
The  cursed  land  where  many  wend  amis. 
And  know  it  by  the  name ;  it  hight  the  Bowre  of  bits. 


52  Her  blisse  is  all  in  pleasure  and  delight, 

Wherewith  she  makes  her  lovers  drunken  mad, 

And  then  with  words,  and  weedes  of  wondrous  might, 

On  them  she  workes  her  will  to  uses  bad : 

My  liefest  lord  she  thus  beguiled  had  ; 

For  he  was  flesh :   (all  flesh  doth  frailtie  breed.) 

Whom  when  I  heard  to  beene  so  ill  bestad, 

Weake  wretch  I  wrapt  myselfe  in  palmers  weed, 

And  cast  to  seek  him  forth  through  daunger  and  great  dreed. 
*  *  .  *  *  *  * 

54  Him  so  I  sought,  and  so  at  last  I  found, 
Where  him  that  witch  had  thralled  to  her  will, 
In  chaines  of  lust  and  lewde  desires  ybound, 
And  so  transformed  from  his  former  skill, 
That  me  he  knew  not,  neither  his  owne  ill ; 

Till  through  wise  handling  and  faire  governaunce, 
I  him  recured  to  a  better  will,      --. 
Purged  from  drugs  of  foule  intemperance : 
Then  meanes  I  gan  devise  for  his  deliverance. 

55  Which  when  the  vile  enchaunteresse  perceiv'd, 
How  that  my  lord  from  her  I  would  reprive, 
With  cup  thus  charmd,  him  parting  she  deceivd ; 
Sad  verse,  give  death  to  him  that  death  does  give, 
And  losse  of  love,  to  her  that  loves  to  live, 

So  soone  as  Bacchus  with  the  Nymphe  does  lincke. 
So  parted  we,  and  on  our  journey  drive, 
Till  coming  to  this  well,  he  stoupt  to : 
The  charme  fulfild,  dead  suddenly  he  downe  did  sincke. 

56  Which  when  I  wretch, — Not  one  word  more  she  sayd, 
But  breaking  off  the  end  for  want  of  breath, 

And  slyding  soft,  as  downe  to  sleepe  her  layd, 
And  ended  all  her  woe  in  quiet  death. 
That  seeing  good  Sir  Guyon,  could  uneath 
From  teares  abstayne,  for  griefe  his  hart  did  grate, 
And  from  so  heavie  sight  his  head  did  wreath, 
Accusing  fortune,  and  too  cruell  fate, 
Which  plonged  had  faire  ladie  in  so  wretched  state. 

CANTO  7.  17 

Then  turning  to  his  palmer  said,  Old  syre 
Behold  the  image  of  mortalitie, 
And  feeble  nature  cloth'd  with  fleshly  tyre, 
When  raging  Passion  with  fierce  tyrannic 
Robs  reason  of  her  due  regalitie, 
And  makes  it  servaunt  to  her  basest  part; 
The  strong  it  weakens  with  infirmitie, 
And  with  bold  furie  armes  the  weakest  hart;      [smart. 
The  strong  ^.through  pleasure  soonest  falles,  the  weake  through 

58  But  Temperance  (said  he)  with  golden  squire 
Betwixt  them— both  can  measure  out  a  meane; 
Nethepcto  meW  in  pleasures  whot  desire, 
NorflFry  )in  Eartlesse  griefe  and  dolefull  tene. 
Thrise~nappy  man,  who  fares  them  both  atweene: 
But  sith  this  wretched  woman  overcome 

Of  anguish,  rather  then  of  crime  hath  beene, 
Reserve  her  cause  to  her  eternall  doome, 
And,  in  the  meane  vouchsafe  her  honorable  toombe. 

59  Palmer  (quoth  he)  death  is  an  equal  1  doome 
To  good  and  bad,  the  common  inne  of  rest; 
But  after  death  the  tryall  is  to  come, 

When  best  shall  bee  to  them,  that  lived  best :    , 
But  both  alike,  when  death  hath  both  supprest, 
Religious  reverence  doth  burial  teene, 
Which  whoso  wants,  wants  so  much  of  his  rest: 
For  all  so  great  shame  after  death  I  weene, 
As  selfe  to  dyen  bad,  unburied  bad  to  beenef 

60  So  both  agree  their  bodies  to  engrave; 

The  great  earthes  wombe  they  open  to  the  sky, 
And  with  sad  cypresse  seemely  it  embrave, 
Then  covering  with  a  clod  their  closed  eye, 
They  lay  therein  those  corses  tenderly, 
And  bid  them  sleepe  in  everlasting  peace. 
But  ere  they  did  their  utmost  obsequy, 
Sir  Guyon  more  affection  to  increace, 
Bynempt  a  sacred  vow,  which  none  should  aye  releace. 


6 1  The  dead  knights  sword  out  of  his  sheath  he  drew, 
With  which  he  cut  a  lock  of  all  their  heare, 
Which  medling  with  their  blood  and  earth,  he  threw 
Into  the  grave,  and  gan  devoutly  sweare; 
Such  and  such  evil  God  on  Guy  on  reare, 
And  worse  and  worse  young  orphane  be  thy  paine. 
If  I  or  thou  dew  vengeance  doe  forbeare, 
Till  guiltie  bloud  her  guerdon  doe  obtayne: 

So,  shedding  many  teares,  they  closd  the  earth  againe. 

CANTO   II.  19 


Babes  bloudie  handes  may  not  be  clensd, 

The  face  of  Golden  Meane, 
Her  sisters  Two  Extremities 

Strive  her  to  banish  cleane. 

1  THUS  when  Sir  Guyon  with  his  faithful  guide 
Had  with  due  rites  and  dolorous  lament 
The  end  of  their  sad  tragedie  uptyde, 

The  litle  babe  up  in  his  armes  he  hent ; 
Who  with  sweet  pleasance,  and  bold  blandishment, 
Gan  smyle  on  them,  that  rather  ought  to  weepe, 
As  carelesse  of  his  woe,  or  innocent 
Of  that  was  doen,  that  ruth  emperced  deepe     [steepe : 
In  that  knightes  heart,  and  wordes  with  bitter  teares  did 

2  Ah  lucklesse  babe,  borne  under  cruell  starre, 
And  in  dead  parents  balefull  ashes  bred, 
Full  litle  weenest  thou,  what  sorrowes  are 
Left  thee  for  portion  of  thy  livelihed, 
Poore  orphane  in  the  wide  world  scattered, 
As  budding  braunch  rent  from  the  native  tree, 
And  throwen  forth,  till  it  be  withered; 

Such  is  the  state  of  men:   thus  enter  wee 
Into  this  life  with  woe,  and  end  with  miseree.  I 

5  Then,  soft  himselfe  inclyning  on  his  knee 
Downe  to  that  well,  did  in  the  water  weene 
(So  love  does  loathe  disdainefull  nicitee) 
His  guiltie  handes  from  bloodie  gore  to  cleene. 
He  washt  them  oft  and  oft,  yet  nought  they  beene 
For  all  his  washing  cleaner.     Still  he  strove, 
Yet  still  the  litle  hands  were  bloodie  scene; 
The  which  him  into  great  amaz'ment  drove, 

And  into  diverse  doubt  his  wavering  wonder  clove. 

C  2 



4  He  wist  not  whether  blot  of  foule  offence 
Might  not  be  purged  with  water  nor  with  bath; 
Or  that  high  God,  in  lieu  of  innocence, 
Imprinted  had  that  token  of  His  wrath, 

To  shew  how  sore  bloudguiltinesse  He  hat'th ; 
Or  that  the  charme  and  venim,  which  they  drunck, 
Their  blood  with  secret  filth  infected  hath, 
Being  diffused  through  the  senselesse  truncke 
That  through  the  great  contagion  direful  deadly  stunck. 

5  "Whom  thus  at  gaze  the  palmer  gan  to  bord 
With  goodly  reason,  and  thus  faire  bespake; 
Ye  bene  right  hard  amated,  gratious  lord, 
And  of  your  ignorance  great  marveill  make 
Whiles  cause  not  well  conceived  ye  mistake. 
But  know,  that  secret  vertues  are  infusd 

In  every  fountaine,  and  in  every  lake, 
Which,  who  hath  skill  them  rightly  to  have  chusd, 
To  proofe  of  passing  wonders  hath  full  often  usd. 

6  Of  those,  some  were  so  from  their  sourse  indewd 
By  great  dame  Nature,  from  whose  fruitfull  pap 
Their  welheads  spring,  and  are  with  moisture  deawd; 
Which  feeds  each  living  plant  with  liquid  sap, 

And  fills  with  flowres  fayre  Floraes  painted  lap : 
But  other  some  by  gifte  of  later  grace, 
Or  by  good  prayers,  or  by  other  hap, 
Had  vertue  pourd  into  their  waters  bace,  [place. 

And  thenceforth  were  renowmd,  and  sought  from  place  to 

7  Such  is  this  well,  wrought  by  occasion  straunge, 
Which  to  her  nymph  befell.     Upon  a  day, 

As  she  the  woodes  with  bow  and  shaftes  did  raunge, 
The  heartlesse  hind  and  robucke  to  dismay, 
Dan  Faunus  chaunst  to  meet  her  by  the  way, 
And  kindling  fire  at  her  faire-burning  eye, 
Inflamed  was  to  follow  beauties  chace, 
And  chaced  her,  that  fast  from  him  did  fly ; 
As  hind  from  her,  so  she  fled  from  her  enimy. 

CANTO  II.  21 

8  At  last,  when  fayling  breath  began  to  faint, 
And  saw  no  meanes  to  scape,  of  shame  affrayd, 
She  set  her  downe  to  weepe  for  sore  constraint, 
And,  to  Diana  calling  lowd  for  ayde, 

Her  deare  besought,  to  let  her  die  a  mayd. 
The  goddesse  heard,  and  suddeine,  where  she  sate 
Welling  out  streames  of  teares,  and  quite  dismayd 
With  stony  feare  of  that  rude  rustick  mate,- 
Transformd  her  to  a  stone  from  stedfast  virgins  state. 

9  Lo  now  she  is  that  stone,  from  whose  two  heads, 
As  from  two  weeping  eyes,  fresh  streames  do  flow, 
Yet  colde  through  feare  and  old  conceived  dreads; 
And  yet  the  stone  her  semblance  seemes  to  show, 
Shapt  like  a  maid,  that  such  ye  may  her  know; 
And  yet  her  vertues  in  her  water  byde: 

For  it  is  chast  and  pure,  as  purest  snow, 
Ne  lets  her  waves  with  any  filth  be  dyde, 
But  ever  like  herselfe  unstayned  hath  beene  tryde.    ' 

10  From  thence  it  comes,  that  this  babes  bloudy  hand  | 
May  not  be  clensd  with  water  of  this  well :  ' 

Ne  certes  Sir  strive  you  it  to  withstand, 
But  let  them  still  be  bloudy,  as  befell, 
That  they  his  mothers  innocence  may  tell, 
As  she  bequeathd  in  her  last  testament; 
That  as  a  sacred_syjnbole,  it  may  dwell 
In  her  sonnes  flesh,  to  mind  revengement, 

And  be  for  all  chast  dames  an  endlesse  moniment. 

ij  He  hearkned  to  his  reason;   and  the  childe 

Uptaking,  to  the  palmer  gave  to  beare ; 

But  his  sad  fathers  armes  with  bloud  defilde, 

An  heavie  load,  himselfe  did  lightly  reare; 

And  turning  to  that  place,  in  which  whyle 

He  left  his  loftie  steed  with  golden 

And  goodly  gorgeous  barbes,  him  found  not  theare. 

By  other  accident,  that  earst  befell, 
He  is  convaide,  but  how  or  where,  here  fits  not  tell. 


12  Which  when  Sir  Guyon  saw,  all  were  he  wroth, 
Yet  algates  mote  he  soft  himselfe  appease, 

And  fairely^fare  on  foot,  however  loth ; 
His  3ouble  burden  did  him  sore  disease. 
So  long  they  travelled  with  litle  ease, 
Till  that  at  last  they  to  a  castle  came, 
Built  on  a  rocke  adjoyning  to  the  seas, 
It  was  an  aimcient  worke  of  antique  fame, 
And  wondrous  strong  by  nature,  and  by  skilfull  frame. 

13  Therein  three  sisters  dwelt  of  sundry  sort, 
The  children  of  one  syre  by  mothers  three; 
Who  dying  whylome  did  divide  this  fort 
To  them  by  equall  shares  in  equall  fee : 
But  strifull  minde  and  diverse  qualitee 

Drew  them  in  partes,  and  each  made  others  foe : 
Still  did  they  strive  and  dayly  disagree; 
The  eldest  did  against  the  youngest  goe, 
And  both  against  the  middest  meant  to  worken  woe. 

14  s  Where  when  the  knight  arriv'd,  he  was  right  well 

Receiv'd,  as  knight  of  so  much  worth  became, 
Of  second  sister,  who  did  far  excell 
The  other  two;   Medina  was  her  name, 
A  sober  sad,  and  comely  curteous  dame : 
Who  rich  arayd,  and  yet  in  modest  guize, 
In  goodly  garments  that  her  well  became, 
Faire  marching  forth  in  honorable  wize, 
Him  at  the  threshold  met  and  well  did  enterprize. 

15  She  led  him  up  into  a  goodly  bowre, 
And  comely  courted  with  meet  modestie, 
Ne  in  her  speach,  ne  in  her  haviour, 
Was  lightnesse  seene,  or  looser  vanitie, 
But  gratious  womanhood,  and  gravitie, 
Above  the  reason  of  her  youthly  yeares : 
Her  golden  lockes  she  roundly  did  uptye 
In  breaded  tramels,  that  no  looser  heares 

Did  out  of  order  stray  about  her  daintie  eares. 

CANTO  II.  23 

1 6  Whilst  she  her  selfe  thus  busily  did  frame 
Seemely  to  entertaine  her  new-come  guest, 
Newes  hereof  to  her  other  sisters  came, 
Who  all  this  while  were  at  their  wanton  rest, 
Accourting  each  her  frend  with  lavish  fest: 
They  were  two  knights  of  perelesse  puissaunce, 
And  famous  far  abroad  for  warlike  gest, 
Which  to  these  ladies  love  did  countenaunce, 

And  to  his  mistresse  each  himselfe  strove  to  advaunce. 

17  He,  that  made  love  unto  the  eldest  dame, 
Was  hight  Sir  Huddibras,  a  hardy  man; 
Yet  not  so  goad  of  deedes  as  great  of  name, 
Which  he  by  many  rash  adventures  wan, 
Since  errant  armes  to  sew  he  first  began. 
More  huge  in  strength,  then  wise  in  workes  he 
And  reason  with  fool-hardize  over-ran; 
Sterne  melancholy  did  his  courage  pas, 

And  was  for  terrour  more,  all  armd  in  shyning  bras. 

1 8  But  he,  that  lov'd  the  youngest,  was  Sans-loy; 
He  that  faire  Una  late  fowle  outraged, 

The  most  unruly,  and  the  boldest  boy, 
That  ever  warlike  weapons  menaged, 
And  to  all  lawlesse  lust  encouraged, 
Through  strong  opinion  of  his  matchlesse  might: 
Ne  ought  he  car'd,  whom  he  endamaged 
By  tortious  wrong,  or  whom  bereav'd  of  right. 
He  now  this  ladies  champion  chose  for  love  to  fight. 

19  These  two  gay  knights,  vowd  to  so  diverse  loves, 
Each  other  does  envie  with  deadly  hate, 

And  dayly  warre  against  his  foeman  moves, 
In  hope  to  win  more  favour  with  his  mate, 
And  th'  others  pleasing  service  to  abate, 
To  magnifie  his  owne.     But  when  they  heard 
How  in  that  place  straunge  knight  arrived  late, 
Both  knights  and  ladies  forth  right  angry  far'd, 
And  fiercely  unto  battell  sterne  themselves  prepar'd. 


20  But  ere  they  could  proceede  unto  the  place 
Where  he  abode,  themselves  at  discord  fell, 
-And  cruell  combat  joyn'd  in  middle  space : 
With  horrible  assault,  and  fury  fell, 

They  heapt  huge  strokes,  the  scorned  life  to  quell, 
That  all  on  uprore  from  her  settled  seat 
The  house  was  raysd,  and  all  that  in  did  dwell ; 
Seemd  that  lowd  thunder  with  amazement  great 
Did  rend  the  ratling  skyes  with  flames  of  fouldring  heat. 

21  The  noyse  thereof  cald  forth  that  straunger  knight, 
To  weet,  what  dreadfull  thing  was  there  in  hand ; 
Where  when  as  two  brave  knights  in  bloudy  fight 
With  deadly  rancour  he  enraunged  fond, 

His  sunbroad  shield  about  his  wrest  he  bond, 
And  shyning  blade  unsheathd,  with  which  he  ran 
Unto  that  stead,  their  strife  to  understond ; 
And,  at  his  first  arrivall,  them  began 
With  goodly  meanes  to  pacific,  well  as  he  can. 

22  But  they  him  spying,  both  with  greedy  forse 
Attonce  upon  him  ran,  and  him  beset 

With  strokes  of  mortall  steele  without  remorse, 
And  on  his  shield  like  yron  sledges  bet: 
As  when  a  beare  and  tygre  being  met 
In  cruell  fight  on  lybicke  ocean  wide, 
Espye  a  traveller  with  feet  surbet, 
Whom  they  in  equall  pray  hope  to  devide, 
They  stint  their  strife,  and  him  assaile  on  every  side. 

23  But  he,  not  like  a  wearie  traveilere, 
Their  sharp  assault  right  boldly  did  rebut, 
And  suffred  not  their  blowes  to  byte  him  nere, 
But  with  redoubled  buffes  them  backe  did  put  : 
Whose  grieved  mindes,  which  choler  did  englut, 
Against  themselves  turning  their  wrathfull  spight, 
Gan  with  new  rage  their  shieldes  to  hew  and  cut, 
But  still,  when  Guyon  came  to  part  their  figfit, 

With  heavie  load  on  him  they  freshly  gan  to  smight. 

CANTO  II.  25 

24  As  a  tall  ship  tossed  in  troublous  seas, 

Whom  raging  windes,  threatning  to  make  the  pray 
Of  the  rough  rockes,  doe  diversly  disease, 
Meetes  two  contrary  billowes  by  the  way, 
That  her  on  either  side  doe  sore  assay, 
And  boast  to  swallow  her  in  greedy  grave; 
She  scorning  both  their  spights,  does  make  wide  way, 
And  with  her  brest  breaking  the  fomy  wave, 
Does  ride  on  both  their  backs,  and  faire  herself  does  save. 

25  So  boldly  he  him  beares,  and  rusheth  forth 
Betweene  them  both,  by  conduct  of  his  blade. 
Wondrous  great  prowesse  and  heroick  worth 
He  shewd  that  day,  and  rare  ensample  made, 
When  two  so  mighty  warriours  he  dismade: 
Attonce  he  wards  and  strikes,  he  takes  and  paies, 
Now  forst  to  yield,  now  forcing  to  invade, 
Before,  behind,  and  round  about  him  layes : 

So  double  was  his  paines,  so  double  be  his  prayse. 

26  Straunge  sort  of  fight,  three  valiant  knights  to  see 
Three  combates  joyne  in  one,  and  to  darraine 

A  triple  warre  with  triple  enmitee, 
All  for  their  ladies  froward  love  to  gaine, 
Which,  gotten,  was  but  hate.     So  Love  does  raine 
In  stoutest  minds,  and  maketh  monstrous  warre; 
He  maketh  warre,  he  maketh  peace  againe, 
And  yett  his  peace  is  but  continual  jarre : 
O  miserable  men,  that  to  him  subject  arre. 

27  Whilst  thus  they  mingled  were  in  furious  armes, 
The  faire  Medina  with  her  tresses  torne, 

And  naked  brest,  in  pitty  of  their  harmes, 
Emongst  them  ran,  and  falling  them  beforne, 
Besought  them  by  the  womb,  which  them  had  borne, 
And  by  the  loves,  which  were  to  them  most  deare, 
And  by  the  knighthood,  which  they  sure  had  sworne, 
Their  deadly  cruell  discord  to  forbeare, 
And  to  her  just  conditions  of  faire  peace  to  heare. 


28  But  her  two  other  sisters  standing  by, 

Her  lowd  gainsaid,  and  both  their  champions  bad 
Pursew  the  end  of  their  strong  enmity, 
As  ever  of  their  loves  they  would  be  glad. 
Yet  she  with  pitthy  words  and  counsell  sad, 
Still  strove  their  stubborne  rages  to  revoke, 
That  at  the  last  suppressing  fury  mad, 
They  gan  abstaine  from  dint  of  direfull  stroke, 
And  barken  to  the  sober  speaches,  which  she  spoke. 

29  Ah  puissant  lords,  what  cursed  evill  spright, 
Or  fell  Erinnys  in  your  noble  harts 

Her  hellish  brond  hath  kindled  with  despight, 
And  stird  you  up  to  worke  your  wilfull  smarts? 
Is  this  the  joy  of  armes  ?  be  these  the  parts 
Of  glorious  knighthood,  after  blood  to  thrust, 
And  not  regard  dew  right  and  just  desarts  ? 
Vaine  is  the  vaunt,  and  victory  unjust, 
That  more  to  mighty  hands,  then  rightfull  cause  both  trust. 

30  And  were  there  rightfull  cause  of  difference, 
Yet  were  not  better,  faire  it  to  accord, 
Then  with  blood  guiltinesse  to  heape  offence 
And  mortal  vengeaunce  joyne  to  crime  abhord  ? 
O  fly  from  wrath,  fly,  O  my  liefest  lord : 

Sad  be  the  sights,  and  bitter  fruits  of  warre, 
And  thousand  furies  wait  on  wrathfull  sword; 
Ne  ought  the  prayse  of  prowesse  more  doth  marre 
Then  fowle  revenging  rage,  and  base  contentious  jarre. 

31  But  lovely  concord,  and  most  sacred  peace, 
Doth  nourish  vertue,  and  fast  friendship  breeds; 
Weake  she  makes  strong,  and  strong  thing  doth  increace, 
Till  it  the  pitch  of  highest  prayse  exceeds : 

Brave  be  her  warres,  and  honorable  deeds, 
By  which  she  triumphs  over  ire  and  pride, 
And  winnes  an  olive  girlond  for  her  meeds: 
Be  therefore,  O  my  deare  lords,  pacifide, 
And  this  misseeming  discord  meekely  lay  aside. 


32  Her  gracious  words  their  rancour  did  appall, 
And  suncke  so  deepe  into  their  boyling  brests, 
That  downe  they  lett  their  cruell  weapons  fall, 
And  lowly  did  abase  their  loftie  crests 

To  her  faire  presence  and  discrete  behests. 
Then  she  began  a  treaty  to  procure, 
And  stablish  terms  betwixt  both  their  requests. 
That  as  a  law  for  ever  should  endure ; 
Which  to  observe  in  word  of  knights  they  did  assure. 

33  Which  to  confirme  and  fast  to  bind  their  league, 
After  their  weary  sweat  and  bloudy  toile, 

She  then  besought,  during  their  quiet  treague, 
Into  her  lodging  to  repair  a  while, 
To  rest  themselves,  and  grace  to  reconcile.^  * 

They,  soone  consent :  so  forth  with  her  they  fare, 
Where  they  are  well  receivd  and  made  to  spoile 
Themselves  of  soiled  armes,  and  to  prepare 
Their  minds  to  pleasure,  and  their  mouths  to  dainty  fare. 

34  And  those  two  froward  sisters,  their  faire  loves 
Game  with  them  eke,  all  were  they  wondrous  loth, 
And  fained  cheare,  as  for  the  time  behoves, 

But  could  not  colour  yet  so  well  the  troth, 
But  that  their  natures  bad  appeard  in  both: 
For  both  did  at  their  second  sister  grutch, 
And  inly  grieve,  as  doth  an  hidden  moth 
The  inner  garment  fret,  not  th'  utter  touch ; 
One  thought  her  cheare  too  litle,  th'  other  thought  too  mutch. 

35  Elissa  '(so  the  eldftstTb^ht)1did  deeme 

Such  entertainment  base,  ne  ought  would  eat, 
Ne  ought  would  speake,  but  evermore  did  seeme 
As  discontent  for  want  of  merth  or  meat ; 
No  solace  could  her  paramour  intreat 
Her  once  to  show,  ne  court,  nor  dalliance, 
But  with  bent  lowring  browes,  as  she  would  threat, 
She  scould,  and  frownd  with  froward  countenaunce, 
Unworthy  of  faire  ladies  comely  governaunce. 


36  But  young  Perissa  was  of  other  mind, 
Full  of  disport,  still  laughing,  loosely  light, 
And  quite  contrary  to  her  sisters  kind; 
No  measure  in  her  mood,  no  rule  of  right, 
But  poured  out  in  pleasure  and  delight; 

In  wine  and  meats  she  flowd  above  the  bancke, 
And  in  excesse  exceeded  her  owne  might; 
In  sumptuous  tire  she  joyd  her  self  to  pranck, 
But  of  her  love  too  lavish  (little  have  she  thancke) ! 

37  Fast  by  her  side  did  sitt  the  bold  Sans-loy, 
Fit  mate  for  such  a  mincing  mineon, 

Who  in  her  loosenesse  tooke  exceeding  joy; 
Might  not  be  found  a  franker  franion, 
Of  her  lewd  parts  to  make  companion ; 
But  Huddibras,  more  like  a  malecontent, 
Did  see  and  grieve  at  his  bold  fashion; 
Hardly  could  he  endure  his  hardiment, 
Yett  still  he  sat,  and  inly  did  him  selfe  torment. 

38  Betwixt  them  both  the  faire  Medina  sate 
With  sober  grace  and  goodly  carriage : 
With  equall  measure  she  did  moderate 
The  strong  extremities  of  their  outrage ; 
That  forward  paire  she  ever  would  asswage, 
When  they  would  strive  dew  reason  to  exceed; 
But  that  same  froward  twaine  would  accourage, 
And  of  her  plenty  add  unto  their  need: 

So  kept  she  them  in  order,  and  her  selfe  in  heed. 

39  Thus  fairely  she  attempered  her  feast, 
And  pleasd  them  all  with  meete  satiety : 

At  last  when  lust  of  meat  and  drinke  was  ceast, 
She  Guyon  deare  besought  of  curtesie 
To  tell  from  whence  he  came  through  jeopardie, 
And  whether  now  on  new  adventure  bound. 
Who  with  bold  grace,  and  comely  gravitie, 
Drawing  to  him  the  eies  of  all  around, 
From  lofty  siege  began  these  words  aloud  to  sound. 

CANTO  II.  29 

140  This  thy  demaund,  O  lady,  doth  revive 
Fresh  memory  in  me  of  that  great  queene, 
Great  and  most  glorious  virgin  queene  alive, 
I  That  with  her  soveraigne  powre,  and  scepter  shene, 
All  Faery  lond  does  peaceably  sustene. 
In  widest  ocean  she  her  throne  does  reare, 
That  over  all  the  earth  it  may  be  scene; 
As  morning  sunne  her  beams  dispredden  cleare, 
And  in  her  face  faire  peace,  and  mercy  doth  appeare. 

41  In  her  the  richesse  of  all  heavenly  grace 
In  chiefe  degree  are  heaped  up  on  hye: 
And  all  that  els  this  worlds  enclosure  bace, 
Hath  great  or  glorious  in  mortall  eye 
Adornes  the  person  of  her  majestic ; 

That  men  beholding  so  great  excellence, 
And  rare  perfection  in  mortalitie; 
Do  her  adore  with  sacred  reverence, 
As  th'  idole  of  her  makers  great  magnificence. 

42  To  her  I  homage  and  my  service  owe, 

In  number  of  the  noblest  knights  on  ground, 
Mongst  whom  on  me  she  deigned  to  bestowe 
Order  of  maydenhead,  the  most  renownd, 
That  may  this  day  in  all  the  world  be  found: 
An  yearely  solemne  feast  she  wontes  to  make, 
The  day  that  first  doth  lead  the  yeare  around; 
To  which  all  knights  of  worth  and  courage  bold 
Resort,  to  heare  of  straunge  adventures  to  be  told. 

43  There  this  old  palmer  shewd  himselfe  that  day, 
And  to  that  mighty  princesse  did  complaine 
Of  grievous  mischiefes,  which  a  wicked  Fay 
Had  wrought,  and  many  whelmd  in  deadljTpaine, 
Whereof  he  crav'd  redresse.     My  soveraine, 
Whose  glory  is  in  gracious  deeds,  and  joyes 
Throughout  the  world  her  mercy  to  maintaine, 
Eftsoones  devisd  redresse  for  such  annoyes; 

Me  all  unfitt  for  so  great  purpose  she  employes. 


44  Now  hath  faire  Phebe  with  her  silver  face 
Thrise  scene  the  shadowes  of  the  neather  world, 
Sith  last  I  left  that  honorable  place, 

In  which  her  royall  presence  is  enrold; 
Ne  ever  shall  I  rest  in  house  nor  hold, 
Till  I  that  false  Acrasia  have  wonne ; 
Of  whose  fowle  deedes,  too  hideous  to  be  told, 
I  withesse  am,  and  this  their  wretched  sonne 
Whose  wofull  parents  she  hath  wickedly  fordonne. 

45  Tell  on,  fayre  sir,  said  she,  that  dolefull  tale, 
From  which  sad  ruth  does  seeme  you  to  restraine, 
That  we  may  pitty  such  unhappy  bale, 

And  learne  from  pleasures  poyson  to  abstaine : 
111  by  ensample  good  doth  often  gayne. 
Then  forward  he  his  purpose  gan  pursew, 
And  told  the  story  of  the  mortall  payne, 
Which  Mordant  and  Amavia  did  rew; 
As  with  lamenting  eyes  himselfe  did  lately  vew. 

46  Night  was  far  spent,  and  now  in  ocean  deepe 
Orion,  flying  fast  from  hissing  snake, 

His  flaming  head  did  hasten  for  to  steepe, 
When  of  his  pitteous  tale '  he  end  did  make ; 
Whilest  with  delight  of  that  he  wisely  spake 
Those  guestes  beguiled  did  beguile  their  eyes 
Of  kindly  sleepe,  that  did  them  overtake. 
At  last  when  they  had  markt  the  chaunged  skyes, 
They  wist  their  houre  was  spent ;  then  each  to  rest  him  hyes. 

CANTO  III.  31 


Vaine  Braggadoccbio,  getting  Guyons 

borse  is  made  the  scorne 
Of  knighthood  trew,  and  is  of  fayre 

Belpboebe  fowle  forlorne. 

i  SOONE  as  the  morrow  faire  with  purple  beames 

Disperst  the  shadowes  of  the  mistie  night,  VlA^     ' 

And  Titan  playing  on  the  eastern  streames, 

Gan  cleare  the  deawy  ayre  with  springing  light, 

Sir  Guyon  mindfull  of  his  vow  yplight, 

Uprose  from  drowsie  couch,  and  him  addrest 

Unto  the  journey  which  he  had  behight: 

His  puissant  armes  about  his  noble  brest, 
And  many-folded  shield  he  bound  about  his  wrest. 

a  Then,  taking  conge  of  that  virgin  pure, 

The  bloudy-handed  babe  unto  her  truth 

Did  earnestly  commit,  and  her  conjure 

In  vertuous  lore  to  traine  his  tender  youth, 

And  all  that  gentle  noriture  ensu'th; 

And  that  so  soone  as  ryper  yeares  he  raught, 

He  might,  for  memory  of  that  dayes  ruth, 

Be  called  Ruddymane,  and  thereby  taught 
T*  avenge  his  parents  death  on  them,  that  had  it  wrought. 

3  So  forth  he  far'd,  as  now  befell,  on  foot, 

Sith  his  good  steed  is  lately  from  him  gone; 

Patience  perforce;   helplesse  what  may  it  boot 

To  fret  for  anger,  or  for  griefe  to  mone? 

His  palmer  now  shall  foot  no  more  alone: 

So  fortune  wrought,  as  under  greene  woods  syde 

He  lately  heard  that  dying  lady  grone, 

He  left  his  steed  without,  and  speare  besyde, 
And  rushed  in  on  foot  to  ayd  her,  ere  she  dyde. 


4  The  whyles  a  loselj,  wandring  by  the  way, 
One  that  to  bountie  never  cast  his  mind, 
Ne  thought  of  honour  ever  did  assay 

His  baser  brest,  but  in  his  kestrell  kind 
A  pleasing  vaine  of  glory  did  he  fynd, 
To  which  his  flowing  toung  and  troublous  spright 
Gave  him  great  ayd,  and  made  him  more  inclind: 
He  that  brave  steed  there  finding  ready  dight, 
Purloynd  both  steed  and  speare,  and  ran  away  full  light. 

5  Now  gan  his  hart  all  swell  in  jollitie; 

And  of  himselfe  great  hope  and  help  conceiv'd, 
That  puffed  up  with  smoke  of  vanitie, 
And  with  selfe-loved  personage  deceiv'd, 
He  gantojiope.of  men  to  be  receiyld 

Forsmj^jpl^^  bee : 

r}3uffor  in  court  gay  portaunce  he  perceiv'd, 
And  gallant  shew  to  be  in  greatest  gree, 
Eftsoones  to  court  he  cast  t'  advaunce  his  first  degree. 

6  And  by  the  way  he  chaunced  to  espy 
One  sitting  idle  on  a  sunny  bancke, 
To  whom  avaunting  in  great  bravery, 

As  peacocke,  that  his  painted  plumes  doth  prancke, 
He  smote  his  courser  in  the  trembling  flancke, 
And  to  him  threatned  his  hart-thrilling  speare : 
The  seely  man,  seeing  him  ryde  so  rancke, 
And  ayme  at  him,  fell  flat  to  ground  for  feare, 
And  crying  Mercy  lowd,  his  pitious  handes  gan  reare. 

7  Thereat  the  scarcrow  wexed  wondrous  prowd, 
Through  fortune  of  his  first  adventure  faire, 
And  with  big  thundring  voyce  revyld  him  lowd; 
Vile  caytive,  vassal  of  dread  and  despayre, 
Unworthie  of  the  commune  breathed  aire, 
Why  livest  thou,  dead  dog,  a  lenger  day, 

And  doest  not  unto  death  thyselfe  prepaire  ? 
Dye,  or  thyselfe  my  captive  yield  for  ay; 
Great  favour  I  thee  graunt,  for  aunswere  thus  to  stay. 

CANTO   III.  33 

8  Hold,  O  deare  lord,  hold  your  dead-doing  hand, 
Then  loud  he  cryde,  I  am  your  humble  thrall. 
Ah  wretch,  (quoth  he)  thy  destinies  withstand 
My  wrathful!  will,  and  do  for  mercy  call. 

I  give  thee  life :   therefore  prostrated  fall, 
And  kisse  my  stirrup;  that  thy  homage  bee. 
The  miser  threw  himselfe,  as  an  offall, 
Streight  at  his  foot  in  base  humilitee, 
And  cleeped  him  his  liege,  to  hold  of  him  in  fee. 

9  So  happy  peace  they  made  and  faire  accord. 
Eftsoones  this  liegeman  gan  to  wexe  more  bold, 
And  when  he  felt  the  folly  of  his  lord, 

In  his  owne  kind  he  gan  him  selfe  unfold : 
For  he  was  wylie  witted,  and  growne  old 
In  cunning  sleights  and  practick  knavery. 
From  that  day  forth  he  cast  for  tp  uphold 
His  idle  humour  with  fine  flattery, 
And  blow  the  bellowes  to  his  swelling  vanity. 

10  .Trompart  fitt  man  for  Braggadocchio. 

To  serve  at  court  in  vfew  of  vaunting  eye : 
Vaine-glorious  man,  when  fluttring  wind  does  blow 
In  his  light  wings  is  lifted  up  to  skye: 
The  scorne  of  knighthood  and  trew  chevalrye,    \ 
To  thinke,  without  desert  of  gentle  deed, 
And  noble  worth,  to  be  advaunced  hye: 
Such  prayse  is  shame;   but  honour  vertues  meed 
Doth  beare  the  fayrest  flowre  in  honourable  seed. 

11  So  forth  they  pass,  a  well  consorted  paire, 
Till  that  at  length  with  Archimage  they  meet: 
Who  seeing  one,  that  shone  in  armour  fayre, 
On  goodly  courser  thondring  with  his  feet, 
Eftsoones  supposed  him  a  person  meet, 

Of  his  revenge  to  make  the  instrument: 
For  since  the  Redcrosse  knight  he  earst  did  weet 
To  beene  with  Guyon  knit  in  one  consent, 
The  ill,  which  earst  to  him,  he  now  to  Guyon  ment. 



12  And  comming  close  to  Trompart  gan  inquere 
Of  him,  what  mightie  warriour  that  mote  bee, 
That  rode  in  golden  sell  with  single  spere, 
But  wanted  sword  to  wreake  his  enmitee. 

He  is  a  great  adventurer  (said  he) 
That  hath  his  sword  through  hard  assay  forgone, 
And  now  hath  vowd,  till  he  avenged  bee 
Of  that  despight,  never  to  wearen  none; 
That  speare  is  him  enough  to  doen  a  thousand  grone. 

13  Th'  enchaunter  greatly  joyed  in  the  vaunt, 
And  weened  well  ere  long  his  will  to  win, 
And  both  his  foen  with  equall  foyle  to  daunt. 
Tho  to  him  louting  lowly  did  begin 

To  plaine  of  wrongs,  which  had  committed  bin 
By  Guyon,  and  by  that  false  Redcrosse  knight, 
Which  two,  through  treason  and  deceiptfull  gin, 
Had  slaine  Sir  Mordant  and  his  lady  bright : 
That  mote  him  honour  win,  to  wreak  so  foule  despight. 

*4  Therewith  all  suddeinly  he  seemd  enraged, 

And  threatned  death  with  dreacffiill  countenaunce, 
As  if  their  lives  had  in  his  hand  beene  gaged ; 
And  with  stiffe  force  shaking  his  mortall  launce, 
To  let  him  weet  his  doughtie  valiaunce, 
Thus  said;   Old  man,  great  sure  shalbe  thy  meed, 
If  where  those  knights  for  feare  of  dew  vengeaunce 
Doe  lurke,  thou  certeinly  to  mee  areed, 

That  I  may  wreake  on  them  their  hainous  hateful  deed. 

15  Certes,  my  lord,  (said  he)  that  shall  I  soone, 
And  give  you  eke  good  helpe  to  their  decay, 
But  mote  I  wisely  you  advise  to  doon ; 
Give  no  ods  to  your  foes,  but  doe  purvay 
Yourselfe  of  sword  before  that  bloudy  day ; 
For  they  be  two  the  prowest  knights  on  grownd, 
And  oft  approv'd  in  many  hard  assay, 
And  eke  of  surest  steele,  that  may  be  found, 

Do  arme  yourselfe  against  that  day.  them  to  confound. 

CANT&  III.  35 

1 6  Dotard,  (saide  he)  let  be  thy  deepe  advise; 
Seemes  that  through  many  yeares  thy  wits  thee  faile, 
And  that  weake  eld  hath  left  thee  nothing  wise, 

Els  never  should  thy  judgement  be  so  fraile 
To  measure  manhood  by  the  sword  or  maile. 
Is  not  enough  foure  quarters  of  a  man, 
Withouten  sword  or  shield,  an  hoste  to  quaile? 
Thou  litle.  wotest  what  this  right  hand  can: 
Speake  they,  which  have  beheld  the  battailes  which  it  wan. 

17  The  man  was  much  abashed  at  his  boast; 
Yet  well  he  wist  that  whoso  would  contend 
With  either  of  those  knightes  on  even  coast, 
Should  neede  of  all  his  armes,  him  to  defend ; 
Yet  feared  lest  his  boldnesse  should  offend: 
When  Braggadocchio  saide,  Once  I  did  sweare, 
When  with  one  sword  seven  knightes  I  brought  to  end, 
Thenceforth  in  battell  never  sword  to  beare, 

But  it  were  that,  which  noblest  knight  on  earth  doth  weare. 

1 8  Perdie  sir  knight,  saide  then  th'  enchaunter  blive, 
That  shall  I  shortly  purchase  to  your  hond: 

For  now  the  best  and  noblest  knight  alive 
Prince  Arthur  is,  that  wonnes  in  Faerie  lond; 
He  hath  a  sword,  that  flames  like  burning  brond. 
The  same  by  my  device  I  undertake 
Shall  by  to-morrow  by  thy  side  be  fond. 
At  which  bold  word  that  boaster  gan  to  quake, 
And  wondred  in  his  minde  what  mote  that  monster  make. 

x~\/  JV  * 

19  Hejstayd  not  for  more  bidding,  but  away 

Was  suddein  vanished  out  of  his  sight : 
The^QrJjietner^vind  his  wings  did  broad  display 
At  his  commaund,  and  reared  him  up  light 
From  off  the  earth  to  take  his  aerie  flight. 
They  lookt  about,  but  no  where  could  espie 
Tract  of  his  foot:   then  dead  through  great  affright 
They  both  nigh  were,  and  each  bad  other  flie: 
Both  fled  attonce,  ne  ever  backe  retourned  eie ;  - — 
D  a 


20  Till  that  they  come  unto  a  forrest  greene, 

In  which  they  shrowd  themselves  from  causelesse  feare 
Yet  feare  them  followes  still,  where  so  they  beene : 
Each  trembling  leafe,  and  whistling  wind  they  heare, 
As  ghastly  bug  their  haire  on  end  does  reare; 
Yet  both  doe  strive  their  fearfulnesse  to  faine. 
At  last  they  heard  a  Jiorne^  that  shrilled  cleare 
Throughout  the  wood,  that  ecchoed  againe, 
And  made  the  forrest  ring,  as  it  would  rive  in  twaine. 

21  Eft  through  the  thicke  they  heard  one  rudely  rush: 
With  noyse  whereof  he  from  his  loftie  steed 
Downe  fell  to  ground,  and  crept  into  a  bush, 

To  hide  his  coward  head  from  dying  dreed. 
But  Trompart  stoutly  stayd  to  taken  heed 

tOf  what  might  hap.     Eftsoone  there  stepped  foorth 
A  goodly  ladie  clad  in  hunters  weed, 
That  seemd  to  be  a  woman  of  great  worth, 
d  by  her  stately  portance  borne  of  heavenly  birth. 

22  Her  face  so  faire,  as  flesh  it  seemed  not, 
But  heavenly  pourtraict  of  bright  angels  hew, 
Cleare  as  the  skie,  withouten  blame  or  blot, 
Through  goodly  mixture  of  complexions  dew; 
And  in  her  cheekes  the  vermeill  red  did  shew 
Like  roses  in  a  bed  of  lillies  shed, 

The  which  ambrosiall  odours  from  them  threw, 
And  gazers  sence  with  double  pleasure  fed, 
Hable  to  heale  the  sicke,  and  to  revive  the  ded. 

23  In  her  faire  eyes  two  living  lamps  did  flame. 
Kindled  above  at  th'  heavenly  makers  light, 
And  darted  fyrie  beames  out  of  the  same, 
So  passing  persant,  and  so  wondrous  bright, 
That  quite  bereav'd  the  rash  beholders  sight: 
In  them  the  Klinfjed  god  his  lustfull  fire 

To  kindle  oft  assayd,  but  had  no  might; 
For,  with  dredd  majestic,  and  awfull  ire, 
She  broke  his  wanton  darts,  and  quenched  base  desire. 


24  Her  ivorie  forhead  full  of  bountie  brave, 
Like  a  broad  table  did  itselfe  dispred 
For  Lojt§  his  loftie  triumphes  to^engrave 

And  wnti^the  battels  of  his  great  godEead : 
^-— — —  /^-* — *\ 

All  good  and  honour  might  therein  be  fcejiT  ~ 

For^  therejtheir  dwelling  was.     And  when  she  spake, 
wordes,  like  dropping  honny,  she  did  shed,  -   c 

And  twixt  the  perles  and  rubins  softly  brake 
A  silver  sound,  that  heavenly  musicke  seemd  to  make. 

35  Upon  her  eyelids  many  graces  sate, 
Under  the  shadow  of  her  even  browes, 
Working  belgards  and  amorous  retrate, 
And  every  one  her  with  a  grace  endowes: 
And  everie  one  with  meekenesse  to  her  bowes. 
So  glorious  mirrhour  of  CQlestiall  grace, 
And  soveraine  moniment  of  mortall  vowes, 
How  shaH-fraile  pen  descrive  her  heavenly  face, 

For  feare  through  want  of  skill  her  beauty  to  disgrace? 

26  So  faire,  and  thousand  thousand  times  more  faire 
She  seemd,  when  she  presented  was  to  sight, 
And  was  yclad,  for  heat  of  scorching  aire, 

All  in  a  silken  Camus  lylly  Weight?  CA^* 

Purfled  upon  with  many  a  folded  plight, 
Which  all  above  besprinckled  was  throughout, 
With  golden  aygulets,  that  glistred  bright, 
Like  twmckling  starres,  and  all  the  skirt  about 
Was  hemd  with  goldei)  fringe.  l    (v.^        Vj(/- 

27  Below  her  ham  her  weed  did  somewhat  traine, 
And  her  streight  legs  most  bravely  were  embayld    V 
In  gilden  buskins  of  costly  cordwaine, 

All  bard  with  golden  bendes,  which  were  entayld 
With  curious  antickes,  and  full  faire  aumayld: 
Before,  they  fastned  were  under  her  knee 
In  a  rich  Jewell,  and  therein  entrayld 
The  ends  of  all  the  knots,  that  none  might  see 
How  they  within  their  fouldings  close  enwrapped  bee. 


28  Like  two  faire  marble  pillours'  they  were  seene, 
Which  doe  the  temple  of  the  gods  support, 
Whom  all  the  people  decke  with  girlands  greene, 
And  honour  in  their  festivall  resort; 

Those  same  with  stately  grace  and  princely  port 
She  taught  to  tread,  when  she  herselfe  would  grace, 
But  with  the  wooddie  nymphes  when  she  did  play, 
Or  when  the  flying  libbard  she  did  chace, 
She  could  (meni  nimbly  move,  and  after  fly  apace. 
^^ /    v  r  .^c,\ 

29  And  in  her  hand  a  sharp  bore-speare  she  held, 
And  at  her  backe  a  bow  and  quiver  gay, 

Stuft  with  steel-headed  dartes  wherewith  she  queld 
The  salvage  beastes  in  her  victorious  play, 
Knit  with  a  golden  bauldricke  which  forelay 
Athwart  her  snowy  brest, 

30  Her  yellow  lockes,  crisped  like  golden  wyre, 
About  her  shoulders  weren  loosely  shed, 

And  when  the  wind  emongst  them  did  inspyre, 
They  waved  like  a  penon  wyde  dispred, 
And  low  behinde  her  backe  were  scattered: 
And  whether  art  it  were,  or  heedlesse  hap, 
As  through  the  flouring  forrest  rash  she  fled, 
In  her  rude  haires  sweet  flowres  themselves  did  lap, 
And  flourishing  fresh  leaves  and  blossoms  did  enwrap. 

31  Such  as  Diana  by  the  sandie  shore 

Of  swift  Eurotas,  or  on  Gynthus  greene, 
Where  all  the  nymphes  have  her  unwares  forlore, 
Wandreth  alone  with  bow  and  arrowes  keene, 
To  seeke  her  game:   or  as  that  famous  queene 
Of  Amazons,  whom  Pyrrhus  did  destroy, 
The  day  that  first  of  Priame  she  was  seene, 
Did  shew  herselfe  in  great  triumphant  joy, 
To  succour  the  weake  state  of  sad  afflicted  Troy. 

CANTO   III.  39 

32  Such  when  as  hartlesse  Trompart  her  did  vew, 
He  was  dismayed  in  his  coward  mind, 

And  doubted,  whether  he  himselfe  should  shew, 
Or  fly  away,  or  bide  alone  behinde:  \    o^ 

Both  feare  and  hope  he  in  her  face  did  finde, 
When  she  at  last  him  spying  thus  bespake<; 
Hayle,  groome;   didst  not  thou  see  a  bleeding  hind, 
Whose  right  haunch  earst  my  stedfast  arrow  strake  ? 
Tf  thou  didst,  tell  me,  that  I  may  her  overtake. 

33  Wherewith  reviv'd,  this  answere  forth  he  threw ; 
O  goddesse,  (for  such  I  thee  take  to  bee) 

For  neither  doth  thy  face  terrestriall  shew, 
Nor  voyce  sound  mortall;    I  avow  to  thee, 
Such  wounded  beast,  as  that,  I  did  not  see, 
Sith  earst  into  this  forrest  wild  I  came. 
But  mote  thy  goodlyhed  forgive  it  mee, 
To  weete,  which  of  the  gods  I  shall  thee  name, 
That  unto  thee  due  worship  I  may  rightly  frame. 

34  To  whom  she  thus;   But  ere  her  words  ensewed, 
Unto  the  bush  her  eye  did  suddein  glaunce, 

In  which  vaine  Braggadocchio  was  mewed, 
And  saw  it  stirre:   she  lefte  her  piercing  launce, 
And  towards  gan  a  deadly  shaft  advaunce, 
In  mind  to  mark  the  beast.     At  which  sad  stowre, 
Trompart  forth  stept,  to  stay  the  mortall  chaunce, 
Out  crying,  O  whatever  hevenly  powre, 
Or  earthly  wight  thou  be,  withhold  this  deadly  howre. 

35  O  stay  thy  hand,  for  yonder  is  no  game 
For  thy  fierce  arrowes,  them  to  exercize, 

But  loe  my  lord,  my  liege,  whose  warlike  name 
Is  farre  renowmd  through  many  bold  emprize; 
And  now  in  shade  he  shrowded  yonder  lies. 
She  staid:   with  that  he  crauld  out  of  his  nest, 
Forth  creeping  on  his  caitive  hands  and  thies, 
And  standing  stoutly  up,  his  loftie  crest 
Did  fiercely  shake,  and  rowze,  as  comming  late  from  rest. 


36  As  fearfull  fowle,  that  long  in  secret  cave 
For  dread  of  soring  hauke  herselfe  hath  hid, 
Not  caring  how,  her  silly  life  to  save, 

She  her  gay  painted  plumes  disorderid, 
Seeing  at  last  herselfe  from  daunger  rid, 
Peeps  foorth,  and  soone  renewes  her  native  pride; 
She  gins  her  feathers  fowle  disfigured 
Prowdly  to  prune,  and  sett  on  every  side, 
So  shakes  off  shame,  ne  thinks  how  erst  she  did  her  hide. 

37  So  when  her  goodly  visage  he  beheld, 

He  gan  himselfe  to  vaunt:    but  when  he  vewed 
Those  deadly  tooles,  which  in  her  hand  she  held, 
Soone  into  other  fits  he  was  transmewed, 
Till  she  to  him  her  gratious  speach  renewed; 
All  haile,  sir  knight,  and  well  may  thee  befall, 
As  all  the  like,  which  honor  have  persewed 
Through  deeds  of  armes  and  prowesse  martiall ; 
All  vertue  merits  praise,  but  such  the  most  of  all. 

38  To  whom  he  thus;    O  fairest  under  skie, 
True  be  thy  words,  and  worthy  of  thy  praise, 
That  warlike  feats  doest  highest  glorifie. 
Therein  I  have  spent  all  my  youthly  daies, 
And  many  battailes  fought  and  many  fraies 
Throughout  the  world,  wherso  they  might  be  found, 
Endevoring  my  dreadded  name  to  raise 

Above  the  moone,  that  fame  may  it  resound 
In  her  eternall  trompe  with  laurell  girland  cround. 

39  But  what  art  thou,  O  ladie,  which  doest  raunge 
In  this  wilde  forest,  where  no  pleasure  is, 

And  doest  not  it  for  joyous  court  exchaunge, 
Emongst  thine  equall  peres,  where  happy  blis 
And  all  delight  does  rainge  much  more  then  this? 
There  thou  maist  love,  and  dearely  loved  bee, 
And  swim  in  pleasure,  which  thou  here  doest  mis; 
There  maist  thou  best  be  scene,  and  best  maist  see: 
The  wood  is  fit  for  beasts,  the  court  is  fit  for  thee. 

CANTO  III.  41 

40/Whoso  in  pompe  of  prowd  estate  (quoth  she) 
s      Does  swim,  and  bathes  himselfe  in  courtly  blis, 
Does  waste  his  daies  in  darke  obscuritee, 
And  in  oblivion  ever  buried  is: 
Where  ease  abounds,  yt's  eath  to  do  amis; 
But  who  his  limbs  with  labours,  and  his  mind 
Behaves  with  cares,  cannot  so  easie  mis._ 
Abroad  in  armes,  at  home  in  studious  kind 
Who  seekes  with  painfull  toile,  shall  honor  soonest  find. 

41  In  woods,  in  waves,  in  warres  she  wonjs  to  dwell,      " 
And  wil  be  found  with/f^rill  and  witl^p^ine; 

Ne  can  the  man,  that  moulds  in  idle  cell, 
Unto  her  happie  mansion  attaine : 
Before  her'f^Ee^Wgn  God  did  sweat  ordaine, 
And  wakefull  watches  ever  to  abide : 
But  easie  is  the  way  and  passage  plaine 
To  Pleasures  pallace;   it  may  soone  be  spide, 
And  day  and  night  her  dores  to  all  stand  open  wide. 

42  In  Princes  Court, — The  rest  she  would  have  sayd. 
But  that  the  foolish  man,  fild  with  delight 

Of  her  sweet  words  that  all  his  sence  dismaid, 
s  And  with  her  wondrous  beautie  ravisht  quight, 
Thought  in  his  bastard  armes  her  to  embrace. 
With  that  she  swarving  backe,  her  javelin  bright 
Against  him  bent,  and  fiercely  did  menace: 
So  turned  her  about,  and  fled  away  apace. 

43  Which  when  the  pesaunt  saw,  amazd  he  stood, 
And  grieved  at  her  flight;  yet  durst  he  not 
Pursew  her  steps  through  wild  unknowen  wood; 
Besides  he  feard  her  wrath,  and  threatned  shot, 
Whiles  in  the  bush  he  lay,  not  yet  forgot: 

Ne  car'd  he  greatly  for  her  presence  vaine, 
But  turning  said  to  Trompart,  What  fowle  blot 
Is  this  to  knight,  that  lady  should  againe 
Depart  to  woods  untoucht,  and  leave  so  proud  disdayne  ? 


44  Perdie,  (said  Trompart)  lett  her  passe  at  will, 
Least  by  her  presence  daunger  mote  befall. 
For  who  can  tell  (and  sure  I  feare  it  ill) 
But  that  she  is  some  powre  celestiall? 

For,  whiles  she  spake,  her  great  words  did  apall 
My  feeble  courage,  and  my  hart  oppresse, 
That  yet  I  quake  and  tremble  over  all. 
And  T,  (said  Braggadocchio)  thought  no  lesse, 
When  first  I  heard  her  horn  sound  with  such  ghastlinesse. 

45  For  from  my  mothers  wombe  this  grace  I  have 
Me  given  by  eternall  destinie, 

That  earthly  thing  may  not  my  corage  brave 
Dismay  with  feare,  or  cause  on  foote  to  flie, 
But  either  hellish  feends,  or  powres  on  hie: 
Which  was  the  cause,  when  earst  that  horn  I  heard, 
Weening  it  had  been  thunder  in  the  skie, . 
I  hid  my  selfe  from  it  as  one  affeard ; 
But  when  I  other  knew,  my  self  I  boldly  reard. 

46  But  now,  for  feare  of  worse  that  may  betide, 
Let  us  soone  hence  depart.     They  soone  agree ; 
So  to  his  steed  he  got,  and  gan  to  ride, 

As  one  unfit  therefore,  that  all  might  see 
He  had  not  trayned  bene  in  chevalree, 
Which  well  that  valiaunt  courser  did  discerne ; 
For  he  despysd  to  tread  in  dew  degree, 
But  chaufd  and  fom'd  with  courage  fierce  and  sterne, 
And  to  be  easd  of  that  base  burden  still  did  erne. 

CANTO   IV.  43 


Guy  on  does  Furor  bind  in  cbaines, 

And  stops  Occasion: 
Delivers  Pbedon,  and  therefore 

By  Strife  is  rayld  upon. 

1  IN  brave  pursuit  of  honorable  deed, 
There  is  I  know  not  what  great  difference 
Betweene  the  vulgar  and  the  noble  seed, 
Which  unto  things  of  valorous  pretence 
Seemes  to  be  borne  by  native  influence; 
As  feates  of  armes,  and  love  to  entertaine, 
But  chiefly  skill  to  ride  seemes  a  science 
Proper  to  gentle  blood;  some  others  faine 

To  menage  steeds,  as  did  this  vaunter;    but  in  vaine. 

2  But  he  the  rightfull  owner  of  that  stc 

Who  well  could  menage  and  subdew^hisYpride, 
The  whiles  on  foot  was  forced  for 
With  that  blacke  palmer,  his  most  trusty  guide; 
Who  suffred  not  his  wandring  feet  to  slide. 

'     But  when  strong  passion,  or  weake  fleshlinesse, 

Would  from  the  right  way  seeke  to  draw  him  wide, 
He  would  through  temperance  and  stedfastnesse, 

Teach  him  the  weak  to  strengthen,  and  the  strong  suppresse. 

3  It  fortuned  forth  faring  on  his  way, 

He  saw  from  farre,  or  seemed  for  to  see, 
Some  troublous  uprore  or  contentious  fray. 
Whereto  he  drew  in  haste  it  to  agree. 
A  mad  man,  or  that  feigned  mad  to  bee, 
Drew  by  the  haire  along  upon  the  grownd 
A  handsom  stripling  with  great  crueltee, 
Whom  sore  he  bett,  and  gor'd  with  many  a  wownd, 
That  cheekes  with  teares,  and  sides  with  blood,  did  all  abound. 


4  And  him  behynd,  a  wicked  hag  did  stalke 
In  ragged  robes,  and  filthy  disaray, 

Her  other  leg  was  lame,  that  she  no'te  walke, 
But  on  a  staffe  her  feeble  steps  did  stay; 
Her  lockes,  that  loathly  were  and  hoarie  gray, 
Grew  all  afore,  and  loosly  hong  unrold, — 
But  all  behinde  was  bald,  and  worne  away, 
That  none  thereof  could  ever  taken  hold, 
And  eke  her  face  ill  favourd,  full  of  wrinckles  old. 

5  And,  ever  as  she  went,  her  toung  did  walke 
In  foule  reproch,  and  termes  of  vile  despight, 
Provoking  him,  by  her  outrageous  talke, 

To  heape  more  vengeance  on  that  wretched  wight ; 
Sometimes  she  raught  him  stones,  wherewith  to  smite, 
Sometimes  her  stafFe,  though  it  her  one  leg  were, 
Withouten  which  she  could  not  goe  upright; 
Ne  any  evil  meanes  she  did  forbeare, 
That  might  him  move  to  wrath,  and  indignation  reare. 

6  The  noble  Guyon,  mov'd  with  great  remorse 
Approching,  first  the  hag  did  thrust  away; 
And  after  adding  more  impetuous  forse, 

His  mightie  hands  did  on  the  madman  lay, 
And  pluckt  him  backe;  who,  all  on  fire  streightway 
Against  him  turning  all  his  fell  intent, 
With  beastly  brutish  rage  gan  him  assay, 
And  smot,  and  bit,  and  kickt,  and  scratcht,  and  rent, 
And  did  he  wist  not  what  in  his  avengement. 

•  7  And  sure  he  was  a  man  of  mickle  might, 
Had  he  had  governance,  it  well  to  guide: 
But  when  the  franticke  fitt  inflamd  his  spright, 
His  force  was  vaine,  and  strooke  more  often  wide 
Then  at  the  aymed  marke,  which  he  had  eide: 
And  oft  himselfe  he  chaunst  to  hurt  unwares, 
Whilst  reason  blent  through  passion,  nought  descride, 
But  as  a  blindfold  bull  at  randon  fares,      [nought  cares. 

And  where  he  hits,  nought  knowes,  and  whom  he  hurts, 

CANTO  IV.  45 

8  His  rude  assault  and  rugged  handeling 
Straunge  seemed  to  the  knight,  that  aye  with  foe 
In  fayre  defence  and  goodly  menaging 

Of  armes  was  wont  to  fight,  yet  nathemoe 
Was  he  abashed  now  not*  fighting  so, 
But  more  enfierced  through  his  currish  play, 
Him  sternly  grypt,  and  hayling  to  and  fro, 
To  overthrow  him  strongly  did  assay, 
But  overthrew  himselfe  unwares,  and  lower  lay. 

9  And  being  downe  the  villein  sore  did  beat, 
And  bruze  with  clownish  fistes  his  manly  face: 
And  eke  the  hag  with  many  a  bitter  threat, 
Still  cald  upon  to  kill  him  in  the  place. 
With  whose  reproch,  and  odious  menace, 
The  knight  emboyling  in  his  haughtie  hart 
Knit  all  his  forces,  and  gan  soone  unbrace 

His  grasping  hold:   so  lightly  did  upstart, 
And  drew  his  deadly  weapon,  to  maintaine  his  part. 

10  Which  when  the  palmer  saw,  he  loudly  cryde, 
Not  so,  O  Guyon,  never  thinke  that  so 
That  monster  can  be  maistred  or  destroy d : 
He  is  not,  ah,  he  is  not  such  a  foe, 

As  steele  can  wounde,  or  strength  can  overthroe. 
That  same  is  Furor,  cursed  cruel  wight, 
That  unto  knighthood  workes  much  shame  and  woe; 
And  that  same  hag,  his  aged  mother,  hight 
Occasion,  the  root  of  all  wrath  and  despight. 

11  With  her,  whoso  will  raging  Furor  tame, 
Must  first  begin,  and  well  her  amenage: 
First  her  restraine  from  her  reprochfull  blame, 
And  evill  meanes,  with  which  she  doth  enrage 
Her  franticke  sonne,  and  kindles  his  courage; 
Then  when  she  is  withdrawen,  or  strong  withstood, 
It's  eath  his  idle  fury  to  asswage, 

And  calme  the  tempest  of  his  passion  wood; 
The  bankes  are  overflowen,  when  stopped  is  the  flood. 


12  Therewith  Sir  Guyon  left  his  first  emprise, 
And,  turning  to  that  woman,  fast  her  hent 

By  the  hoare  lockes  that  hong  before  her  eyes, 
And  to  the  ground  her  threw:   yet  n'ould  she  stent 
Her  bitter  rayling  and  foule  revilement; 
But  still  provokt  her  sonne  to  wreake  her  wrong; 
But  nathelesse  he  did  her  still  torment, 
And,  catching  hold  of  her  ungratious  tong, 
Thereon  an  yron  lock  did  fasten  firme  and  strong. 

13  Then  whenas  use  of  speach  was  from  her  reft, 
With  her  two  crooked  handes  she  signes  did  make, 
And  beckned  him,  the  last  help  she  had  left: 

But  he  that  last  left  helpe  away  did  take, 
And  both  her  handes  fast  bound  unto  a  stake, 
That  she  note  stirre.     Then  gan  her  sonne  to  flie 
Full  fast  away,  and  did  her  quite  forsake : 
But  Guyon  after  him  in  hast  did  hie, 
And  soone  him  overtooke  in  sad  perplexitie. 

14  In  his  strong  armes  he  stiifely  him  embraste, 
Who  him  gain  striving  nought  at  all  prevaild: 
For  all  his  power  was  utterly  defaste, 

And  furious  fits  at  earst  quite  weren  quaild: 
Oft  he  re'nforst,  and  oft  his  forces  fayld, 
Yet  yield  he  would  not,  nor  his  rancor  slacke. 
Then  him  to  ground  he  cast,  and  rudely  hayld, 
And  both  his  hands  fast  bound  behind  his  backe, 
And  both  his  feet  in  fetters  to  an  yron  racke. 

15  With  hundred  yron  chaines  he  did  him  bind, 
And  hundred  knots,  that  did  him  sore  constraine: 
Yet  his  great  yron  teeth  he  still  did  grind, 

And  grimly  gnash,  threatning  revenge  in  vaine: 
His  burning  eyen,  whom  bloudie  strakes  did  staine, 
Stared  full  wide,  and  threw  forth  sparkes  of  fire, 
And  more  for  ranck  despight,  then  for  great  paine, 
Shakt  his  long  lockes  colourd  like  copper-wire, 
And  bit  his  tawny  beard  to  shew  his  raging  ire. 

CANTO  IV.  47 

1 6  Thus  when  as  Guy  on  Furor  had  captivd, 
Turning  about  he  saw  that  wretched  squire, 
Whom  that  mad  man  of  life  nigh  late  depriv'd, 
Lying  on  ground,  all  soild  with  bloud  and  mire : 
Whom  when  as  he  perceived  to  respire, 

He  gan  to  comfort,  and  his  woundes  to  dresse. 
Being  at  last  recured,  he  gan  inquire, 
What  hard  mishap  him  brought  to  such  distresse, 
And  made  that  caytives  thral,  the  thral  of  wretchednesse. 

17  With  hart  then  throbbing,  and  with  watry  eyes, 
Fayre  sir,  (quoth  he)  what  man  can  shun  the  hap 
That  hidden  lyes  unwares  him  to  surpryse? 
Misfortune  waites  advantage  to  entrap 

The  man  most  warie  in  her  whelming  lap. 
So  me  weake  wretch,  of  many  weakest  one, 
Unweeting,  and  unware  of  such  mishap, 
She  brought  to  mischiefe  through  Occasion, 
Where  this  same  wicked  villein  did  me  light  upon. 

1 8  It  was  a  faithelesse  squire,  that  was  the  sourse 
Of  all  my  sorrow,  and  of  these  sad  teares, 

With  whom  from  tender  dug  of  commune  nourse 
Attonce  I  was  upbrought,  and  eft  when  yeares 
More  rype  us  reason  lent  to  chose  our  peares, 
Ourselves  in  league  of  vowed  love  we  knit : 
In  which  we  long  time  without  gealous  feares 
Or  faultie  thoughts,  continewd  as  was  fit ; 
And  for  my  part  I  vow,  dissembled  not  a  whit. 

19  It  was  my  fortune,  commune  to  that  age, 
To  love  a  lady  faire  of  great  degree, 
The  which  was  borne  of  noble  parentage, 
And  set  in  highest  seat  of  dignitee, 

Xet  seemd  no  lesse  to  love,  then  lovd  to  bee : 
Long  I  her  serv'd,  and  found  her  faithfull  still, 
Ne  ever  thing  could  cause  us  disagree: 
Love  that  two  hartes  makes  one,  makes  eke  one  will: 
Each  strove  to  please,  and  others  pleasure  to  fulfill. 


20  My  friend,  hight  Philemon,  I  did  partake 

Of  all  my  love  and  all  my  privitie ; 

Who  greatly  joyous  seemed  for  my  sake, 

And  gratious  to  that  ladie,  as  to  mee ; 

Ne  ever  wight,  that  mote  so  welcome  bee 

As  he  to  her,  withouten  blot  or  blame, 

Ne  ever  thing,  that  she  could  thinke  or  see, 

But  unto  him  she  would  impart  the  same: 
O  wretched  man,  that  would  abuse  so  gentle  dame. 

ai  At  last  such  grace  I  found,  and  meanes  I  wrought, 
That  I  that  lady  to  my  spouse  had  wonne; 
Accord  of  friends,  consent  of  parents  sought, 
Affiance  made,  my  happinesse  begonne, 
There  wanted  nought  but  few  rites  to  be  donne, 
Which  marriage  make ;  that  day  too  farre  did  seeme : 
Most  joyous  man,  on  whome  the  shining  sunne 
Did  shew  his'  face,  myself  I  did  esteeme, 

And  that  my  falser  friend  did  no  lesse  joyous  deeme. 

22  But  ere  that  wished  day  his  beame  disclosd, 
He  either  envying  my  toward  good, 

Or  of  himselfe  to  treason  ill  disposd, 
One  day  unto  me  came  in  friendly  mood, 
And  told  for  secret  how  he  understood 
That  ladie  whom  I  had  to  me  assynd, 
Had  both  distaind  her  honorable  blood, 
And  eke  the  faith  which  she  to  me  did  bynd; 
And  therefore  wisht  me  stay,  till  I  more  truth  should  fynd. 

23  The  gnawing  anguish,  and  sharp  gelosy, 
Which  his  sad  speach  infixed  in  my  brest, 
Ranckled  so  sore,  and  festred  inwardly, 
That  my  engreeved  mind  could  find  no  rest, 
Till  that  the  truth  thereof  I  did  outwrest; 
And  him  besought,  by  that  same  sacred  band 
Betwixt  us  both,  to  counsell  me  the  best. 
He  then  with  solemne  oath  and  plighted  hand 

Assur'd,  ere  long  the  truth  to  let  me  understand. 

CANTO  IV.  49 

24  Ere  long  with  like  againe  he  boorded  mee, 
Saying,  he  now  had  boulted  all  the  floure, 
And  that  it  was  a  groome  of  base  degree, 
Which  of  my  love  was  partner  paramoure : 
Who  used  in  a  darksome  inner  bowre 

Her  oft  to  meete:   which  better  to  approve, 
He  promised  to  bring  me  at  that  howre, 
When  I  should  see  that  would  me  nearer  move, 
And  drive  me  to  withdraw  my  blind  abused  love. 

25  This  gracelesse  man  for  furtherance  of  his  guile, 
Did  court  the  handmayd  of  my  kdy  deare, 
Who  glad  t'embosome  his  affection  vile, 

Did  all  she  might  more  pleasing  to  appeare. 
One  day  to  worke  her  to  his  will  more  neare, 
He  woo'd  her  thus;   Pryene,  (so  she  hight) 
WJiat  great  despight  does  fortune  to  thee  beare, 
Thus  lowly  to  abase  thy  beautie  bright, 
That  it  should  not  deface  all  others  lesser  light? 

26  But  if  she  had  her  least  helpe  to  thee  lent, 
T*  adorne  thy  forme  according  thy  desart, 

Their  blazing  pride  thou  wouldest  soone  have  blent, 
And  staynd  their  prayses  with  thy  least  good  part ; 
Ne  should  faire  Claribell  with  all  her  art, 
Though  she  thy  lady  be,  approch  thee  neare : 
For  proofe  thereof,  this  evening,  as  thou  art, 
Aray  thyselfe  in  her  most  gorgeous  geare, 
That  I  may  more  delight  in  thy  embracement  deare. 

27  The  mayden  proud  through  prayse,  and  mad  through  love, 
Him  hearkned  to,  and  soone  herselfe  arayd ; 

The  whiles  to  me  the  treachour  did  remove 
His  craftie  engin,  and  as  he  had  sayd, 
Me  leading,  in  a  secret  corner  layd, 
The  sad  spectatour  of  my  tragedie; 
Where  left,  he  went,  and  his  owne  false  part  playd, 
Disguised  like  that  groome  of  base  degree, 
Whom  he  had  feignd  th'  abuser  of  my  love  to  bee. 



28  Eftsoones  he  came  unto  th'appointed  place, 
And  with  him  brought  Pryene,  rich  arayd, 
In  Claribellaes  clothes.     Her  proper,  face 

I  not  descerned  in  that  darkesome  shade, 
But  weend  it  was  my  love,  with  whom  he  playd. 
Ah  God,  what  horrour  and  tormenting  griefe 
My  hart,  my  handes,  mine  eies,  and  all  assayd: 
Me  liefer  were  ten  thousand  deathes  priefe 
Then  wound  of  gealous  worme,  and  shame  of  such  repriefe. 

29  I  home  returning,  fraught  with  fowle  despight, 
And  chawing  vengea'unce  all  the  way  I  went, 
Soone  as  my  loathed  love  appeard  in  sight, 
With  wrathfull  hand  I  slew  her  innocent; 
That  after  soone  I  dearely  did  lament: 

For  when  the  cause  of  that  outrageous  deede 
Demaunded,  I  made  plaine  and  evident, 
Her  faultie  handmayd,  which  that  bale  did  breede, 
Gonfest  how  Philemon  her  wrought  to  chaunge  her  weede. 

30  Which  when  I  heard,  with  horrible  aftright 
And  hellish  fury  all  enragd,  1  sought 
Upon  myselfe  that  vengeable  despight 

To  punish:   yet  it  better  first  I  thought 
To  wreake  my  wrath  on  him,  that  first  it  wrought. 
To  Philemon,  false  faytour  Philemon, 
I  cast  to  pay  that  I  so  dearely  bought; 
Of  deadly  drugs  I  gave  him  drinke  anon, 
And  washt  away  his  guilt  with  guiltie  potion. 

31  Thus  heaping  crime  on  crime,  and  griefe  on  griefe, 
To  losse  of  love  adjoynirig  losse  of  frend, 

I  meant  to  purge  both  with  a  third  mischiefe, 
And  in  my  woes  beginner  it  to  end : 
That  was  Pryene  ;  she  did  first  offend, 
She  last  should  smart:   with  which  cruell  intent, 
When  I  at  her  my  murdrous  blade  did  bend, 
She  fled  away  with  ghastly  dreriment, 
And  I,  purse  wing  my  fell  purpose,  after  went. 

CANTO   IV.  51 

32  Feare  gave  her  wings,  and  rage  enforst  my  flight; 
Through  woods  and  plaines  so  long  I  did  her  chace, 
Till  this  mad  man,  whom  your  victorious  might 
Hath  now  fast  bound,  me  met  in  middle  space: 

As  I  her,  so  he  me  pursewd  apace, 
And  shortly  overtooke:    I  breathing  yre, 
Sore  chauffed  at  my  stay  in  such  a  cace, 
And  with  my  heat  kindled  his  cruell  fyre ; 
Which  kindled  once,  his  mother  did  more  rage  inspyre. 

33  Betwixt  them  both,  they  have  me  doen  to  dye, 
Through  wounds,  and  strokes,  and  stubborne  handeling, 
That  death  were  better  then  such  agony, 

As  griefe  and  furie  unto  me  did  bring; 
Of  which  in  me  yet  stickes  the  mortall  sting, 
That  during  life  will  never  be  appeasd. 
When  he  thus  ended  had  his  sorrowing, 
Said  Guyon,  Squire,  sore  have  ye  beene  diseasd; 
But  all  your  hurts  may  soone  through  temperance  be  easd. 

34  Then  gan  the  palmer  thus,  Most  wretched  man, 
That  to  affections  does  the  bridle  lend; 

In  their  beginning  they  are  weake  and  wan, 
But  soone  through  sufFrance  growe  to  fearefull  end; 
Whiles  they  are  weake  betimes  with  them  contend: 
For  when  they  once  to  perfect  strength  do  grow, 
Strong  warres  they  make,  and  cruell  battry  bend 
Gainst  fort  of  reason,  it  to  overthrow : 
Wrath,  gelosie,  griefe,  love  this  squire  have  laide  thus  low. 


35  Wrath,  gealosie,  griefe,  love  do  thus  expell: 

Wrath  is  a  fire,  and  gealosie  a  weede, 
Griefe  is  a  flood,  and  love  a  monster  fell ; 
The  "fire  of  sparkes,  the  weede  of  little  seede, 
The  flood  of  drops,  the  monster  filth  did  breede: 
But  sparks,  seed,  drops,  and  filth,  do  thus  delay ; 
The  sparks  soone  quench,  the  springing  seed  outweed, 
The  drops  dry  up,  the  filth  wipe  cleane  away: 
So  shall  Wrath,  gealosie,  griefe,  love,  dye  and  decay. 
E  a 


36  Unlucky  squire,  (saide  Guyon)  sith  thou  hast 
Falne  into  mischiefe  through  intemperaunce, 
Henceforth  take  heede  of  that  thou  now  hast  past. 
And  guide  thy  wayes  with  warie  governaunce, 
Least  worse  betide  thee  by  some  later  chaunce. 
But  read  how  art  thou  nam'd,  and  of  what  kin. 
Phedon  I  hight,  (quoth  he)  and  do  advaunce 
Mine  auncestry  from  famous  Coradin, 

Who  first  to  rayse  our  house  to  honour  did  begin. 

37  Thus  as  he  spake,  lo  far  away  they  spyde 
A  varlet  ronning  towards  hastily, 

Whose  flying  feet  so  fast  their  way  applyde. 
That  round  about  a  cloud  of  dust  did  fly, 
Which,  mingled  all  with  sweate,  did  dim  his  eye. 
He  soone  approched,  panting,  breathlesse,  whot, 
And  all  so  soyld,  that  none  could  him  descry; 
His  countenaunce  was  bold,  and  bashed  not 
For  Guyons  lookes,  but  scornefull  ey  glaunce  at  him  shot. 

38  Behinde  his  backe  he  bore  a  brasen  shield, 
On  which  was  drawen  faire,  in  colours  fit, 
A  flaming  fire  in  midst  of  bloudy  field, 

And  round  about  the  wreath  this  word  was  writ, 
Burnt  I  doe  burne.     Right  well  beseemed  it 
To  be  the  shield  of  some  redoubted  knight; 
And  in  his  hand  two  dartes  exceeding  flit, 
And  deadly  sharpe  he  held,  whose  heads  were  dight 
In  poyson  and  in  bloud,  of  malice  and  despight. 

39  When  he  in  presence  came,  to  Guyon  first 

He  boldly  spake,  Sir  knight,  if  knight  thou  bee, 
Abandon  this  forestalled  place  at  erst, 
For  feare  of  further  harme,  I  counsell  thee, 
Or  bide  the  chaunce  at  thine  owne  jeoperdie. 
The  knight  at  his  great  boldnesse  wondered, 
And  though  he  scornd  his  idle  vanitie, 
Yet  mildly  him  to  purpose  answered ; 
For  not  to  grow  of  nought  he  it  conjectured. 

CANTO  IV.  53 

40  Varlet,  this  place  most  dew  to  me  I  deeme, 
Yielded  by  him,  that  held  it  forcibly. 

But  whence  shold  come  that  harme,  which  thou  dost  seeme 
To  threat  to  him,  that  mindes  his  chaunce  t'abye? 
Perdy,  (sayd  he)  here  comes,  and  is  hard  by 
A  knight  of  wondrous  powre  and  great  assay, 
That  never  yet  encountred  enemy, 
But  did  him  deadly  daunt,  or  fowle  dismay; 
Ne  thou  for  better  hope,  if  thou  his  presence  stay. 

41  How  hight  he  then  (said  Guyon)  and  from  whence? 
Pyrochles  is  his  name,  renowmed  farre 

For  his  bold  feats  and  hardy  confidence, 
Full  oft  approvd  in  many  a  cruell  warre, 
The  brother  of  Cympchles,  both,  which .  a 
The  sonnes  of 

Aerates  sonne  of  Phlegeton  and  Jarre ; 
But  Phlegeton  is  sonne  of  JJerebus  and  Night; 
But  Herebus  sonne  of  Aeternitie  is  hight/^-£^ZC<i_^ 

42  So  from  immortall  race  he  does  proceede,  ^*j 
That  mortall  hands  may  not  withstand  his  might, 

Drad  for  his  derring  do,  and  bloudy  deed; 
For  all  in  bloud  and  spoile  is  his  delight. 
His  am  I  ^tmXhis  in  wrong  and  right, 
That  matteV-flaake  for  him  to  worke  upon, 
And  stirre  him  up  to  strife  and  cruell  fight. 
Fly  therefore,  fly  this  fearefull  stead  anon, 
Least  thy  foolhardize  worke  thy  sad  confusion. 

43  His  be  that  care,  whom  most  it  doth  concerne, 
(Sayd  he)  but  whither  with  such  hasty  flight 
Art  thou  now  bound?    for  well  mote  I  discerne 
Great  cause,  that  carries  thee  so  swift  and  light. 
My  lord,  (quoth  he)  me  sent,  and  streight  behight 
To  seeke  Occasion,  where  so  she  bee: 

For  he  is  all  disposd  to  bloudy  fight, 
And  breathes  out  wrath  and  hainous  crueltie; 
Hard  is  his  hap,  that  first  fals  in  his  jeopardie. 


44  Mad  man,  (said  then  the  palmer)  that  does  seeke 
Occasion  to  wrath,  and  cause  of  strife  ; 

She  comes  unsought,  and  shonned  followes  eke. 
Happy,  who  can  abstaine,  when  rancour  rife 
Kindles  revenge,  and  threats  his  rusty  knife; 
Woe  never  wants,  where  every  cause  is  caught, 
And  rash  Occasion  makes  unquiet  life. 
Then  loe,  where  bound  she  sits,  whom  thou  hast  sought. 
(Said  Guyon)  let  that  message  to  thy  lord  be  brought. 

45  That  when  the  varlet  heard  and  saw,  streightway 
He  wexed  wondrous  wroth,  and  said,  Vile  knight, 
That  knights  and  knighthood  doest  with  shame  upbray, 
And  shewst  th'  ensample  of  thy  childish  might, 

With  silly  weake  old  woman  thus  to  fight. 
Great  glory  and  gay  spoile  sure  hast  thou  got, 
And  stoutly  prov'd  thy  puissaunce  here  in  sight ; 
That  shall  Pyrochles  well  requite,  I  wot, 
And  with  thy  blood  abolish  so  reprochfull  blot. 

46  With  that  one  of  his  thrillant  darts  he  threw, 
Headed  with  ire  and  vengeable  despight : 

The  quivering  steele  his  aymed  end  well  knew, 
And  to  his  brest  itselfe  intended  right: 
But  he  was  warie,  and,  ere  it  empight 
In  the  meant  marke,  advaunst  his  shield  atweenc, 
On  which  it  seizing,  no  way  enter  might, 
But  backe  rebounding  left  the  forckhead  keene; 
Eftsoones  he  fled  away,  and  might  no  where  be  scene. 

CANTO    V,  55 

CANTO    V. 

Pyrochles  does  with  Guyon  fight, 

And  Furors  chayne  untyes. 
Who  him  sore  wounds;   whiles  A  tin  to 

Cymochles  for  ayd  flyes. 

1  WHOEVER  doth  to  temperaunce  apply 
His  stedfast  life,  and  all  his  actions  frame, 
Trust  me,  shall  find  no  greater  enimy, 
Then  stubborne  perturbation,  to  the  same; 

To  which  right  well  the  wise  do  give  that  name, 
For  it  the  goodly  peace  of  stayed  mindes 
Does  overthrow,  and  troublous  warre  proclame: 
His  owne  woes  authour,  who  so  bound  it  findes, 
As  did  Pyrochles,  and  it  wilfully  unbindes. 

2  After  that  varlets  flight,  it  was  not  long, 
Ere  on  the  plaine  fast  pricking  Guyon  spide 
One  in  bright  armes  embatteiled  full  strong, 
That,  as  the  sunny  beames  do  glaunce  and  glide 
Upon  the  trembling  wave,  so  shined  bright, 
And  round  about  him  threw  forth  sparkling  fire, 
That  seemd  him  to  enflame  on  every  side : 

His  steed  was  bloudy  red,  and  fomed  ire, 
When  with  the  maistring  spur  he  did  him  roughly  stire. 

3  Approching  nigh,  he  never  staid  to  greete, 
Ne  chaffar  words,  prowd  corage  to  provoke, 
But  prickt  so  fiers,  that  underneath  his  feete 
The  smouldring  dust  did  rownd  about  him  smoke, 
Both  horse  and  man  nigh  able  for  to  choke; 
And  fayrly  couching  his  steele-headed  speare, 
Him  first  saluted  with  a  sturdy  stroke ; 

It  booted  nought  sir  Guyon  comming  neare 
To  thinke  such  hideous  puissaunce  on  foot  to  beare  ; 


4  But  lightly  shunned  it,  and  passing  by, 

With  his  bright  blade  did  smite  at  him  so  fell, 
That  the  sharpe  steele  arriving  forcibly 
On  his  broad  shield,  bit  not,  but  glauncing  fell 
On  his  horse  necke  before  the  quilted  sell, 
And  from  the  head  the  body  sundred  quight. 
So  him  dismounted  low,  he  did  compell 
On  foot  with  him  to  matchen  equall  fight; 
The  truncked  beast  fast  bleeding  did  him  fowly  dight. 

5  Sore  bruzed  with  the  fall,  he  slow  uprose, 
And  all  enraged,  thus  him  loudly  shent; 
Disleall  knight,  whose  coward  courage  chose 
To  wreake  it  selfe  on  beast  all  innocent, 

And  shund  the  marke,  at  which  it  should  be  ment, 
Therby  thine  armes  seem  strong,  but  manhood  fraile; 
So  hast  thou  oft  with  guile  thine  honor  blent; 
But  litle  may  such  guile  thee  now  availe, 
If  wonted  force  and  fortune  doe  me  not  much  faile. 

6  With  that  he  drew  his  flaming  sword,  and  strooke 
At  him  so  fiercely,  that  the  upper  marge 

Of  his  sevenfolded  shield  away  it  tooke, 
And  glauncing  on  his  helmet,  made  a  large 
And  open  gash  therein  :~were  not  his  targe, 
That  broke  the  violence  of  his  intent, 
The  weary  soule  from  thence  it  would  discharge ; 
Nathelesse  so  sore  a  buff  to  him  it  lent, 
That  made  him  reele,  and  to  his  brest  his  beyer  bent. 

7  Exceeding  wroth  was  Guyon  at  that  blow, 
And  much  ashamd,  that  stroke  of  living  arme 
Should  him  dismay,  and  make  him  stoup  so  low, 
Though  otherwise  it  did  him  litle  harme: 

Tho  hurling  high  his  yron  braced  arme, 
He  smote  so  manly  on  his  shoulder  plate, 
That  all  his  left  side  it  did  quite  disarme ; 
Yet  there  the  steel  stayd  not,  but  inly  bate 
Deepe  in  his  flesh,  and  opened  wide  a  red  floodgate. 

CANTO    V.  57 

8  Deadly  dismayd  with  horror  of  that  dint 
Pyrochles  was,  and  grieved  eke  entyre; 
Yet  nathemore  did  it  his  fury  stint, 
But  added  flame  unto  his  former  fire, 
That  welnigh  molt  his  hart  in  raging  yre, 

Ne  thenceforth  his  approved  skill,  to  ward,       .       ~ 
Or  strike,  or  hurtle  rownd  in  warlike  gyre, 
Remembred  he,  ne  car'd  for  his  saufgard, 
But  rudely  rag'd,  and  like  a  cruell  tygre  far'd. 

9  He  hewd,  and  lasht,  and  foynd,  and  thundred  blowes, 
And  every  way  did  seeke  into  his  life, 

Ne  plate,  ne  male  could  ward  so  mighty  throwes, 
But  yielded  passage  to  his  cruell  knife. 
But  Guyon,  in  the  heat  of  all  his  strife, 
Was  warie  wise,  and  closely  did  awayt 
Avauntage,  whilest  his  foe  did  rage  most  rife; 
Sometimes  athwart,  sometimes  he  strooke  him  strayt, 
And  falsed  oft  his  blowes,  t'illude  him  with  such  bayt. 

10  Like  as  a  lyon  whose  imperiall  powre 
A  prowd  rebellious  unicorn  defyes, 
T'  avoide  the  rash  assault  and  wrathful  s,towre 
Of  his  fiers  foe,  him  to  a  tree  applies, 
And  when  him  running  in  full  course  he  spies, 
He  slips  aside;    the  whiles  that  furious  beast 
His  precious  home,  sought  of  his  enimies, 
Strikes  in  the  stocke,  ne  thence  can  be  releast, 

But  to  the  mighty  victour  yields  a  bounteous  feast 

n  With  such  faire  sleight  him  Guyon  often  faild, 
Till  at  the  last  all  breathlesse,  wearie,  faint, 
Him  spying,  with  fresh  onset  he  assaild, 
And,  kindling  new  his  courage  seeming  queint, 
Strooke  him  so  hugely,  that  through  great  constraint 
He  made  him  stoup  perforce  unto  his  knee, 
And  do  unwilling  worship  to  the  saint,  . 

That  on  his  shield  depainted  he  did  see; 

Such  homage  till  that  instant  never  learned  hee. 


12  Whom  Guyon  seeing  stoup,  pursewed  fast 
The  present  offer  of  faire  victory, 

And  soone  his  dreadfull  blade  about  he  cast, 
Wherewith  he  smote  his  haughty  crest  so  hye. 
That  streight  on  grownd  made  him  full  low  to  lye; 
Then  on  his  brest  his  victour  foote  he  thrust : 
With  that  he  cryde;  Mercy,  doe  me  not  dye, 

INe  deeme  thy  force  by  fortunes  doome  unjust, 
That  hath  (maugre  her  spight)  thus  low  me  laid  in  dust. 

13  Eftsoones  his  cruell  hand  Sir  Guyon  stayd, 
Tempring  the  passion  with  advizement  slow 
And  maistring  might  on  enimy  dismayd; 

For  th'  equall  dye  of  warre  he  well  did  know ; 
Then  to  him  said,  Live,  and  allegaunce  owe 
To  him,  that  gives  thee  life  and  libertie, 
And  henceforth  by  this  dayes  ensample  trow, 
That  hasty  wroth,  and  heedlesse  hazardie, 
Do  breede  repentaunce  late,  and  lasting  infamie. 

14  So  up  he  let  him  rise,  who  with  grim  looke 
And  count'naunce  sterne  upstanding,  gan  to  grind 
His  grated  teeth  for  great  disdeigne,  and  shooke 
His  sandy  lockes,  long  hanging  downe  behind, 
Knotted  in  bloud  and  dust,  for  griefe  of  mind 
That  he  in  ods  of  armes  was  conquered; 

Yet  in  himselfe  some  comfort  he  did  find, 
That  him  so  noble  knight  had  matstered, 
Whose  bounty  more  then  might,  yet  both  he  wondered. 

15  Which  Guyon  marking  said,  Be  nought  agriev'd, 
Sir  knight,  that  thus  ye  now  subdewed  arre: 
Was  never  man,  who  most  conquestes  atchiev'd 
But  sometimes  had  the  worse,  and  lost  by  warre, 
Yet  shortly  gaynd,  that  losse  exceeded  farre; 
Losse  is  no  shame,  nor  to  bee  lesse  then  foe, 
But  to  bee  lesser,  then  himselfe,  doth  marre 
Both  loosers  lot,  and  victour's  prayse  alsoe : 

Vaine  others  overthrowes,  who  selfe  doth  overthrowe. 

CANTO    V.  59 

16  Fly,  O  Pyrochles,  fly  the  dreadfull  warre, 
That  in  thyselfe  thy  lesser  parts  do  move, 
Outrageous  anger,  and  woe  working  Jarre, 

i       Direfull  impatience,  and  hartmurdring  love; 

Those,  those  thy  foes,  those  warriours  far  remove,      ^  V" 
^     Which  thee  to  endlesse  bale  captived  lead. 

But  sith  in  might  thou  didst  my  mercy  prove, 

Of  curtesie  to  me  the  cause  aread 
That  thee  against  me  drew  with  so  impetuous  dread. 

17  Dreadlesse,  (said  he)  that  I  shall  soone  declare: 
It  was  complaind  that  thou  hadst  done  great  tort 
Unto  an  aged  woman,  poore  and  bare, 

And  thralled  her  in  chaines  with  strong  effort, 
Voide  of  all  succour  and  needfull  comfort: 
That  ill  beseemes  thee,  such  as  I  thee  see, 
To  worke  such  shame.     Therefore  I  thee  exhort 
To  chaunge  thy  will,  and  set  Occasion  free, 
And  to  her  captive  sonne  yield  his  first  libertee. 

1 8  Thereat  Sir  Guyon  smilde,  And  is  that  all 
(Said  he)  that  thee  so  sore  displeased  hath? 
Great  mercy  sure,  for  to  enlarge  a  thrall, 
Whose  freedom  shall  thee  turne  to  greatest  scath. 
Nath'lesse  now  quench  thy  whot  emboyling  wrath: 
Loe  there  they  be;   to  thee  I  yield  them  free. 
Thereat  Jie  wondrous  glad,  out  of  the  path 

Did  lightly  leape,  where  he  them  bound  did  see, 
And  gan  to  breake  the  bands  of  their  captivitee. 

19  Soone  as  Occasion  felt  her  selfe  untyde, 
Before  her  sonne  could  well  assoyled  bee, 
She  to  her  use  returnd,  and  streight  defyde 
Both  Guyon  and  Pyrochles :    th'  one  (said  shee) 
Bycause  he  wonne;    the  other,  because  hee 
Was  wonne  :    So  matter  did  she  make  of  nought, 
To  stirre  up  strife,  and  garre  them  disagree : 
But  soone  as  Furor  was  enlargd,  she  sought 

To  kindle  his  quencht  fire,  and  thousand  causes  wrought 


20  It  was  not  long,  ere  she  inflam'd  him  so,  .      „/ 
That  he  would  algates  with  Pyrochles  fight,    *£ 
And  his  redeemer  chalengd  for  his  foe, 

Because  he  had  not  well  mainteind  his  right, 
But  yielded  had  to  that  same  straunger  knight. 
Now  gan  Pyrochles  wex  as  wood  as  hee, 
And  him  affronted  with  impatient  might : 
So  both  together  fiers  engrasped  bee, 
Whiles  Guyon  standing  by  their  uncouth  strife  does  see. 

21  Him  all  that  while  Occasion  did  provoke 
Against  Pyrochles,  and  new  matter  framed 
Upon  the  old,  him  stirring  to  be  wroke 

Of  his  late  wrongs,  in  which  she  oft  him  blamed 
For  suffering  such  abuse  as  knighthood  sham'd, , 
And  him  dishabled  quyte.     But  he  was  wise, 
Ne  would  with  vaine  occasions  be  inflamed; 
Yet  others  she  more  urgent  did  devise : 
Yet  nothing  could  him  to  impatience  entise. 

22  Their  fell  contention  still  increased  more, 
And  more  thereby  increased  Furors  might, 
That  he  Jjis  foe  has  hurt  and  wounded  sore 
And  him  in  bloud  and  durt  deformed  quight. 
His  mother  eke,  more  to  augment  his  spight, 
Now  brought  to  him  a  flaming  fier  brond, 
Which  she  in  Stygian  lake,  ay  burning  bright 
Had  kindled:    that  she  gave  into  his  hond, 

That  armd  with  fire,  more  hardly  he  mote  him  withstond. 

23  Tho  gan  that  villein  wex  so  fiers  and  strong, 
That  nothing  might  sustaine  his  furious  forse  ; 
He  cast  him  downe  to  ground,  and  all  along 
Drew  him  through  durt  and  myre  without  remorse,. 
And  fowly  battered  his  comely  corse, 

That  Guyon  much  disdeignd  so  loathly  sight. 
At  last  he  was  compeld  to  cry  perforse, 
Help,  O  Sir  Guyon,  helpe  most  noble  knight, 
To  rid  a  wretched  man  from  hands  of  hellish  wight. 

CANTO    V.  6 1 

24  The  knight  was  greatly  moved  at  his  plaint, 
And  gan  him  dight  to  succour  his  distresse. 
Till  that  the  palmer,  by  his  grave  restraint, 
Him  stayd  from  yielding  pittifull  redresse, 

And  said,  Deare  sonne,  thy  causelesse  ruth  represse, 
Ne  let  thy  stout  hart  melt  in  pitty  vayne: 
He  that  his  sorrow  sought  through  wilfulnesse, 
And  his  foe  fettred  would  release  agayne, 
Deserves  to  taste  his  follies  fruit,  repented  payne. 

25  Guyon  obayd;    so  him  away  he  drew 
From  needlesse  trouble  of  renewing  fight 
Already  fought,  his  voyage  to  pursew. 
But  rash  Pyrochles  varlet,.  Atin  Jjigfat, 
When  late  he  saw  his  lord  in  heavy  plight, 
Under  Sir  Guyons  puissaunt  stroke  to  fall, 
Him  deeming  dead,  as  then  he  seemd  in  sight, 
Fled  fast  away,  to  tell  his  funerall 

Unto  his  brother,  whom  Gymochles  men  did  call. 

26  He  was  a  man  of  rare  redoubted  might, 
Famous  throughout  the  world  for  warlike  prayse, 
And  glorious  spoiles,  purchast  in  perilous  fight: 
Full  many  doughtie  knights  he  in  his  dayes 
Had  doen  to  death,  subdewde  in  equall  frayes; 
Whose  carkases,  for  terrour  of  his  name, 

Of  fowles  and  beastes  he  made  the  piteous  prayes, 
And  hong  their  conquered  armes  for  more  defame 
On  galiow  trees,  in  honour  of  his  dearest  dame. 

27  His  dearest  dame  is  that  enchaunteresse, 
The  vile  Acrasia,  that  with  vaine  delightes, 
And  idle  pleasures,  in  her  bowre  of  blisse, 
Does  charme  her  lovers,  and  the  feeble  sprightes 
•Can  call  out  of  the  bodies  of  fraile  wightes ; 
Whom  then  she  does  transforme  to  monstrous  hewes 
And  horribly  misshapes  with  ugly  sightes, 

Captiv'd  eternally  in  yron  mewes  nkiA4toA 
And  darksom  dens,  where  Titan  his  face  never  shewes. 


29  And  over  him,  art  striving  to  compaire 
With  nature,  did  an  arber  greene  dispred. 
Framed  of  wanton  yvie,  flouring  faire, 
Through  which  the  fragrant  eglantine  did  spred 
His  pricking  armes,  entrayld  with  roses  red, 
Which  daintie  odours  round  about  them  threw, 
And  all  within  with  flowres  was  garnished, 
That,  when  myld  Zephyrus  emongst  them  blew, 

Did  breath  out  bounteous  smels,  and  painted  colors  shew. 

30  And  fast  beside  there  trickled  softly  downe  '    .. 
A  gentle  streame,  whose  murmuring  wave  did  play 
Emongst  the  pumy  stones,  and  maae  a  sowne, 

To  lull  him  soft  asleepe,  that  by  it  lay: 
The  wearie  traveiler,  wandring  that  way, 
Therein  did  often  quench  his  thirsty  heat, 
And  then  by  it  his  wearie  limbes  display, 
Whiles  creeping  slomber  made  him  to  forget 
His  former  paine,  and  wypt  away  his  toylsom  sweat. 

31  And  on  the  other  side  a  pleasaunt  grove      ^^ 
Was  shot  up  high,  full  of  the  stately  tre</f*(j 
That  dedicated  is  t'  Olympick  Jove,  J 
And  to  his  sonne  Alcides,  whenas  hee 

Gaynd  in  Nemea  goodly  victoree : 
Therein  the  mery  birdes  of  every  sort 
Chaunted  alowd  their  chearefull  harmonic, 
And  made  emongst  themselves  a  sweet  consort, 

That  quickned  the  dull  spright  with  musicall  comfort 

35  Atin  arriving  there,  when  him  he  spide 

Thus  in  still  waves  of  deepe  delight  to  wade, 
Fiercely  approching  to  him  lowdly  cride 
Cymochles;    oh  no,  but  Cymochles  shade, 
In  which  that  manly  person  late  did  fade, 
What  is  become  of  great  Aerates  sonne  ? 
Or  where  hath  he  hong  up  his  mortall  blade, 
That  hath  so  many  haughtie  conquests  wonne? 

Is  all  his  force  forlorne,  and  all  his  glory  donne  ? 

CANTO    V.  63 

36  Then  pricking  him  with  his  sharpe-pointed  dart, 
He  said ;    Up,  up,  thou  womanish  weake  knight, 
That  here  in  ladies  lap  entombed  art, 
Unmindfull  of  thy  praise  and  prowest  might, 
And  weetlesse  eke  of  lately  wrought  despight ; 
Whiles  sad  Pyrochles  lies  on  senselesse  ground, 
And  groneth  out  his  utmost  grudging  spright, 
Through  many  a  stroke  and  many  a  streaming  wound, 

Calling  thy  help  in  vaine,  that  here  in  joyes  art  dround. 

37  Suddeinly  out  of  his  delightfull  dreame 

The  man  awoke,  and  would  have  questiond  more ; 
But  he  would  not  endure  that  wofull  theame 
For  to  dilate  at  large,  but  urged  sore, 
With  percing  words,  and  pittifull  implore, 
Him  hastie  to  arise.    As  one  affright 
With  hellish  feends,  or  furies  mad  uprore, 
He  then  uprose,  inflamd  with  fell  despight, 
And  called  for  his  armes :   for  he  would  algates  fight 

38  They  bene  ybrought ;    he  quickly  does  him  dight, 
And  lightly  mounted  passeth  on  his  way ; 

Ne  ladies  loves,  ne  sweete  entreaties,  might 
Appease  his  heat,  or  hastie  passage  stay ; 
For  he  has  vowd  to  beene  avengd  that  day 
(That  day  itselfe  him  seemed  all  too  long) 
On  him,  that  did  Pyrochles  deare  dismay: 
So  proudly  pricketh  on  his  courser  strong, 
And  Atin  aie  him  pricks  with  spurs  of  shame  and  wrong. 


CANTO     VI. 

Guyon  is  of  immodest  Merth 

Led  into  loose  desire ; 
Fights  with  Cymochles,  whiles  bis  6ro- 

ther  burnes  in  furious  fire. 

1  A  HARDER  lesson,  to  learne  lontinencg  >y 
In  joyous  pleasure  then  in  grievous  paine : 
For  sweetnesse  doth  allure  the  weaker  sence 
So  strongly,  that  uneathes  it  can  refraine 
From  that,  which  feeble  nature  covets  faine : 
But  griefe  and  wrath,  that  be  her  enemies, 
And  foes  of  life,  she  better  can  restraine: 
Yet  Vertue  vauntes  in  both  her  victories; 

And  Guyon  in  them  all  shewes  goodly  maisteries. 

2  Whom  bold  Cymochles  travelling  to  finde, 
With  cruell  purpose  bent  to  wreake  on  him 
The  wrath,  which  Atin  kindled  in  his  mind, 
Came  to  a  river,  by  whose  utmost  brim 
Wayting  to  passe,  he  saw  whereas  did  swim 
Along  the  shore,  as  swift  as  glaunce  of  eye, 
A  little  gondelay,  bedecked  trim 

With  boughes  and  arbours  woven  cunningly, 
That  like  a  litle  forrest  seemed  outwardly. 

3  And  therein  sate  a  lady  fresh  and   faire, 
Making  sweet  solace  to  herselfe  alone: 
Sometimes  she  sung  as  loud  as  larke  in  aire, 
Sometimes  she  laught,  that  nigh  her  breth  was  gone; 
Yet  was  there  not  with  her  else  any  one, 

That  to  her  might  move  cause  of  meriment: 
Matter  of  merth  enough,  though  there  were  none, 
She  could  devize,  and  thousand  waies  invent 
To  feede  her  foolish  humour,  and  vaine  jolliment. 

CANTO   VI.  65 

4  Which  when  far  off  Gymochles  heard,  and  saw, 
He  loudly  cald  to  such  as  were  abord 

The  little  barke  unto  the  shore  to  draw, 
And  him  to  ferrie  over  that  deepe  ford. 
The  merry  mariner  unto  his  word 
Soone  hearkned,  and  her  painted  bote  streightway 
Turnd  to  the  shore,  where  that  same  warlike  lord 
She  in  receiv'd;   but  Atin  by  no  way 
She  would  admit,  albe  the  knight  her  much  did  pray. 

5  Eftsoones  her  shallow  ship  away  did  slide, 
More  swift  than  swallow  sheres  the  liquid  skie, 
Withouten  oare  or  pilot  it  to  guide, 

Or  winged  canvas  with  the  wind  to  flic; 
Onely  she  turned  a  pin,  and  by  and  by 
It  cut  away  upon  the  yielding  wave, 
Ne  cared  she  her  course  for  to  apply; 
For  it  was  taught  the  way,  which  she  would  have, 
And  both  from  rocks  and  flats  itselfe  could  wisely  save. 

6  And  all  the  way  the  wanton  damsell  found 
New  merth,  her  passenger  to  entertaine ; 
For  she  in  pleasant  purpose  did  abound, 
And  greatly  joyed  merry  tales  to  faine, 

Of  which  a  store-house  did  with  her  remaine ; 
Yet  seemed,  nothing  well  they  her  became; 
For  all  her  wordes  she  drownd  with  laughter  vaine, 
And  wanted  grace  in  utt'ring  of  the  same, 
That  turned  all  her  pleasance  to  a  scoffing  game. 

7  And  other  whiles  vaine  toyes  she  would  devize, 
As  her  fantasticke  wit  did  most  delight; 
Sometimes  her  head  she  fondly  would  aguize 
With  gaudie  girlonds,  or  fresh  flowrets  dight 
About  her  necke,  or  rings  of  rushes  plight: 
Sometimes,  to  do  him  laugh,  she  would  assay 
TO  laugh  at  shaking  of  the  leaves  light, 

Or  to  behold  the  water  worke,  and  play 
About  her  little  frigoiL  therein  making  way. 



8  Her  light  behaviour,  and  loose  dalliaunce 

Gave  wondrous  great  contentment  to  the  knight, 
That  of  his  way  he  had  no  sovenaunce, 
Nor  care  of  vow'd  revenge  and  cruell  fight, 
But  to  weake  wench  did  yeeld  his  martiall  might. 
So  easie  was  to  quench  his  flamed  mind 
With  one  sweet  drop  of  sensuall  delight, 
So  easie  is  t'  appease  the  stormy  wind 
Of  malice  in  the  calme  of  pleasant  womankind. 

9  Diverse  discourses  in  their  way  they  spent; 
Mongst  which  Cymochles  of  her  questioned 
Both  what  she  was,  and  what  that  usage  ment, 
Which  in  her  cot  she  daily  practized: 

Vaine  man  (said  she)  thou  wouldest  be  reckoned 
A  straunger  in  thy  home,  and  ignoraunt 
Of  Phaedria  (for  so  my  name  is  red) 
Of  Phaedria,  thine  owne  fellow  servaunt 
For  thou  to  serve  Acrasia  thy  selfe  doest  vaunt. 

10  In  this  wide  inland  sea,  that  hight  by  name 
The  Idle  Lake,  my  wandring  ship  I  row, 

That  knowes  her  port,  and  thither  sailes  by  ayme, 
Ne  care,  ne  feare  I  how  the  wind  do  blow, 
Or  whether  swift  I  wend,  or  whether  slow: 
Both  slow  and  swift  alike  do  serve  my  tourne; 
Ne  swelling  Neptune  ne  loud  thundring  Jove 
Can  chaunge  my  cheare,  or  make  me  ever  mourne: 
My  litle  boat  can  safely  passe  this  perilous  bourne. 

11  Whiles  thus  she  talked,  and  whiles  thus  she  toyd, 
They  were  far  past  the  passage,  which  he  spake, 
And  come  unto  an  island  waste  and  voyd,  ^ 

That  floted  in  the  midst  of  that  great  lake;  \.  9 
There  her  small  gondelay  her  port  did  make,  \  ^ 
And  that  gay  paire  issuing  on  the  shore  \ 

Disburdned  her.     Their  way  they  forward  take 
Into  the  land,  that  lay  them  i'aire  before, 
Whose  pleasaunce  she  him  shew'd  and  plenli£ull  great  storc^ 

CANTO   VI.  67 

i  a  It  was  a  chosen  plot  of  fertile  land, 

Emongst  wide  waves  set,  like  a  litle  nest, 

As  if  it  had  by  Natures  cunning  hand 

Bene  choisely  picked  out  from  all  the  rest, 

And  laid  forth  for  ensample  of  the  best: 

No  daintie  flowre  or  herbe,  that  growes  on  ground, 

No  arboret  with  painted  blossomes  drest      ft" 

And  smelling  sweet,  but  there  it  might  be  found 

To  bud  out  faire,  and  her  sweet  smels  throw  all  around 

No  tree,  whose  braunches  did  not  bravely  spring; 
No  braunch,  whereon  a  fine  bird  did  not  sit: 
No  bird,  but  did  her  shrill  notes  sweetly  sing; 
No  song  but  did  containe  a  lovely  dit. 
Trees,  braunches,  birds,  and  songs,  were  framed  fit 
For  to  allure  fraile  mind  to  carelesse  ease.        p^l//  «- 
Carelesse  the  man  soone  woxe,  and  his  weake  wit 
Was  overcome  of  thing,  that  did  him  please : 
JBo  pleased,  did  his  wrathfull  purpose  faire  appease. 

14  Thus  when  shee  had  his  eyes  and  senses  fed 
With  false  delights,  and  fild  with  pleasures  vaine, 
Into  a  shadie  dale  she  soft  him  led, 
And  layd  him  downe  upon  a  grassie  plaine: 
And  her  sweet  selfe  without  dread  or  disdain 
She  set  beside,  laying  his  head  disarmd 
In  her  loose  lap,  it  softly  to  sustaine, 
Where  soone  he  slumbred,  fearing  not  be  harm'd, 

The  whiles  with  a  love  lay  she  thus  him  sweetly  charm  d : 

*  5]  Behold,  O  man,  that  toilesome  paines  doest  take, 
The  flowres,  the  fields,  and  all  that  pleasant  growes, 
How  they  themselves  doe  thine  ensample  make, 
Whiles  nothing  envious  natureAthem  forth  throwes 
Out  of  her  fruitfull  lap :  how,  no  man  knowes, 
They  spring,  they  bud,  they  blossome  fresh  and  faire, 
And  decke  the  world  with  their  rich  pompous  showes ; 
Yet  no  man  for  them  taketh  paines  or  care, 
Yet  no  man  to  them  can  his  carefull  paines  compare. 
F  a 


1 6  /The  lilly,  ladie  of  the  fiowring  field, 
vThe  Flowre-deluce,  her  lovely  paramoure, 
Bid  thee  to  them  thy  fruitlesse  labours  yield, 
And  soone  leave  off  this  toylsome  wearie  stoure  : 
Loe  loe,  how  brave  she  decks  her  bounteous  boure, 
With  silken  curtens  and  gold  coverlets, 

Therein  to  shrowd  her  sumptuous  Belamoure, 
Yet  nether  spinnes  nor  cardes,  ne  cares  nor  fretts, 
But  to  her  mother  Nature  all  her  care  she  lets. 

17  Why  then  dost  thou,  O  man,  that  of  them  all 
Art  lord,  and  eke  of  nature  soveraine, 
Wilfully  make  thyselfe  a  wretched  thrall, 

'And  waste  thy  joyous  houres  in  needelese  paine, 
^Seeking  for  daunger  and  adventures  vaine? 
~  What  bootes  it  all  to  have,  and  nothing  use? 
Who  shall  him  rew,  that  swimming  in  the  maine, 
Will  die  for  thirst,  and  water  doth  refuse? 
Refuse  such  fruitlesse  toile,  and  present  pleasures  chuse. 

1 8  By  this  she  had  him  lulled  fast  asleepe, 
That  of  no  wordly  thing  he  care  did  take: 
Then  she  with  liquors  strong  his  eyes  did  steepe, 
That  nothing  should  him  hastily  awake. 

So  she  him  left,  and  did  her  self  e  betake 
Unto  her  boat  againe,  with  which  she  cleft 
The  slouthfull  wave  of  that  great  griesly  lake: 
Soone  she  that  island  far  behind  her  lefte, 
And  now  is  come  to  that  same  place  where  first  she  wefte. 

19  By  this  time  was  the  worthy  Guyon  brought 
Unto  the  other  side  of  that  wide  strond 
Where  she  was  rowing,  and  for  passage  sought: 
Him  needed  not  long  call,  she  soone  to  bond 
Her  ferry  brought,  where  him  she  byding  fond 
With  his  sad  guide :    him  selfe  shee  tooke  aboord. 
But  his  black  palmer  suffred  still  to  stond, 

Ne  would  for  price  or  prayers  once  affoord 
To  ferry  that  old  man  over  the  perlous  foord. 

CANTO   VI.  69 

20  Guy  on  was  loath  to  leave  his  guide  behind, 
Yet  being  entred  might  not  backe  retyre ; 
For  the  flit  barke,  obaying  to  her  mind, 
Forth  launched  quickly  as  she  did  desire, 
Ne  gave  him  leave  to  bid  that  aged  sire 
Adieu,  but  nimbly  ran  her  wonted  course 
Through  the  dull  billowes  thicke  as  troubled  mire, 
Whom  neither  wind  out  pf  their  seat  could  forse, 

Nor  timely  tides  did  drive  out  of  their  sluggish  sourse. 

21  And  by  the  way,  as  was  her  wonted  guize, 
Her  mery  fitt  she  freshly  gan  to  reare, 
And  did  of  joy  and  jollity  devize 
Herselfe  to  cherish,  and  her  guest  to  cheare. 
The  knight  was  courteous,  and  did  not  forbeare 
Her  honest  merth  and  pleasaunce  to  partake : 
But  when  he  saw  her  toy,  and  gibe,  and  geare, 
And  passe  the  bonds  of  modest  merimake, 

Her  dalliaunce  he  despisd  and  follies  did  forsake. 

22  Yet  she  still  followed  her  former  style, 
And  said,  and  did  all  that  mote  him  delight, 
Till  they  arrived  in  that  pleasaunt  ile, 
Where  sleeping  late  she  lefte  her  other  knight. 
But,  whenas  Guyon  of  that  land  had  sight, 
He  wist  himselfe  amisse,  and  angry  said  ;v' 

Ah  dame,  perdie  ye  have  not  doen  me  right, 
Thus  to  mislead  me,  whiles  I  you  obaid : 
Mee  litle  needed  from  my  right  way  to  have  straid. 

23  Faire  sir  (quoth  she)  be  not  displeasd  at  all; 
Who  fares  on  sea  may  not  commaund  his  way, 
Ne  wind  and  weather  at  his  pleasure  call : 
The  sea  is  wide,  and  easie  for  to  stray ; 

The  wind  unstable,  and  doth  never  stay. 
But  here  a  while  ye  may  in  safety  rest, 
Till  season  serve  new  passage  to  assay ; 
Better  safe  port  then  be  in  seas  distrest. 
Therewith  she  laught,  and  did  her  earnest  end  in  jest. 


24  But  he  halfe  discontent,  mote  nathelesse 
Himselfe  appease,  and  issewd  forth  on  shore : 
The  joyes  whereof,  and  happie  fruitfulnesse, 

^uch  as  he  saw,  she  gan  him  lay  before, 
And  all  though  pleasaunt,  yet  she  made  much  more 
The  fields  did  laugh,  the  flowres  did  freshly  spring, 
The  trees  did  bud,  and  earely  blossomes  bore; 
And  all  the  quire  of  birds  did  sweetly  sing, 
And  told  that  gardins  pleasures  in  their  caroling. 

25  And  she  more  sweete,  than  any  bird  on  bough, 
Would  oftentimes  emongst  them  beare  a  part, 
And  strive  to  passe  (as  she  could  well  enough) 
Their  native  musicke  by  her  skilful  art: 

So  did  she  all,  that  might  his  constant  hart 
Withdraw  from  thought  of  warlike  enterprize, 
And  drowne  in  dissolute  delights  apart, 
Where  noyse  of  armes,  or  vew  of  martiall  guize, 
Might  not  revive  desire  of  knightly  exercize. 

26  But  he  was  wise,  and  warie  of  her  will, 
And  ever  hefd  his  hand  upon  his  hart ; 

Yet  would  not  seeme  so  rude,  and  thewed  ill, 
As  to  despise  so  courteous  seeming  part 
That  gentle  ladie  did  to  him  impart; 
But  fairly  tempring  fond  desire  subdewd, 
And  ever  her  desired  to  depart. 
She  list  not  heare,  but  her  disports  poursewd, 
And  ever  bad  him  stay  till  time  the  tide  renewd. 

27  And  now  by  this,  Gymochles  howre  was  spent, 
That  he  awoke  out  of  his  idle  dreme ; 

And  shaking  off  his  drowsie  dreriment, 
Gan  him  avize,  how  ill  did  him  beseme, 
In  slouthfull  sleepe  his  molten  hart  to  steme, 
And  quench  the  brond  of  his  conceived  ire. 
Tho  up  he  started,  stird  with  shame  extreme, 
Ne  staied  for  his  damsell  to  inquire, 
But  marched  to  the  strond,  their  passage  to  require. 

CANTO    VI.  71 

28  And  in  the  way  he  with  Sir  Guyon  met, 
Accompanyde  with  Phaedria  the  faire: 
Eftsoones  he  gan  to  rage,  and  inly  fret, 
Crying,  Let  be  that  ladie  debonaire, 

Thou  recreaunt  knight,  and  soone  thyselfe  prepaire 
To  battell,  if  thou  meane  her  love  to  gaine : 
Loe,  loe  alreadie  how  the  fowles  in  aire 
Doe  flocke,  awaiting  shortly  to  obtaine 
Thy  carcasse  for  f  their  pray,  the  guerdon  of  thy  paine. 

29  And  there  withall  he  fiersly  at  him  flew, 
And  with  importune  outrage  him  assay  Id ; 

Who  soone  prepard  to  field,  his  sword  forth  drew, 
And  him  with  equall  value  cbuntervayld : 
Their  migh'.ie  strokes  their  haberjeons  dismayld, 
And  naked  made  each  others  manly  spalles; 
The  mortall  steele  despiteously  entayld 
Deepe  in  their  flesh,  quite  through  the  yron  walles, 
That  a  large  purple  streme  adowne  their  giambeux  falles. 

30  Cymochles,  that  had  never  mett  before 
So  puissant  foe,  with  envious  despight 
His  prowd  presumed  force  increased  more, 
Disdeigning  to  bee  held  so  long  in  fight. 
Sir  Guyon  grudging  not  so  much  his  might 
As  those  unknightly  raylings  which  he  spoke, 
With  wrathfull  fire  his  courage  kindled  bright, 
Thereof  devising  sho;tly  to  be  wroke, 

And  doubling  all  his  powres,  redoubled  every  stroke. 

31  Both  of  them  high  attonce  their  hands  enhaunst, 
And  both  attonce  their  huge  blowes  down  did  sway: 
Cymochles  sword  oh  Guyons  shield  yglaunst, 

And  thereof  nigh  one  quarter  sheard  away : 
But  Guyons  angry  blade  so  fierce  did  play 
Or  th'  others  helmet,  which  as  Titan  shone, 
That  quite  it  clove  his  plumed  crest  in  tway, 
And  bared  all  his  head  unto  the  bone ; 
Wherewith  astonisht,  still  he  stood,  as  senselesse  stone. 


32  Still  as  he  stood,  fayre  Phaedria,  that  beheld 
That  deadly  daunger,  soone  atweene  them  ran ; 
And  at  their  feet  herselfe  most  humbly  feld, 
Crying 'with  pitteous  voice,  and  count'nance  wan. 
Ah  well  away,  most  noble  lords,  how  can 

Your  cruell  eyes  endure  so  pitteous  sight, 
To  shed  your  lives  on  ground?     Wo  worth  the  man, 
That  first  did  teach  the  cursed  steele  to  bight 
In  his  owne  flesh,  and  make  way  to  the  living  spright. 

33  If  ever  love  of  lady  did  empierce 

Your  yron  brestes,  or  pittie  could  find  place, 
Withhold  your  bloudie  handes  from  battell  fierce; 
And,  sith  for  me  ye  fight,  to  me  this  grace 
Both  yeeld,  to  stay  your  deadly  strife  a  space. 
They  stayd  a  while :,  and  forth  she  gan  proceed : 
Most  wretched  woman  and  of  wicked  race, 
That  am  the  authour  of  this  hainous  deed,  [breed. 

And  cause  of  death  betweene  two  doughtie  knights  do 

34  But  if  for  me  ye  fight,  or  me  will  serve, 
Not  this  rude  kind  of  battell,  nor  these  armes 
Are  meet,  the  which  doe  men  in  bale  to  sterve, 

vt^fc  -^ 

And  dolefull  sorrow  heape  with  deadly  harmes: 
Such  cruell  game  my  scarmoges  disarmes. 
Another  warre,  and  other  weapons,  I 
Doe  love,  where  love  does  give  his  sweete  alarmes 
Without  bloudshed,  and  where  the  enemy 
Does  yeeld  unto  his  foe  a  pleasant  victory. 

35  Debatefull  strife  and  cruell  enmitie 

The  famous  name  of  knighthood  fowly  shend; 
But  lovely  peace,  and  gentle  amitie, 
And  in  amours  the  passing  houres  to  spend, 
The  mightie   martiall  hands  doe  most  commend ; 
Of  love  they  ever  greater  glory  bore 
Then  of  their  armes:  Mars  is  Gupidoes  frend, 
And  is-  for  Venus  loves  renowmed  more 
Then  all  his  wars  and  spoiles,  the  which  he  did  of  yore. 

CANTO   VI.  73 

36  Therewith  she  sweetly  smyld.     They  though  full  bent 
To  prove  extremities  of  bloudie  fight, 

Yet  at  her  speach  their  rages  gan  relent, 
And  calme  the  sea  of  their  tempestuous  spight; 
Such  powre  have  pleasing  wordes:  such  is  the  might 
Of  courteous  clemency  in  gentle  hart. 
Now  after  all  was  ceast,  the  Faery  knight 
Besought  that  damzell  suffer  him  depart, 
And  yield  him  readie  passage  to  that  other  part. 

37  She  no  lesse  glad  then  he  desirous  was 
Of  his  departure  thence :  for  of  her  joy 
And  vaine  delight  she  saw  he  light  did  pas, 
A  foe  of  folly  and  immodest  toy, 

Still  solemne  sad,  or  still  disdainfull  coy, 
Delighting  all  in  armes  and  cruell  warre, 
That  her  sweete  peace  and  pleasures  did  annoy, 
Troubled  with  terrour  and  unquiet  Jarre, 
That  she  well  pleased  was  thence  to  amove  him  farre, 

38  Tho  him  she  brought  abord,  and  her  swift  bote 
Forthwith  directed  to  that  further  strand; 

The  which  on  the  dull  waves  did  lightly  flote, 
And  soone  arrived  on  the  shallow  sand, 
Where  gladsome  Guyon  salied  forth  to  land, 
And  to  that  damzell  thankes  gave  for  reward. 
Upon  that  shore  he  spied  Atin  stand, 
There  by  his  maister  left,  when  late  he  far'd 
In  Phaedrias  flitt  barke  over  that  perlous  shard. 

39  Well  could  he  him  remember,  sith  of  late 
He  with  Pyrochles  sharp  debatement  made: 
Streight  gan  he  him  revile,  and  bitter  rate, 

As  shepheardes  curre,  that  in  darke  evenings  shade 
Hath  tracted  forth  some  salvage  beastes  trade: 
Vile  miscreant,  (said  he)  whither  dost  thou  flie 
The  shame  and  death,  which  will  thee  soon  invade? 
What  coward  hand  shall  doe  thee  next  to  die, 
That  art  thus  fouly  fled  from  famous  enemie  ? 


40  With  that  he  stiffely  shooke  his  steelhead  dart: 
But  sober  Guyon,  hearing  him  so  raile, 
Though  somewhat  moved  in  his  mightie  hart, 
Yet  with  strong  reason  maistred  passion  fraile, 
And  passed  fairely  forth.     He  turning  taile, 
Backe  to  the  strond  retyrd,  and  there  still  stayd, 
Awaiting  passage,  which  him  late  did  faile; 

The  whiles  Cymochles  with  that  wanton  mayd 
The  hastie  heat  of  his  avowd  revenge  delayd. 

41  Whylest  there  the  varlet  stood,  he  saw  from  farre 
An  armed  knight,  that  towards  him  fast  ran; 

He  ran  on  foot,  as  if  in  lucklesse  warre 
His  forlorne  steed  from  him  the  victour  wan; 
He  seemed  breathlesse,  hartlesse,  faint,  and  wan, 
And  all  his  armour  sprinckled  was  with  bloud, 
And  soyld  with  durtie  gore,  that  no  man  can 
Discerne  the  hew  thereof.     He  never  stood, 
But  bent  his  hastie  course  towardes  the  idle  flood. 

42  The  varlet  saw,  when  to  the  flood  he  came 
How  without  stop  or  stay  he  fiercely  lept, 
And  deepe  himselfe  beduked  in  the  same, 
That  in  the  lake  his  loftie  crest  was  steept, 
Ne  of  his  safetie  seemed  care  he  kept, 

But  with  his  raging  armes  he  rudely  flasht 
The  waves  about,  and  all  his  armour  swept, 
That  all  the  blood  and  filth  away  was  washt; 
Yet  still  he  bet  the  water,  and  the  billowes  dasht. 

43  Atin  drew  nigh  to  weet  what  it  mote  bee ; 
For  much  he  wondred  at  that  uncouth  sight: 
Whom  should  he,  but  his  own  deare  lord,  there  see, 
His  owne  deare  lord  Pyrochles,  in  sad  plight, 
Readie  to  drowne  himselfe  for  fell  despight: 
Harrow  now  out,  and  well  away,  he  cryde, 

What  dismall  day  hath  lent  this  cursed  light, 
To  see  my  lord  so  deadly  damnify de ; 
Pyrochles,  5O  Pyrochles,  what  is  thee  betyde? 

CANTO    VI.  75 

44  I  burne,  I  burne,  I  burne,  then  loud  he  cryde, 
O  how  I  burne  with  implacable  fire, 

Yet  nought  can  quench  mine  inly  flaming  syde, 
Nor  sea  of  licour  cold,  nor  lake  of  mire ; 
Nothing  but  death  can  doe  me  to  respire. 
Ah  be  it,  (said  he)  from  Pyrochles  farre 
After  pursewing  death  once  to  require, 
Or  think,  that  ought  those  puissant  hands  may  marre: 
Death  is  for  wretches  borne  under  unhappie  starre 

45  Perdie,  then  is  it  fit  for  me,  (said  he) 

That  am,  I  weene,  most  wretched  man  alive; 
Burning  in  flames,  yet  no  flames  can  I  see, 
And,  dying  daily,  daily  yet  revive : 
O  Atin,  helpe  to  me  last  death  to  give. 
The  varlet  at  his  plaint  was  grievd  so  sore, 
That  his  deepe  wounded  hart  in  two  did  rive, 
And  his  owne  health  remembring  now  no  more. 
Did  follow  that  ensample,  which  he  blain'd  afore. 

46  Into  the  lake  he  lept,  his  lord  to  ayd, 

(So  love  the  dread  of  daunger  doth  despise) 
And  of  him  catching  hold  him  strongly  stayd 
From  drowning.     But  more  happie  he,  then  wise, 
Of  that  seas  nature  did  him  not  avise. 
The  waves  thereof  so  slow  and  sluggish  were, 
Engrost  with  mud,  which  did  them  foule  agrise,    . 
That  every  weightie  thing  they  did  upbeare, 
Ne  ought  mote  ever  sinke  downe  to  the  bottome  there. 

47  Whiles  thus  they  strugled  in  that  idle  wave, 
And  strove  in  vaine,  the  one  himselfe  to  drowne, 
The  other  both  from  drowning  for  to  save, 

Lo,  to  that  shore  one  in  an  auncient  gowne, 
Whose  hoarie  locks  great  gravitie  did  crowne, 
Holding  in  hand  a  goodly  arming  sword, 
By  fortune  came,  led  with  the  troublous  sowne: 
Where  drenched  deepe  he  found  in  that  dull  ford 
The  carefull  servaunt  striving  with  his  raging  lord. 


48  Him  Atin  spying  knew  right  well  of  yore, 
And  loudly  cald ;  Helpe  helpe,  O  Archimage, 
To  save  my  lord  in  wretched  plight  forlore ; 
Helpe  with  thy  hand,  or  with  thy  counsell  sage: 
Weake  handes,  but  counsell  is  most  strong  in  age. 
Him  when  the  old  man  saw,  he  wondred  sore 
To  see  Pyrochles  there  so  rudely  rage: 

Yet  sithens  helpe,  he  saw,  he  needed  more 
Then  pittie,  he  in  hast  approched  to  the  shore. 

49  And  cald,  Pyrochles,  what  is  this  I  see? 
What  hellish  furie  hath  at  earst  thee  hent? 
Furious  ever  I  thee  knew  to  bee, 

Yet  never  in  this  straunge  astonishment. 
These  flames,  these  flames  (he  cryde)  doe  me  torment. 
What  flames  (quoth  he)  when  I  thee  present  see 
In  daunger  rather  to  be  drent,  then  brent  ? 
Harrow,  the  flames,  which  me  consume  (said  he) 
Ne  can  be  quencht,  within  my  secret  bowels  be. 

50  That  cursed  man,  that  cruell  feend  of  hell, 
Furor,  oh  Furor  hath  me  thus  bedight: 
His  deadly  wounds  within  my  liver  swell, 

And  his  whot  fire  burnes  in  mine  entrails  bright, 
Kindled  through  his  infernall  brond  of  spight, 
Sith  late  with  him  I  batteil  vaine  would  boste ; 
That  now  I  weene  Joves  dreaded  thunder  light 
Does  scorch  not  halfe  so  sore,  nor  damned  ghoste 
In  flaming  Phlegeton  does  not  so  felly  roste. 

51  Which  when  as  Archimago  heard,  his  griefe 
He  knew  right  well,  and  him  attonce  disarmd : 
Then  searcht  his  secret  wounds,  and  made  a  priefe 
Of  every  place,  that  was  with  brusing  harmd, 

Or  with  the  hidden  fire  too  inly  warmd. 
Which  done,  he  balmes  and  herbes  thereto  applyde, 
And  evermore  with  mighty  spels  them  charmd, 
That  in  short  space  he  has  them  qualifyde, 
And  him  restor'd  to  health,  that  would  have  algates  dyde. 

CANTO   VII.  77 


Guyon  findes  Mammon  in  a  delve. 

Sunning  his  threasure  bore; 
Is  by  him  tempted,  and  led  downe 

To  see  bis  secret  store. 

1  As  pilot  well  expert  in  perilous  wave, 

That  to  a  stedfast  starre  his  course  hath  bent, 
When  foggy  mistes,  or  cloudy  tempests  have 
The  faithfull  light  of  that  faire  lampe  yblent, 
And  cover'd  heaven  with  hideous  dreriment, 
Upon  his  card  and  compas  firmes  his  eye, 
The  maisters  of  his  long  experiment, 
And  to  them  does  the  steddy  helme  apply, 
Bidding  his  winged  vessell  fairely  forward  fly: 

2  So  Guyon  having  lost  his  trusty  guide, 
Late  left  beyond  that  Ydle  Lake,  proceedes 
Yet  on  his  way,  of  none  accompanide ; 

And  evermore  himselfe  with  comfort  feedes     "*~| 
Of  his  owne  vertues  and  prays e- worthy  deedesj 
So,  long  he  yode,  yet  no  adventure  found, 
Which  Fame  of  her  shrill  trompet  worthy  reedes: 
For  still  he  traveild  through  wide  wastfull  ground, 
That  nought  but  desert  wildernesse  shew'd  all  around. 

3  At  last  he  came  unto  a  gloomy  glade, 

Cover'd  with  boughes  and  shrubs  from  heavens  light; 
Whereas  he  sitting  found  in  secret  shade 
An  uncouth,  salvage,  and  uncivile  wight, 
Of  griesly  hew  and  fowle  illfavour'd  sight; 
His  face  with  smoke  was  tand,  and  eyes  were  bleard, 
His  head  and  beard  with  sout  were  ill  bedight, 
His  cole-blacke  hands  did  seeme  to  have  ben  seard 
In  smithes  fire-spitting  forge,  and  nayles  like  cjawes  appeard. 



4  His  yron  coate,  all  overgrownc  wifehxrust, 
Was  underneath  enveloped  with  gold) 

Whose  glistring  glosse,  darkned  wim  filthy  dust, 
Well  yet  appeared  to  have  beene  of  old 
A  worke  of  rich  entayle  and  curious  mould, 
Woven  with  antickes  and  wild  imagery : 
And  in  his  lap  a  masse  of  coyne  he  told, 
And  turned  upsidowne,  to  feede  hij  eye 
And  covetous  desire  with  his  huge  threasury. 

5  And  round  about  him  lay  on  every  side 

Great  heapes  of  gold,  that  never  could  be  spent; 
Of  which  some  were  rude  owre,  not  purifide 
Of  Mulcibers  devouring  element; 
Some  others  were  new  driven,  and  distent 
Into  great  ingoes  and  to  wedges  square ; 
Some  in  round  plates  withouten  moniment : 
But  most  were  stampt,  and  in  their  metal  bare 
The  antique  shapes  of  kings  and  kesars  straunge  and  rare. 

6  Soone  as  he  Guyon  saw,  in  great  affright 
And  haste  he  rose,  for  to  remove  aside 

Those  pretious  hils  from  straungers  envious  sight, 
And  downe  them  poured  through  an  hole  full  wide 
Into  the  hollow  earth,  them  there  to  hide. 
But  Guyon,  lightly  to  him  leaping,  stayd 
His  hand,  that  trembled  as  one  terrifyde; 
And  though  himselfe  were  at  the  sight  dismayd, 
Yet  him  perforce  restraynd,  and  to  him  doubtfull  sayd; 

7  What  art  thou,  man,  (if  man  at  all  thou  art,) 
That  here  in  desert  hast  thine  habitaunce, 

And  these  rich  heapes  of  wealth  doest  hide  apart 
From  the  worldes  eye,  and  from  h£r_rigjitjisaunce  ? 
Thereat  with  staring  eyes  fixed  askaunce, 
In  great  disdaine,  he  answerd ;  Hardy  Elfe, 
That  darest  view  my  direful  countenaunce, 
I  read  thee  rash,  and  heedlesse  of  thysclfe, 
To  trouble  my  still  seate,  and  heapes  of  pretious  pelfe. 

CANTO    VII.  79 

8  God  of  the  world  and  worldlings  I  me  call, 
Great  Mammon,  greatest  god  below  the  skye, 
That  of  my  plenty  poure  out  unto  all, 

And  unto  none  my  graces  do  envye: 
Riches,  renowme,  and  principality, 
Honour,  estate,  and  all  this  worldes  good, 
For  which  men  swinck  and  sweat  incessantly, 
Fro  me  do  flow  into  an  ample  flood, 
And  in  the  hollow  earth  have  their  eternall  brood. 

9  Wherefore  if  me  thou  deigne  to  serve  and  sew, 
At  thy  commaund  lo  all  these  mountaines  bee : 
Or  if  to  thy  great  mind,  or  greedy  vew, 

All  these  may  not  suffise,  there  shall  to  thee 
Ten  times  so  much  be  nombred  francke  and  free. 
Mammon  (said  he)  thy  godheades  vaunt  is  vaine, 
And  idle  offers  of  thy  golden  fee ; 
To  them  that  covet  such  eye-glutting  gaine 
Proffer  thy  giftes,  and  fitter  servaunts  entertaine. 

10  Me  ill  besits,  that  in  der-doing  armes 

And  honours  suit  my  vowed  dayes  do  spend, 
Unto  thy  bounteous  baytes  and  pleasing  charmes, 
With  which  weake  men  thou  witchest,  to  attend; 
Regard  of  <worldly_jimcke.  doth  fowly  blend 
And  low  abase  the  high  heroicke  spright, 
That  joyes  for  crownes  and  kingdomes  to  contend: 
Faire  shields,  gay  steedes,  bright  armes,  be  my  delight ; 
Those  be  the  riches  fit  for  an  advent'rous  knight. 

11  Vaine  glorious  Elfe  (saide  he)  doest  not  thou  weet, 
That  money  can  thy  wantes  at  will  supply  ? 

Shields,  steeds,  and  armes,  and  all  things  for  thee  meet, 
It  can  purvay  in  twinckling  of  an  eye; 
And  crownes  and  kingdomes  to  thee  multiply. 
Do  not  I  kings  create,  and  throw  the  crowne 
Sometimes  to  him,  that  low  in  dust  doth  ly  ? 
And  him  that  raighd  into  his  rowme  thrust  downe. 
And  whom  I  lust,  do  heape  with  glory  and  renowne? 


12  All  otherwise  (saide  he)  I  riches  read, 
And  deeme  them  roote  of  all  disquietnesse ; 

First  got  with  guile,  and  then  preserv'd  with  dread, 
And  after  spent  with  pride  and  lavishnesse, 
Leaving  behind  them  griefe  and  heavinesse: 
Infinite  mischiefes  of  them  doe  arize; 
Strife,  and  debate,  bloodshed,  and  bitternesse, 
Outrageous  wrong,  and  hellish  covetize, 
That  noble  heart  as  great  dishonour  doth  despize. 

13  Ne  thine  be  kingdomes,  ne  the  scepters  thine; 
But  realmes  and  rulers  thou  doest  both  confound, 
And  loyall  truth  to  treason  doest  incline: 
Witnesse  the  guiltlesse  bloud  pourd  oft  on  ground, 
The  crowned  often  slaine,  the  slayer  cround, 

The  sacred  diademe  in  peeces  rent, 
And  purple  robe  gored  with  many  a  wound; 
Castles  surprizd,  great  cities  sackt  and  brent: 
So  mak'st  thou  kings,  and  gaynest  wrongfull  government 

14  .Long  were  to  tell  the  troublous  stormes,  that  tosse 
The  private  state,  and  make  the  life  unsweet: 
Who  swelling  sayles  in  Caspian  sea  doth  crosse, 
And  in  frayle  wood  on  Adrian  gulf  doth  fleet, 
Doth  not,  I  weene,  so  many  evils  meet. 

Then  Mammon  wexing  wroth,  And  why  then,  sayd, 
Are  mortall  men  so  fond  and  un  discreet, 
So  evill  thing  to  seeke  unto  their  ayd ; 
And  having  not  complaine,  and  having  it  upbrayd? 

15  Indeede  (quoth  he)  through  fowle  |  jntemperannce. 
Frayle  men  are  oft  captiv'd  to  covetise : 

But  would  they  thinke,  with  how  small  allowaunce 
Untroubled  nature  doth  herselfe  suffise, 
Such  superfluities  they  would  despise, 
Which  with  sad  cares  empeach  our  native  joyes. 
At  the  well-head  the  purest  streames  arise ; 
But  mucky  filth  his  braunching  armes  annoyes, 
And  with  uncomely  weedes  the  gentle  wave  accloyes. 

CANTO   VII.  8l 

16  The  antique  world,  in  his  first  flowring  youth, 
Found  no  defect  in  his  Creatours  grace ; 

But  with  glad  thankes,  and  unreproved  truth, 
The  giftes  of  soveraigne  bounty  did  embrace : 
Like  angels  life  was  then  mens  happy  cace; 
But  later  ages  pride,  like  corn-fed  steed, 
Abusd  her  plenty,  and  fat-swolne  encreace 
To  all  licentious  lust,  and  gan  exceed 
The  measure  of  her  meane,  and  natural^  first  need. 

17  Then  gan  a  cursed  hand  the  quiet  wombe 

Of  his  great  grandmother  with  steele  to  wound, 
And  the  hid  treasures  in  her  sacred  tombe 
With  sacriledge  to  dig.     Therein  he  found 
Fountaines  of  gold  and  silver  to  abound, 
Of  which  the  matter  of  his  huge  desire 
And  pompous  pride  eftsoones  he  did  compound; 
Then  Avarice  gan  through  his  veines  inspire 
His  greedy  flames,  and  kindledlife-devouring  firc^. 

1 8  Sonne  (said  he  then)  let  be  thy  bitter  scorne, 
And  leave  the  rudenesse  of  that  antique  age 
To  them,  that  liv'd  therein  in  state  forlorne: 
Thou  that  doest  live  in  later  times  must  wage 
Thy  workes  for  wealth,  and  life  for  gold  engage. 
If  then  thee  list  my  offred  grace  to~~use^ 

Take  what  thou  please  of  all  this  surplusage; 
If  thee  list  not,  leave  have  thou  to  refuse: 
But  thing  refused  do  not  afterward  accuse. 

19  Me  list  not  (said  the  Elfin  knight)  receave 
Thing  ofFred,  till  I  know  it  well  be  got; 

Ne  wote  I,  but  thou  didst  these  goods  bereave 
From  rightfull  owner  by  unrighteous  lot, 
Or  that  bloud  guiltinesse  or  guile  them  blot. 
Perdy  (quoth  he)  yet  never  eye  did  vew, 
Ne  toung  did  tell,  ne  hand  these  handled  not; 

But  safe  I  have  them  kept  in  secrgt-mew  ] 


From  hevens  sight,  and  powre  of  alfwhich  them  pursew. 


20  What  secret  place  (quoth  he)  can  safely  hold 
So  huge  a  masse,  and  hide  from  heavens  eye? 

Or  where  hast  thou  thy  wonne,  that  so  much  gold 
Thou  canst  preserve  from  wrong  and  robbery? 
Come  thou  (quoth  he)  and  see.     So  by  and  by 
Through  that  thicke  covert  he  him  led,  and  found 
A  darksome  way,  which  no  man  could  descry, 
That  deepe  descended  through  the  hollow  ground, 
And  was  with  dread  and  horrour  compassed^  around. 

21  At  length  they  came  into  a  larger  space, 
That  stretcht  itselfe  into  an  ample  plaine, 
Through  which  a  beaten  broad  high  way  did  trace, 
That  streight  did  lead  to  Plutoes  griesly  raine: 

By  that  wayes  side  there  sate  infernall  Payne, 
And  fast  beside  him  sate  tumultuous  Strife: 
The  one  in  hand  an  yron  whip  did  straine, 
The  other  brandished  a  bloudy  knife, 
And  both  did  gnash  their  teeth,  and  both  did  threaten  life. 


22  On  thother  side  in  one  consort  there  sate 

Cruell  Revenge,  and  rancorous  Despight, 
Disloyall  Treason,  and  hart-burning  Hate ; 
But  gnawing  Gealosie  out  of  their  sight 
Sitting  alone,  his  bitter  lips  did  bight; 
And  trembling  Feare  still  to  and  fro  did  fly, 
And  found  no  place  where  safe  he  shroud  him  might; 
Lamenting  Sorrow  did  in  darknes  lye; 
And  Shame  his  ugly  face  did  hide  from  living  eye. 

23  And  over  them  sad  Horror  with  grim  hew 
Did  alwayes  sore,  beating  his  yron  wings; 
And  after  him  owles  and  night-ravens  flew, 
The  hatefull  messengers  of  heavy  things, 
Of  death  and  dolor  telling  sad  tidings ; 
Whiles  sad  Celeno,  sitting  on  a  clift, 

A  song  of  bale  and  bitter  sorrow  sings, 
That  hart  of  flint  asunder  could  have  rifte; 
Which  having  ended  after  him  she  flyeth  swift 

CANTO    VII.  83 

24  All  these  before  the  gates  of  Pluto  lay, 

By  whom  they  passing  spake  unto  them  nought. 
But  th'  Elfin  knight  with  wonder  all  the  way 
Did  feed  his  eyes,  and  fild  his  inner  thought. 
At  last  him  to  a  litle  dore  he  brought, 
That  to  the  gate  of  hell7"which  gaped  wide, 
Was  next  adjoyning,  ne  them  parted  ought: 
Betwixt  them  both  was  but  a  little  stride, 
That  did  the  house  of  Richesse  from  hell-mouth  divide. 

25  Before  the  dore  sat  selfe-consuming  Care, 
Day  and  night  keeping  wary  watch  and  ward, 
For  feare  lest  Force  or  Fraud  should  unaware 
Break  in,  and  spoile  the  treasure  there  in  gard : 
Ne  would  he  suffer  Sleepe  once  thither-ward 
Approch,  albe  his  drowsy  den  were  next; 

For  next  to  death  is  Sleepe  to  be  compard; 
Therefore  his  house  is  unto  his  annext; 
Here  Sleep,  there  Richesse,  and  Hel-gate  them  both  betwex' . 

26  So  soon  as  Mammon  there  arriv'd,  the  dore 
To  him  did  open,  and  affoorded  way: 
Him  followed  eke  Sir  Guyon  evermore, 

Ne  darknesse  him,  ne  daunger  might  dismay. 
Soone  as  he  entred  was,  the  dore  streightway 
Did  shut,  and  from  behind  it  forth  there  le*pt 
An  ugly  feend,  more  fowle  then  dismall  day, 
The  which  with  monstrous  stalke  behind  him  stept, 
And  ever  as  he  went  dew  watch  upon  him  kept. 

on^that  hardy  guest, 


Or  lips  hela^3onngtn^TifetTmt 
Or  ever  sleepe  his  eye-strings  did  untye, 
Should  be  his  pray:    and  therefore  still  on  hye 
He  over  him  did  hold  his  cruell  clawes, 
Threatning  with  greedy  gripe  to  doe  him  dye, 
And  rend  in  peeces  with  his  ravenous  pawes, 
If  ever  he  transgrest  the  fatall  Stygian  lawes. 

G    2 


28  That  houses  forme  within  was  rude  and  strong, 
Like  an  huge  cave,  hewne  out  of  rocky  clifte, 
From  whose  rough  vaut  the  ragged  breaches  hong 
Embost  with  massy  gold  of  glorious  gift, 

And  with  rich  metal  loaded  every  rifte, 
That  heavy  ruine  they  did  seeme  to  threat: 
And  over  them  Arachne  high  did  lifte 
Her  cunning  web,  and  spred  her  subtile  nett, 
Enwrapped  in  fowle  smoke  and  clouds  more  black  then  jet. 

29  Both  roofe,  and  floore,  and  wals,  were  all  of  gold, 
But  overgrowne  with  dust  and  old  decay, 

And  hid  in  darknesse,  that  none  could  behold 
The  hew  thereof:  for  vew  of  cheareful  day 
Did  never  in  that  house  itselfe  display, 
But  a  faint  shadow  of  uncertain  light ; 
Such  as  a  lamp,  whose  life  does  fade  away ; 
Or  as  the  moone,  cloathed  with  clowdy  night, 
Does  shew  to  him,  that  walkes  in  feare  and  sad  affright. 

30  In  all  that  rowme  was  nothing  to  be  scene 
But  huge  great  yron  chests,  and  coffers  strong, 

All  bard  with  double  bends,  that  none  could  weene 
Them  to  efforce  by  violence  or  wrong; 
On  every  side  they  placed  were  along. 
But  all  the  ground  with  sculs  was  scattered 
And  dead  mens  bones,  which  round  about  were  flong; 
Whose  lives,  it  seemed,  whilome  there  were  shed, 
And  their  vile  carcases  now  left  unburied. 

31  Tliey  forward  passe;   ne  Guyon  yet  spoke  word, 
. — ""Till  that  they  came  unto  an  yron  dore, 

Which  to  them  opened  of  his  owne  accord, 
And  shewd  of  richesse  such  exceeding  store, 
As  eye  of  man  did  never  see  before, 
Ne  ever  could  within  one  place  be  found, 
Though  all  the  wealth,  which  is,  or  was  of  yore, 
Could  gatherd  be  through  all  the  world  around, 
And  that  above  were  added  to  that  under  ground. 

CANTO   VII.  85 

32  The  charge  thereof  unto  a  covetous  spright 
Commaunded  was,  who  thereby  did  attend, 
And  warily  awaited  day  and  night, 

From  other  covetous  feends  it  to  defend, 
Who  it  to  rob  and  ransacke  did  intend. 
Then  Mammon,  turning  to  that  warriour,  said; 
Loe  here  the  worldes  blis,  loe  here  the  end, 
To  which  al  men  do  ayme,  rich  to  be  made: 
Such  grace  now  to  be  happy  is  before  thee  laid. 

33  Gertes  (sayd  he)  I  n'ill  thine  offred  grace, 
Ne  to  be  made  so  happy  doe  intend: 
Another  blis  before  mine  eyes  I  place, 
Another  happines,  another  end. 

To  them,  that  list,  these  base  regardes  I  lend: 
But  I  in  armes,  and  in  atchievements  brave, 
Do  rather  choose  my  flitting  houres  to  spend, 
And  to  be  lord  of  those,  that  riches  have, 
Then  them  to  have  my  selfe,  and  be  their  servile  sclave, 

34  Thereat  the  feend  his  gnashing  teeth  did  grate, 
And  griev'd,  so  long  to  lacke  his  greedy  pray; 
For  well  he  weened,  that  so  glorious  bayte 
Would  tempt  his  guest  to  take,  thereof  assay : 
Had  he  so  doen,  he  had  him  snatrht  away, 
Morelight  than  culver  in  the  faulcons  fist: 
Eternall  God  thee  save  from  such  decay. 

But  whenas  Mammon  saw  his  purpose  mist, 
Him  to  entrap  un wares  another  way  he  wist. 

3OThence  forward  he  him  led,  and  shortly  brought 
-  -  Unto  another  rowme,  whose  dore  forthright 
To  him  did  open,  as  it  had  beene  taught: 
Therein  an  hundred  raunges  weren  pight, 
And  hundred  fornaggs  all  burning  bright : 
By  every  fornace  many  feends  did  bide, 
Deformed  creatures,  horrjble  in  sight; 
And  every  feend  his  busie\pames  applide 
To  melt  the  golden  metall,  ready  to  be  tride 


36  One  with  great  bellowes  gathered  filling  aire,  \J 
And  with  forst  wind  the  fewell  did  inflame ;  y: 
Another^diid  the  dying  bronds  repaire-y 

With  yron  toungs,  and  sprinckled  oft  the  same-* 
Wjth  liquid  waves,  fiers  Vulcans  rage  to  tame,  Y- 
Who  maystring  them,  renewd  his  former  heat :  o 
Sflme^scumd  the  drosse,  that  from  the  metall  came ;  ^ 
Some  .sjjrd  the  molten  owre  with  ladles  great :  o 
And  every  one  did  swincke,  and  every  one  did  sweat.  *» 

37  But,  when  an  earthly  wight  they  present  saw, 
Glistring  in  armes  and  battailous  aray, 

From  their  whot  worke  they  did  themselves  withdraw 
To  wonder  at  the  sight;  for  till  that  day, 
They  never  creature  saw,  that  came  that  way : 
Their  staring  £y^c  cparckl!"g  •°t71'tTl  fenrntif  fiw» 
And  ugly  shapes  did  nigh  the  man  dismay, 
That,  were  it  not  for  shame,  he  would  retire; 
Till  that  him  thus  bespake  their  soveraigne  lord  and  sire: 

38  Behold,  thou  Faeries  sonne,  with  mortall  eye. 
That  living  eye  before  did  never  jsee.: 

The  tEmg,  that  thou  didst  crave  so  earnestly, 
To  weet  whence  all  the  wealth  late  shewd  by  mee 
Proceeded,  lo  now  is  reveald  to  thee. 
Here  is  the  fo\ifl£aine  of  the  worldes  good : 
Now  therefore,  if  thou  wilt  enriched  bee, 
Avise  thee  well,  and  chaunge  thy  wilfull  mood, 
Least  thou  perhaps  hereafter  wish,  and  be  withstood. 

39  Suffise  it  then,  thou  money  god  (quoth  he) 
That  all  thine  i^le.  offers  I  refuse. 

All  that  I  need  I  have;   what  needeth  mee 
To  covet  more  then  I  have   cause  to  use? 
With  such  vaine  shewes  thy  worldlinges  vile  abuse: 
But  give  me  leave  to  follow  mine  emprise. 
Mammon  was  much  displeasd,  yet  no'te  he  chuse 
But  beare  the  rigour  of  his  bold  megprkp; 
And  thence  him  forward  ledd,  him  further  to  entise. 

CANTO   VII.  87 

40  He  brought  him  through  a  darksom  narrow  strait, 
To  a  broad  gate  allJmilt  of  beaten  gold : 

The  gate  was  open,  but  therein  did  wait 
A  sturdy  villein,  striding  stiffe  and  bold, 
As  if  the  highest  God  defie  he  would: 
In  his  right  hand  an  yron  club  he  held, 
But  he  himselfe  was  all  of  golden  mould, 
Yet  had  both  life  and  sence,  and  well  could  weld 
That  cursed  weapon,  when  his  cruell  foes  he  queld. 

41  Disdajne  he  called  was,  and  did  disdaine 
To  be  so  cald,  and  who  so  did  him  call : 
Sterne  was  his  looke,  and  full  of  stomacke  vaine; 
His  portaunce  terrible,  and  stature  tall, 

Far  passing  th'  hight  of  men  terrestriall ; 
Like  an  huge  gyant  of  the  Titans  race ; 
That  made  him  scorne  all  creatures  great  and  small, 
And  with  his  pride  all  others  powre  deface : 
More  fitt  emonst  black  fiendes  then  men  to  have  his  place. 

42  Soone  as  those  glitterand  armes  he  did  espye, 
That  with  their  brightnesse  made  that  darknes  light, 
His  harmefull  club  he  gan  to  hurtle  hye, 

And  threaten  batteill  to  the  Faery  knight; 
Who  likewise  gan  himselfe  to  batteill  dight, 
Till  Mammon  did  his  hasty  hand  withhold, 
And  counseld  him  abstaine  from  perilous  fight: 
For  nothing  might  abash  the  villein  bold, 
Ne  mortall  steele  emperce  his  miscreated  mould. 

43  So  having  him  with  reason  pacifide, 

And  that  fiers  carle  commaunding  to  forbeare, 
He  brought  him  in.    The  rowme  was  large  ~aiid  wide, 
As  it  some  gyeld  or  solemne  temple  weare : 
Many  great  golden  pillours  did  upbeare 
The  massy  roofe,  and  riches  huge  sustayne ; 
And  every  pillour  decked  was  full  deare 
With  crownes,  and  diademes,  and  titles  vaine, 
Which  mortall  princes  wore  whiles  they  on  earth  did  rayne. 


44  A  route  of  people  there  assembled  were, 
Of  every  sort  and  nation  under  skye, 

Which  with  great  uprore  preaced  to  draw  nere 
To  th*  upper  part,  where  was  advaunced  hye 
A  stately  siege  of  soveraine  majestye ; 
And  thereon  satt  a  woman  gorgeous  gay, 
And  richly  clad  in  robes  of  royaltye, 
That  never  earthly  prince  in  such  aray 
His  glory  did  enhaunce,  and  pompous  pride  display. 

45  Her  face  right  wondrous  faire  did  seeme  to  bee,        \.t 
That  her  broad  beauties  beam  great  brightnes  threw 
Through  the  dim  shade,  that  all  men  might  it  see; 

I  Yet  was  not  that  same  her  owne  native  hew, 
But  wrpught  by  art  and  counterfeited  shew, 
Thereby  more  lovers  unto  her  to  call ; 
Nath'lesse  most  heavenly  faire  in  deed  and  vew 
She  by  creation  was,  till  she  did  fall ; 
Thenceforth  she  sought  for  helps,  to  cloke  her  crime  withalL 

46  There,  as  in  glistring  glory  she  did  sit, 
She  held  a  great  gold  chaine  ylincked  well, 
Whose  upper  end  to  hjghestjieaven  was  knit, 
And  loweiLpart  did  reach  to  lowest  hell ; 
And  all  that  preace  did  rownd  about  her  swell 
To  catchen  hold  of  that  long  chaine,  thereby 
To  climbe  aloft,  and  others  to  excell : 

That  was  Ambition,  rash  desire  to  sty, 
And  every  iinck  thereof  a  step  of  dignity. 

47  Some  thought  to  raise  themselves  to  high  degree 
By  riches  and  unrighteous  reward, 

Some  by  close  shouldring,  some  by  flatteree, 
Others  through  friendes,  others  for  base  regard ; 
And  all  by  wrong  wayes,  for  themselves  prepard. 
Those  that  were  up  themselves,  kept  others  low; 
Those  that  were  low  themselves,  held  others  hard, 
Ne  suffred  them  to  rise  or  greater  grow; 
But  every  one  did  strive  his  fellow  downe  to  throw. 

CANTO   VII.  89 

48  Which  whcnas  Guyon  saw,  he  gan  inquire, 
What  meant  that  preace  about  that  ladies  throne. 
And  what  she  was  that  did  so  high  aspire. 

Him  Mammon  answered;  That  goodly  one, 
Whom  all  that  folke  with  such  contention 
Do  flock  about,  my  deare  my  daughter  is: 
Honour  and  dignitie  from  her  alone 
Derived  are,  and  all  this  worldes  blis, 
For  which  ye  men  do  strive ;  few  get,  but  many  mis : 

49  And  faire  Philotime  she  rightly  hight, 

The  fairest  wtght""that  wonneth  under  skye, 
But  that  this  darksome  neather  world  her  light 
Doth  dim  with  horrour  and  deformitie, 
Worthie  of  heaven  and  hye  felicitie, 
From  whence  the  gods  have  her  for  envy  thrust: 
But  sith  thou  hast  found  favour  in  mine  eye, 
Thy  spouse  I  will  her  make,  if  that  thou  lust; 
That  she  may  thee  advance  for  workes  and  merites  just 

50  Gramercy  Mammon  (said  the  gentle  knight) 
For  so  great  grace  and  offred  high  estate ; 
But  I,  that  am  fraile  flesh  and  earthly  wight, 
Unworthy  match  for  such  immortall  mate 
Myselfe  well  wote,  and  mine  unequall  fate: 
And  were  I  not,  yet  is  my  trouth  yplight, 
And  love  avowd  to  other  lady  late, 

That  to  remove  the  same  I  have  no  might: 
To  chaunge  love  causelesse  is  reproch  to  warlike  knight. 

51  Mammon  emmoved  \yas  with  inward  wrath; 
Yet  forcing  it  to  faine,  him  forth  thence  led 
Through  griesly  shadowes  by  a  beaten  path, 
Into  a  gardin  goodly  garnished 

With  hearbs  and  fruits,  whose  kinds  mote  not  be  red: 
Not  such,  as  earth  out  of  her  fruitfull  wcomb 
Throwes  forth  to  men,  sweet  and  well  savored, 
But  direfull  deadly  blacke  both  Jeafe  and  bloom, 

Fitt  to  adorne  the  dead,  and  decke  the  drery  toombe. 



52  There  mournfull  cypresse  grew  in  greatest  store,   W  ^ 
And  trees  of  bitter^gall,  and  heberi~sa2<" 

Dead  sleeping  poppy,  and  black  hellebore,  - 
Cold  coloqumtida,  and  tetra  mad, 
Mortall^  samnitis,  and  cicuta  bad^"* 
With  which  th'  unjust  Atheniens  made  to  dy 
Wise  Socrates,  who  thereof  quaffing  glad 
Pourd  out  his  life  and  last  philosophy 
To  the  faire  Critias,  his  dearest  belamy. 

53  The  gardin  of  Proserpina  this  hight; 
And  in  the  midst  thereof  a  sUsergeat, 
With  a  thicke  arber  goodly  over  dight, 
In  which  she  often  usd  from  open  heat 
Her  selfe  to  shroud,  and  pleasures  to  entreat : 
Next  thereunto  did  grow  a  IgQodly/  tree, 
With  braunches  broad  dispred  and  body  great, 
Clothed  with  leaves,  that  none  the  wood  mote  see, 

And  loaden  all  with  fruit  as  thick  as  it  might  bee. 

54  Their  fruit  were  golden  apples  glistring  bright, 
That  goodly  was  their  glory  to  behold, 

On  earth  like  never  grew,  ne  living  wight 
Like  ever  saw,  but  they  from  hence  were  sold; 
For  those,  which  Hercules  with  conquest  bold 
Got  from  great  Atlas  daughters,  hence  began, 
And  planted  there,  did  bring  forth  fruit  of  gold; 
And  those,  with  which  th'  Euboean  young  man  wan 
Swift  Atalanta,  when  through  craft  he  her  outran. 

55  Here  also  sprong  that  goodly  golden  fruit, 
With  which  Acontius  got  his  lover  trew, 

Whom  he  had  long  time  sought  with  fruitlesse  suit: 
Here  eke  that  famous  golden  apple  grew, 
The  which  emongst  the  gods  false  Ate  threw; 
For  which  th'  Idaean  ladies  disagreed, 
Till  partiall  Paris  dempt  it  Venus  dew, 
And  had  of  her  faire  Helen  for  his  meed, 
That  many  noble  Greekes  and  Trojans  made  to  bleed. 

CANTO    VII.  91 

56  The  warlike  Elfe  much  wondred  at  this  tree, 

So  faire  and  great,  that  shadowed  all  the  ground. 
And  his  broad  braunches,  laden  with  rich  fee, 
Did  stretch  themselves  without  the  utmost  bound 
Of  this  great  gardin,  compast  with  a  mound : 
Which  over-hanging,  they  themselves  did  steepe 
In  a  blacke  flood,  which  flow'd  about  it  round; 
That  is  the  river  of  Gocytus  deepe, 
In  which  full  many  soules  do  endlesse  waile  and  weepe. 

57  Which  to  behold  he  clomb  up  to  the  bancke ; 
And  looking  downe,  saw  many  damned  wights 
In  those  sad  waves,  which  direfull  deadly  stankef 
Plonged  continually  of  cruell  sprightes, 

That  with  their  pitteous  cryes,  and  yelling  shrightes, 
They  made  the  further  shore  resounden  wide : 
Emongst  the  rest  of  those  same  ruefull  sights, 
One  cursed  creature  he  by  chaunce  espide, 
That  drenched  lay  full  deepe  under  the  garden  side. 

58  Deepe  was  he  drenched  to  the  upmost  chin, 
Yet  gaped  still,  as  coveting  to  drinke 

JOf  the  cold  liquor,  which  he  waded  in ; 
*A/^And  stretching  forth  his  hand,  did  often  thinke 
'          To  reach  the  fruit  which  grew  upon  the  brincke: 

But  both  the  fruit  from  hand,  and  floud  from  mouth 
Did  fly  abacke,  and  made  him  vainely  swinke; 
The  whiles  he  sterv'd  with  hunger,  and  with  drouth 
He  daily  dyde,  yet  never  throughly  dyen  couth. 

59  The  knight  him  seeing  labour  so  in  vaine, 
Askt  who  he  was,  and  what  he  meant  thereby: 
Who  groning  deepe,  thus  answerd  him  againe; 
Most  cursed  of  all  creatures  under  skye, 

Lo  Tantalus  I  here  tormented  lye: 
6lTwhom  high  Jove  wont  whylome  feasted  bee;  . 
Lo,  here  I  now  for  want  of  food  doe  dye: 
But  if  that  thou  be  such,  as  I  thee  see, 
Of  grace  I  pray  thee,  give  to  eat  and  drinke  to  mee. 


60  Nay,  nay,  thou  greedie  Tantalus  (quoth  he) 
Abide  the  fortune  of  thy  present  fate, 

And  unto  all  that  live  in  high  degree, 
Ensample  be  of  mind  intemperate. 
To  teach  them  how  to  use  their  present  state. 
Then  gan  the  cursed  wretch  aloud  to  cry, 
Accusing  highest  Jove  and  gods  ingrate; 
And  eke  blaspheming  heaven  bitterly, 
As  author  of  unjustice,  there  to  let  him  dye. 

6 1  He  lookt  a  little  further,  and  espyde 

Another  wretch,  whose  carcasse  deepe  was  drent 
Within  the  river,  which  the  same  did  hyde: 
But  both  his  handes  most  filthy  feculent, 
Above  the  water  were  on  high  extent, 
And  faynd  to  wash  themselves  incessantly, 
Yet  nothing  cleaner  were  for  such  intent, 
But  rather  fowler  seemed  to  the  eye; 
So  lost  his  labour  vaine  and  idle  industry. 

6  a  The  knight  him  calling,  asked  who  he  was, 
Who  lifting  up  his  head,  him  answerd  thus; 
I  Pilate  am  the  falsest  judge, 'alas, 
And  most  unjust,  that  by  unrighteous 
And  wicked  doome,  to  Jewes  despiteous 
Delivered  up  the  Lord  of  life  to  die, 
And  did  acquite  a  murdrer  felonous; 
The  whiles  my  handes  I  washt  in  puritie, 

The  whiles  my  soule  was  soyld  with  foule  iniquitie. 

63  Infinite  moe,  tormented  in  like_gaine 

He  there  beheld,  too  long  here  to  be  told: 
Ne  Mammon  would  there  let  him  long  remaine, 
For  terrour  of  the  to_rtures  manifold, 
In  which  the  damnedjsoules  he  did  behold, 
But  roughly  him  bespake :  Thou  fearefull  foole, 
Why  takest  not  of  that  same  fruite  of  gold, 
Ne  sittest  downe  on  thatjsame  silver  stoole, 

To  rest  thy  wearie  person  (jjjthe  shadow 

CANTO    VII.  93 

64  All  which  he  did,  to  do  him  deadly  fall 

In  frayle  intemperance  through  sinfull  bayt; 
To  which  if  he  inclined  had  at  all, 
That  dreadfull  feend,  which  did  behinde  him  wayt, 
Would  him  have  rent  in  thousand  peeces  stray t: 
But  he  was  warie  wise  in  all  his  way, 
And  wel  perceived  his  deceiptfull  sleight, 
Ne  suffred  lust  his  safetie  to  betray ; 
So  goodly  did  beguile  the  guyler  of  his  pray. 

65  And  now  he  has  so  long  remained  there, 

That  vitall  powres  gan  wexe  both  weake  and  wan, 
For  want  of  food,  and  sleepe,  which  two  upbeare, 
Like  mightie  pillours,  this  fraile  life  of  man, 
That  none  without  the  same  enduren  can. 
For  now  three  dayes  of  men  were  full  outwrought, 
Since  he  this  hardie  enterprize  began: 
For  thy  great  Mammon  fairely  he  besought 
Into  the  world  to  guide  him  backe,  as  he  him  brought. 

66  The  god,  though  loth,  yet  was  constraind  t'obay; 
For  lenger  time,  then  that,  no  living  wight 
Below  the  earth  might  suffred  be  to  stay: 

So  backe  againe  him  brought  to  living  light. 
But  all  so  soone  as  his  enfeebled  spright 
Gan  sucke  this  vitall  aire  into  his  brest, 
As  overcome  with  too  exceeding  might, 
The  life  did  flit  away  out  of  her  nest, 
And  all  his  ^senses  were  with  deadly  fit  opprest. 



Sir  Guyon,  layd  in  swowne  is  by 

Aerates  sonnes  despoyld, 
Whom  Arthur  soone  bath  reskewed, 

And  Paynim  brethren  foyld. 

1  AND  is  there  care  in  heaven?    And  is  there  love 
In  heavenly  spirits  to  these  creatures  bace, 
That  may  compassion  of  their  evils  move  ? 
There  is:   else  much  more  wretched  were  the  cace 
Of  men  then  beasts.     But  O  th'  exceeding  grace 
Of  highest  God,  that  loves  his  creatures  so, 

And  all  his  workes  with  mercy  doth  embrace,    , 
That  blessed  angels  he  sends  to  and  fro, 
To  serve  to  wicked  man,  to  serve  his  wicked  foe. 

2  How  oft  do  they  their  silver  bowers  leave 
To  come  to  succour  us,  that  succour  want, 
How  oft  do  they  with  golden  pineons  cleave 
The  flitting  skyes,  like  flying  pursuivant, 
Against  foule  feendes  to  aide  us  militant : 
They  for  us  fight,  they  watch  and  dewly  ward, 
And  their  bright  squadrons  round  about  us  plant; 
And  all  for  love,  and  nothing  for  reward: 

O,  why  should  heavenly  God  to  men  have  such  regard? 

3  During  the  while,  that  Guyon  did  abide 

In  Mammons  house,  the  palmer,  whom  whyleare 
That  wanton  mayd  of  passage  had  denide, 
By  further  search  had  passage  found  elsewhere, 
And  being  on  his  way,  approched  neare 
Where  Guyon  lay  in  traunce ;   when  suddenly 
He  heard  a  voice  that  called  loud  and  cleare, 
Come  hither,  hither,  O  come  hastily; 
That  all  the  fields  resounded  with  the  ruefull  cry. 

CANTO   VIII.  95 

4  The  palmer  lent  his  eare  unto  the  noyce, 
To  weet  who  called  so  importunely: 
Againe  he  heard  a  more  efforced  voyce, 
That  bad  him  come  in  haste.     He  by  and  by 
His  feeble  feet  directed  to  the  cry; 

Which  to  that  shady  delve  him  brought  at  last, 
Where  Mammon  earst  did  sunne  his  threasury: 
There  the  good  Guyon  he  found  slumbring  fast 
In  senselesse  dreame ;  which  sight  at  first  him  sore  aghast 

5  Beside  his  head  there  sate  a  faire  young  man, 
Of  wondrous  beautie  and  of  freshest  yeares, 
Whose  tender  bud  to  blossome  new  began, 
And  flourish  faire  above  his  equall  peares: 
His  snowy  front  curled  with  golden  heares, 
Like  Phoebus  face  adornd  with  sunny  rayes, 
Divinely  shone;  and  two  sharpe  winged  sheares, 
Decked  with  diverse  plumes,  like  painted  jayes, 

Were  fixed  at  his  backe  to  cut  his  ayerie  wayes. 

6  Like  as  Gupido  on  Idaean  hill, 
When  having  laid  his  cruell  bow  away, 
And  mortall  arrowes,  wherewith  he  doth  fill 

The  world  with  murdrous  spoiles  and  bloudie  pray, 
With  his  faire  mother  he  him  dights  to  play, 
And  with  his  goodly  sisters,  Graces  three; 
The  goddess  pleased  with  his  wanton  play, 
Suffers  herselfe  through  sleepe  beguild  to  bee, 
The  whiles  the  other  ladies  mind  their  merry  glee. 

7  Whom  when  the  palmer  saw,  abasht  he  was 
Through  fear  and  wonder,  that  he  nought  could  say, 
Till  him  the  childe  bespoke,  Long  lackt,  alas, 

Hath  bene  thy  faithfull  aide  in  hard  assay, 
Whiles  deadly  fit  thy  pupill  doth  dismay, 
Behold  this  heavie  sight,  thou  reverend  sire, 
But  dread  of  death  and  dolor  doe  away; 
For  life  ere  long  shall  to  her  home  retire, 
And  he  that  breathlesse  seems  shal  corage  bold  respire. 


8  The  charge,  which  God  doth  unto  me  arret, 
Of  his  deare  safetie  I  to  thce  commend; 
Yet  will  I  not  forgoe,  ne  yet  forget 

The  care  thereof  myselfe  unto  the  end, 
But  evermore  him  succour,  and  defend 
Against  his  foe  and  mine:   watch  thou  I  pray; 
For  evill  is  at  hand  him  to  offend. 
So  having  said,  eftsoones  he  gan  display 
His  painted  nimble  wings,  and  vanisht  quite  away. 

9  The  palmer  seeing  his  left  empty  place, 
And  his  slow  eyes  beguiled  of  their  sight, 
Woxe  sore  affraid,  and  standing  still  a  space 
Gaz'd  after  him,  as  fowle  escapt  by  flight: 
At  last  him  turning  to  his  charge  behight, 
With  trembling  hand  his  troubled  pulse  gan  try; 
Where  finding  life  not  yet  dislodged  quight, 

He  much  rejoyst,  and  courd  it  tenderly, 
As  chicken  newly  hacht,  from  dreaded  destiny. 

10  At  last  he  spide  where  towards  him  did  pace 
Two  Paynim  knights,  all  armd  as  bright  as  skie, 
And  them  beside  an  aged  sire  did  trace, 

And  farre  before  a  light-foot  page  did  flie, 
That  breathed  strife  and  troublous  enmitie. 
Those  were  the  two  sonnes  of  Aerates  old, 
Who  meeting  earst  with  Archimago  slie, 
Foreby  that  idle  strond,  of  him  were  told, 
That  he,  which  earst  them  combatted,  was  Guyon  bold, 

11  Which  to  avenge  on  him  they  dearly  vowd, 
Whereever  that  on  ground  they  mote  him  find: 
False  Archimage  provokt  their  courage  prowd, 
And  stryfull  Atin  in  their  stubborne  mind 
Coles  of  contention  and  whot  vengeaunce  tind. 
Now  bene  they  come  whereas  the  palmer  sate, 
Keeping  that  slombred  corse  to  him  assind: 
Well  knew  they  both  his  person,  sith  of  late 

With  him  in  bloudie  armes  they  rashly  did  debate. 

CANTO    VTIT.  97 

12  Whom  when  Pyrochles  saw,  inflam'd  with  rage 
That  sire  he  foule  bespake,  Thou  dotard  vile, 
That  with  thy  brutenesse  shendst  thy  comely  age, 
Abandon  soone,  I  read,  the  caitive  spoile 

Of  that  same  outcast  carcasse,  that  erewhile 
Made  itselfe  famous  through  false  trechery, 
And  crownd  his  coward  crest  with  knightly  stile ; 
Loe  where  he  now  inglorious  doth  lye, 
To  proove  he  lived  ill,  that  did  thus  foully  dye. 

13  To  whom  the  palmer  fearlesse  answered; 
Certes,  sir  knight,  ye  bene  too  much  to  blame, 
Thus  for  to  blot  the  honour  of  the  dead, 
And  with  foule  cowardize  his  carcasse  shame 
"Whose  living  handes  immortalizd  his  name. 
Vile  is  the  vengeance  on  the  ashes  cold, 

And  envie  base,  to  barke  at  sleeping  fame: 
Was  never  wight,  that  treason  of  him  told ; 
Your  self e  his  prowesse  prov'd,  and  found  him  fiers  and  bold. 

14  Then  sayd  Cymochles;  Palmer,  thou  doest  dote, 
Ne  canst  of  prowesse,  ne  of  knighthood  deeme, 
Save  as  thou  seest  or  hearst.     But  well  I  wote, 
That  of  his  puissance  tryall  made  extreeme: 
Yet  gold  all  is  not,  that  doth  golden  seeme ; 

Ne  all  good  knights,  that  shake  well  speare  and  shield : 
The  worth  of  all  men  by  their  end  esteeme ; 
And  then  due  praise  or  due  reproch  them  yield: 
Bad  therefore  I  him  deeme,  that  thus  lies  dead  on  field. 

15  Good  or  bad  (gan  his  brother  fierce  reply) 
What  doe  I  recke,  sith  that  he  dyde  entire? 
Or  what  doth  his  bad  death  now  satisfy 
The  greedy  hunger  of  revenging  ire, 

Sith  wrathfull  hand  wrought  not  her  owne  desire? 
Yet  since  no  way  is  left  to  wreake  my  spight, 
I  will  him  reave  of  armes,  the  victors  hire. 
And  of  that  shield,  more  worthy  of  good  knight; 
For  why  should  a  dead  dog  be  deckt  in  armour  bright  ? 



16  Faire  sir,  said  then  the  palmer  suppliaunt, 
For  knighthoods  love,  do  not  so  foule  a  deed, 
Ne  blame  your  honour  with  so  shamefull  vaunt 
Of  vile  revenge.     To  spoile  the  dead  of  weed 
Is  sacrilege,  and  doth  all  sinnes  exceed: 

But  leave  these  relicks  of  his  living  might 
To  deck  his  herce,  and  trap  his  tomb-blacke  steed. 
What  herce  or  steede  (said  he)  should  he  have  dight, 
But  be  entombed  in  the  raven  or  the  kight? 

17  With  that,  rude  hand  upon  his  shield  he  laid, 
And  th'other  brother  gan  his  helme  unlace ; 
Both  fiercely  bent  to  have  him  disaraid : 

Till  that  they  spide  where  towards  them  did  pace 
An  armed  knight,  of  bold  and  bounteous  grace, 
Whose  squire  bore  after  him  an  heben  launce, 
And  coverd  shield.     Well  kend  him  so  farre  space 
Th'  enchaunter  by  his  armes  and  amenaunce, 
When  under  him  he  saw  his  Lypian  steed  to  praunce: 

1 8  And  to  those  brethren  said,  Rise,  rise  bylive, 
And  unto  battell  doe  yourselves  addresse; 
For  yonder  comes  the  prowest  knight  alive, 
Prince  Arthur,  flowre  of  grace  and  nobilesse, 

That  hath  to  Paynim  knights  wrought  great  distresse, 
And  thousand  Sar'zins  foully  donne  to  dye. 
That  word  so  deepe  did  in  their  harts  impresse, 
That  both  eftsoones  upstarted  furiously, 
And  gan  themselves  prepare  to  battell  greedily. 

19  But  fierce  Pyrochles,  lacking  his  owne  sword, 
The  want  thereof  now  greatly  gan  to  plaine, 
And  Archimage  besought  him  that  afford 
Which  he  had  brought  for  Braggadochio  vaine. 
So  would  I  (said  th'  enchaunter)  glad  and  faine 
Beteeme  to  you  this  sword,  you  to  defend, 

Or  ought  that  els  your  honour  might  maintaine, 
But  that  this  weapons  powre  I  well  have  kend 
To  be  contrarie  to  the  worke,  which  ye  intend: 

CANTO   VIII.  99 

20  For  that  same  knights  ovvne  sword  this  is  of  yore, 
Which  Merlin  made  by  his  almightie  art 

For  this  his  noursling,  when  he  knighthood  swore, 
Therewith  to  doen  his  foes  eternall  smart. 
The  metall  first  he  mixt  with  Medaewart, 
That  no  enchauntment  from  his  dint  might  save; 
Then  it  in  flames  of  Aetna  wrought  apart, 
And  seven  times  dipped  in  the  bitter  wave 
Of  hellish  Styx,  which  hidden  vertue  to  it  gave. 

21  The  vertue  is,  that  neither  steele  nor  stone 
The  stroke  thereof  from  entrance  may  defend; 
Ne  ever  may  be  used  by  his  fone; 

Ne  forst  his  rightfull  owner  to  offend; 
Ne  ever  will  it  breake,  ne  ever  bend. 
Wherefore  Morddure  it  rightfully  is  hight. 
In  vaine  therefore,  Pyrochles,  should  I  lend 
The  same  to  thee,  against  his  lord  to  fight; 
For  sure  it  would  deceive  thy  labour  and  thy  might. 

22  Foolish  old  man,  said  then  the  Pagan  wroth, 

That  weenest  words  or  charms  may  force  withstand: 
Soone  shalt  thou  see,  and  then  beleeve  for  troth, 
That  I  can  carve  with  this  inchaunted  brond 
His  lords  owne  flesh.     Therewith  out  of  his  bond 
That  vertuous  steele  he  rudely  snatcht  away; 
And  Guyons  shield  about  his  wrest  he  bond: 
So  readie  dight,  fierce  battaile  to  assaye, 
And  match  his  brother  proud  in  battailous  aray. 

23  By  this  that  straunger  knight  in  presence  came, 
And  goodly  salved  them ;   who  nought  againe 
Him  answered,  as  courtesie  became, 

But  with  sterne  lookes,  and  stomachous  disdaine, 
Gave  signes  of  grudge  and  discontentment  vaine  : 
Then  turning  to  the  palmer,  he  gan  spy 
Where  at  his  feet,  with  sorrowfull  demaine 
And  deadly  hew,  an  armed  corse  did  lye, 
In  whose  dead  face  he  red  great  magnanimity. 

H  2 


24  Said  he  then  to  the  palmer;    Reverend  syre, 
What  great  misfortune  hath  betidd  this  knight? 
Or  did  his  life  her  fatall  date  expyre, 

Or  did  he  fall  by  treason,  or  by  fight? 
However,  sure  I  rew  his  pitteous  plight. 
Not  one,  nor  other,  (sayd  the  palmer  grave) 
Hath  him  befalne,  but  cloudes  of  deadly  night 
Awhile  his  heavie  eylids  cover'd  have, 
And  all  his  senses  drowned  in  deep  senselesse  wave: 

25  Which  those  same  cruell  foes,  that  stand  hereby, 
Making  advantage,  to  revenge  their  spight, 
Would  him  disarme  and  treaten  shamefully; 
Unworthy  usage  of  redoubted  knight. 

But  you,  faire  sir,  whose  honourable  sight 
Doth  promise  hope  of  helpe,  and  timely  grace, 
Mote  I  beseech  to  succour  his  sad  plight, 
And  by  your  powre  protect  his  feeble  cace. 
First  praise  of  knighthood  is,  foule  outrage  to  deface. 

26  Palmer,  (said  he)  no  knight  so  rude,  I  weene, 
As  to  doen  outrage  to  a  sleeping  ghost: 

Ne  was  there  ever  noble  courage  scene, 
That  in  advauntage  would  his  puissance  bost: 
Honour  is  least,  where  oddes  appeareth  most. 
May  be,  that  better  reason  will  aswage 
The  rash  revengers  heat.     Words  well  dispost 
Have  secret  powre  t'  appease  inflamed  rage : 
If  not,  leave  unto  me  thy  knights  last  patronage. 

27  Tho  turning  to  those  brethren,  thus  bespoke, 
Ye  warlike  payre,  whose  valorous  great  might, 

It  seemes,  just  wrongs  to  vengeance  doe  provoke, 
To  wreake  your  wrath  on  this  dead  seeming  knight, 
Mote  ought  allay  the  storme  of  your  despight, 
And  settle  patience  in  so  furious  heat? 
Not  to  debate  the  chalenge  of  your  right, 
But  for  his  carkasse  pardon  I  entreat, 
Whom  fortune  hath  alreadie  laid  in  lowest  seat 

CANTO    VIII.  10 1 

28  To  whom  Cymochles  said;  For  what  art  thou, 
That  mak'st  thyselfe  his  dayes-man,  to  prolong 
The  vengeance  prest?    Or  who  shall  let  me  now 
On  this  vile  body  from  to  wreake  my  wrong, 
And  make  his  carkasse  as  the  outcast  dong?    , 
Why  should  not  that  dead  carrion  satisfie 

The  guilt,  which,  if  he  lived  had  thus  long, 

His  life  for  due  revenge  should  deare  abie? 

The  trespasse  still  doth  live,  albe  the  person  die. 

29  Indeed  (then  said  the  prince)  the  evill  donne 
Dyes  not,  when  breath  the  bodie  first  doth  leave, 
But  from  the  grandsyre  to  the  nephewes  sonne, 
And  all  his  seed  the  curse  doth  often  cleave, 
Till  vengeance  utterly  the  guilt  bereave: 

So  streightly  God  doth  judge.     But  gentle  knight, 
That  doth  against  the  dead  his  hand  upreare, 
His  honour  staines  with  rancour  and  despight, 
And  great  disparagment  makes  to  his  former  might. 

30  Pyrochles  gan  reply  the  second  tyme, 
And  to  him  said,  Now  felon  sure  I  read, 
How  that  thou  art  partaker  of  his  crime : 
Therefore  by  Termagaunt  thou  shalt  be  dead. 
With  that  his  hand,  more  sad  than  lomp  of  lead, 
Uplifting  high,  he  weened  with  Morddure, 

His  owne  good  sword  Morddure,  to  cleave  his  head. 
The  faithfull  steele  such  treason  no'uld  endure, 
But  swarving  from  the  marke,  his  lords  life  did  assure. 

31  Yet  was  the  force  so  furious  and  so  fell, 
That  horse  and  man  it  made  to  reele  aside: 
Nath'lesse  the  prince  would  not  forsake  his  sell; 
For  well  of  yore  he  learned  had  to  ride, 

But  full  of  anger  fiercely  to  him  cride; 
False  traitour  miscreant,  thou  broken  hast 
The  law  of  armes,  to  strike  foe  undefide ; 
But  thou  thy  treasons  fruit,  I  hope,  shalt  taste 
Right  sowre,  and  feele  the  law,  the  which  thou  hast  defast. 


32  With  that  his  balefull  speare  he  fiercely  bent 
Against  the  Pagans  brest,  and  therewith  thought 
His  cursed  life  out  of  her  lodge  have  rent : 
But  ere  the  point  arrived  where  it  ought, 

That  seven-fold  shield,  which  he  from  Guyon  brought, 
He  cast  betwene  to  ward  the  bitter  stound: 
Through  all  those  foldes  the  steelehead  passage  wrought, 
And  through  his  shoulder  pierst;  wherwith  to  ground 
He  groveling  fell,  all  gored  in  his  gushing  wound. 

33  Which  when  his  brother  saw,  fraught  with  great  griefe 
And  wrath,  he  to  him  leaped  furiously, 

And  fowly  saide,  By  Mahoune,  cursed  thiefe, 
That  direfull  stroke  thou  dearely  shalt  aby. 
Then  hurling  up  his  harmefull  blade  on  hye, 
Smote  him  so  hugely  on  his  haughtie  crest, 
That  from  his  saddle  forced  him  to  fly: 
Else  mote  it  needes  downe  to  his  manly  brest 
Have  cleft  his  head  in  twaine,  and  life  thence  dispossest. 

34  Now  was  the  prince  in  daungerous  distresse, 
Wanting  his  sword,  when  he  on  foot  should  fight: 
His  single  speare  could  doe  him  small  redresse 
Against  two  foes  of  so  exceeding  might, 

The  least  of  which  was  match  for  any  knight. 
And  now  the  other,  whom  he  earst  did  daunt, 
Had  reard  himselfe  againe  to  cruell  fight, 
Three  times  more  furious  and  more  puissaunt, 
Unmindfull  of  his  wound,  of  his  fate  ignoraunt. 

35  So  both  attonce  him  charge  on  either  side 
With  hideous  strokes,  and  importable  powre, 
That  forced  him  his  ground  to  traverse  wide, 
And  wisely  watch  to  ward  that  deadly  stowre : 
For  on  his  shield,  as  thicke  as  stormie  showre, 
Their  strokes  did  raine ;  yet  did  he  never  quaile, 
Ne  backward  shrinke;    but  as  a  stedfast  towre, 
Whom  foe  with  double  battry  doth  assaile, 

Them  on  her  bulwarke  beares,  and  bids  them  nought  availe. 


36  So  stoutly  he  withstood  their  strong  assay; 
Till  that  at  last,  when  he  advantage  spyde, 

His  poinant  speare  he  thrust  with  puissant  sway 
At  proud  Cymochles,  whiles  his  shield  was  wyde, 
That  through  his  thigh  the  mortall  steele  did  gryde  : 
He,  swarving  with  the  force,  within  his  flesh 
Did  breake  the  launce,  and  let  the  head  abyde: 
Out  of  the  wound  the  red  blood  flowed  fresh, 
That  underneath  his  feet  soone  made  a  purple  plesh. 

37  Horribly  then  he  gan  to  rage,  and  rayle, 
Cursing  his  gods,  and  himselfe  damning  deepe: 
Als  when  his  brother  saw  the  red  blood  raylc 
Adowne  so  fast,  and  all  his  armour  steepe, 
For  very  felnesse  lowd  he  gan  to  weepe, 

And  said ;   Gaytive,  cursse  on  thy  cruell  hond, 
That  twise  hath  sped;   yet  shall  it  not  thee  keepe 
From  the  third  brunt  of  this  my  fatall  brond : 
Loe  where  the  dreadfull  Death  behind  thy  backe  doth  stond. 

38  With  that  he  strooke,  and  th'  other  strooke  withall, 
That  nothing  seem'd  mote  beare  so  monstrous  might: 
The  one  upon  his  covered  shield  did  fall, 

And  glauncing  downe  would  not  his  owner  byte : 
But  th'  other  did  upon  his  troncheon  smyte ; 
Which  hewing  quite  asunder,  further  way 
It  made,  and  on  his  hacqueton  did  lyte, 
The  which  dividing  with  importune  sway, 
It  seizd  in  his  right  side,  and  there  the  dint  did  stay. 

39  Wyde  was  the  wound,  and  a  large  lukewarme  flood, 
Red  as  the  rose,  thence  gushed  grievously; 

That  when  the  Paynym  spyde  the  streaming  blood, 
Gave  him  great  hart,  and  hope  of  victory. 
On  th'  other  side,  in  huge  perplexity 
The  prince  now  stood,  having  his  weapon  broke; 
Nought  could  he  hurt,  but  still  at  warde  did  ly: 
Yet  with  his  troncheon  he  so  rudely  stroke 
Cymochles  twise,  that  twise  him  forst  his  foot  revoke. 


40  Whom  when  the  palmer  saw  in  such  distresse, 
Sir  Guyons  sword  he  lightly  to  him  raught, 

And  said ;  Faire  sonne,  great  God  thy  right  hand  blesse, 
To  use  that  sword  so  wisely  as  he  ought. 
Glad  was  the  knight,  and  with  fresh  courage  fraught, 
When  as  againe  he  armed  lielt  his  hond: 
Then  like  a  lion,  which  had  long  time  saught 
His  robbed  whelpes,  and  at  the  last  them  fond 
Emongst  the  shepheard  swaynes,  then  wexeth  wood  and  yond: 

41  So  fierce  he  laid  about  him,  and  dealt  blowes 
On  either  side,  that  neither  mayle  could  hold, 
Ne  shield  defend  the  thunder  of  his  throwes: 
Now  to  Pyrochles  many  strokes  he  told; 

Eft  to  Cymochles  twise  so  many  fold; 
Then  backe  againe  turning  his  busie  hond, 
Them  both  attonce  compled  with  courage  bold 
To  yield  wide  way  to  his  hart-thrilling  brond ;      [stond. 
And  though  they  both  stood  stiffe,  yet  could  not  both  with- 

42  As  salvage  bull,  whom  two  fierce  mastives  bayt, 
When  rancour  doth  with  rage  him  once  engore, 
Forgets  with  warie  ward  them  to  awayt, 

But  with  his  dreadfull  homes  them  drives  afore, 
Or  flings  aloft,  or  treades  downe  in  the  flore, 
Breathing  out  wrath,  and  bellowing  disdaine, 
That  all  the  forest  quakes  to  heare  him  rore: 
So  rag'd  Prince  Arthur  twixt  his  foemen  twaine, 
That  neither  could  his  mightie  puissaunce  sustaine. 

9  But  ever  at  Pyrochles  when  he  smit, 
Who  Guyons  shield  cast  ever  him  before, 
Whereon  the  Faery  Queenes  pourtract  was  writ, 
His  hand  relented  and  the  stroke  forbore, 
And  his  deare  hart  the  picture  gan  adore; 
Which  oft  the  Paynim  sav'd  from  deadly  stowre : 
But  him  henceforth  the  same  can  save  no  more; 
For  now  arrived  is  his  fatall  howre, 
That  no'te  avoyded  be  by  earthly  skill  or  powre. 

CANTO    VIII.  105 

44  For  when  Cymochles  saw  the  fowle  reproch, 
Which  them  aj^ejichejk  prickt  with  guiltie  shame 
And  inward  griefe,  he  fiercely  gan  approch, 
Resolv'd  to  put  away  that  loathly  blame, 

Or  dye  with  honour  and  desert  of  fame ; 
And  on  the  hauberk  stroke  the  prince  so  sore, 
That  quite  disparted  all  the  linked  frame, 
And  pierced  to  the  skin,  but  bit  no  more, 
Yet  made  him  twise  to  reele,  that  never  moov'd  afore. 

45  Whereat  renfierst  with  wrath  and  sharpe  regret, 
He  stroke  so  hugely  with  his  borrowd  blade, 
That  it  empierst  the  Pagans  burganet, 

And,  cleaving  the  hard  steele,  did  deepe  invade 
Into  his  head,  and  cruell  passage  made 
Quite  through  his  braine :  he  tombling  downe  on  ground, 
Breathd  out  his  ghost,  which  to  th'  infernall  shade 
Fast  flying,  there  eternall  torment  found 
For  all  the  sinnes  wherewith  his  lewd  life  did  abound. 

46  Which  when  his  german  saw,  the  stony  feare, 
Ran  to  his  hart,  and  all  his  sence  dismayd, 
Ne  thenceforth  life  ne  courage  did  appeare; 
But  as  a  man,  whom  hellish  feendes  have  frayd, 
Long  trembling  still  he  stoode ;  at  last  thus  sayd ; 
Traytour,  what  hast  thou  doen  ?     How  ever  may 
Thy  cursed  hand  so  cruelly  have  swayd 
Against  that  knight.     Harrow  and  well  away, 

After  so  wicked  deed  why  liv'st  thou  lenger  day? 

47  With  that  all  desperate,  as  loathing  light, 
And  with  revenge  desiring  soone  to  dye, 
Assembling  all  his  force  and  utmost  might, 
With  his  owne  sword  he  fierce  at  him  did  flye, 
And  strooke,  and  foynd,  and  lasht  outrageously, 
Withouten  reason  or  regard.     Well  knew 

The  prince,  with  patience  and  sufferaunce  sly, 
So  hasty  heat  soone  cooled  to  subdew: 
Tho  when  this  breathlesse  woxe,  that  batteil  gan  renew. 


48  As  when  a  windy  tempest  bloweth  hye, 

That  nothing  may  withstand  his  stormy  stowre, 
The  cloudes,  as  thinges  affrayd,  before  him  flye; 
But,  all  so  soone  as  his  outrageous  powre 
Is  layd,  they  fiercely  then  begin  to  shoure, 
And  as  in  scorne  of  his  spent  stormy  spight, 
Now  all  attonce  their  malice  forth  do  poure; 
So  did  Prince  Arthur  beare  himselfe  in  fight, 
And  suffred  rash  Pyrochles  wast  his  idle  might. 

49  At  last  whenas  the  Sarazin  perceiv'd 

How  that  straunge  sword  refusd  to  serve  his  need, 
But  when  he  stroke  most  strong,  the  dint  deceiv'd, 
He  flong  it  from  him,  and  devoyd  of  dreed, 
Upon  him  lightly  leaping  without  heed, 
Twixt  his  two  mighty  armes  engrasped  fast, 
Thinking  to  overthrowe  and  downe  him  tred: 
But  him  in  strength  and  skill  the  prince  surpast, 
And  through  his  nimble  sleight  did  under  him  down  cast. 

50  Nought  booted  it  the  Paynim  then  to  strive; 
For  as  a  bittur  in  the  eagles  claw, 

That  may  not  hope  by  flight  to  scape  alive, 
Still  waites  for  death  with  dread  and  trembling  aw; 
So  he,  now  subject  to  the  victours  law, 
Did  not  once  move,  nor  upward  cast  his  eye, 
For  vile  disdaine  and  rancour,  which  did  gnaw 
His  hart  in  twaine  with  sad  melancholy ; 
As  one  that  loathed  life,  and  yet  despised  to  dye. 

51  But  full  of  princely  bounty  and  great  mind, 
The  conquerour  nought  cared  him  to  slay; 
But,  casting  wrongs  and  all  revenge  behind, 
More  glory  thought  to  give  life,  then  decay, 
And  said,  Paynim,  this  is  thy  dismall  day; 
Yet  if  thou  wilt  renounce  thy  miscreaunce. 
And  my  trew  liegeman  yield  thyselfe  for  ay, 
Life  will  I  graunt  thee  for  (thy  valiaunce, 

And  all  thy  wrongs  will  wipe  out  of  my  sovenaunce. 

CANTO    VIII.  107 

52  Foole  (said  the  pagan)  I  thy  gift  defye, 
But  use  thy  fortune,  as  it  doth  befall; 
And  say,  that  I  not  overcome  doe  dye, 
But  in  despight  of  life  for  death  doe  call. 
Wroth  was  the  prince,  and  sory  yet  withall, 
That  he  so  wilfully  refused  grace; 

Yet  sith  his  fate  so  cruelly  did  fall, 
His  shining  helmet  he  gan  soone  unlace, 
And  lefte  his  headlesse  body  bleeding  all  the  place. 

53  By  this  Sir  Guyon  from  his  traunce  awakt, 
Life  having  maistered  her  senceless  foe; 
And  looking  up,  when  as  his  shield  he  lakt, 
And  sword  saw  not,  he  wexed  wondrous  woe: 
But  when  the  palmer,  whom  he  long  ygoe 
Had  lost,  he  by  him  spide,  right  glad  he  grew, 
And  saide,  Deare  sir,  whom  wandring  to  and  fro 
I  long  have  lackt,  I  joy  thy  face  to  vew; 

Firme  is  thy  faith,  whom  daunger  never  fro  me  drew. 

54  But  read  what  wicked  hand  hath  robbed  mee 

Of  my  good  sword  and  shield  ?     The  palmer,  glad 
With  so  fresh  hew  uprysing  him  to  see, 
Him  answered ;    Faire  sonne,  be  no  whit  sad 
For  want  of  weapons,  they  shall  soone  be  bad. 
So  gan  he  to  discourse  the  whole  debate, 
Which  that  straunge  knight  for  him  sustained  had, 
And  those  two  Sarazins  confounded  late, 
Whose  carcases  on  ground  were  horribly  prostrate. 

55  Which  when  he  heard,  and  saw  the  tokens  trew, 
His  hart  with  great  affection  was  embayd, 

And  to  the  prince  with  bowing  reverence  dew, 
As  to  the  patrone  of  his  life,  thus  sayd ; 
My  lord,  my  liege,  by  whose  most  gratious  ayd 
I  live  this  day,  and  see  my  foes  subdewd, 
What  may  suffise  to  be  for  meede  repayd 
Of  so  great  graces  as  ye  have  me  shewd, 
But  to  be  ever  bound — 


56  To  whom  the  Infant  thus,  Faire  sir,  what  need 
Good  turnes  be  counted,  as  a  servile  bond, 
To  bind  their  doers  to  receive  their  meede  ? 
Are  not  all  knightes  by  oath  bound  to  withstond 
Oppressours  powre  by  armes  and  puissant  hond? 
Suffise,  that  I  have  done  my  dew  in  place. 
So  goodly  purpose  they  together  fond 
Of  kindnesse  and  of  courteous  aggrace ; 

The  whiles  false  Archimage  and  A  tin  fled  apace. 

CANTO  IX.  109 


The  House  of  Temperance,  in  wbicb 

Doth  sober  Alma  dwell  t 
Besiegd  of  many  foes,  whom  straunger 

knigbtes  to  flight  compell. 

1  OF  all  Gods  workes,  which  do  this  worlde  adorne, 
There  is  no  one  more  faire  and  excellent 

Then  is  mans  body  both  for  powre  and  forme, 
Whiles  it  is  kept  in 'sober  government; 
But  none  then  it  more  fowle  and  indecent, 
Distempred  through  misrule  and  passions  bace; 
It  grows  a  monster,  and  incontinent 
Doth  lose  his  djgnitie  and  native  grace: 
Behold,  who  list,  both  one  and  other  in  this  place. 

2  After  the  Paynim  brethren  conquer'd  were, 
The  Briton  prince  recov'ring  his  stolne  sword, 
And  Guyon  his  lost  shield,  they  both  yfere 
Forth  passed  on  their  way  in  faire  accord, 

Till  him  the  prince  with  gentle  court  did  bord; 
Sir  knight,  mote  I  of  you  this  curt'sie  read, 
To  weet  why  on  your  shield,  so  goodly  scord, 
Beare  ye  the  picture  of  that  ladies  head  ? 
Full  lively  is  the  semblaunt,  though  the  substance  dead. 

3  Faire  sir  (sayd  he)  if  in  that  picture  dead 
Such  life  ye  read,  and  vertue  in  vaine  shew; 
What  mote  ye  weene,  if  the  trew  lively-head 
Of  that  most  glorious  visage  ye  did  vew  ? 
But  if  the  beautie  of  her  mind  ye  knew, 
That  is,  her  bountie,  and  imperiall  powre, 
Thousand  times  fairer  then  her  mortall 

O  how  great  wonder  would  your  thoughtsdevowe 
And  infinite  desire  into  your  spirite  poure. 


4  She  is  the  mighty  Queene  of  Faerie, 
Whose  faire  retrait  I  in  my  shield  doe  beare; 
Shee  is  the  flowre  of  grace  and  chastitie, 
Throughout  the  world  renowmed  far  and  neare, 
My  life,  my  liege,  my  soveraigne,  my  deare, 
Whose  glory  shineth  as  the  morning  starre, 
And  with  her  light  the  earth  enlumines  cleare; 
Far  reach  her  mercies,  and  her  prayses  farre, 

As  well  in  state  of  peace,  as  puissaunce  in  warre. 

5  Thrise  happy  man,  (said  then  the  Briton  knight) 
Whom  gracious  lot  and  thy  great  valiaunce 
Have  made  thee  souldier  of  that  princesse  bright, 
Which  with  her  bounty  and  glad  countenance 
Doth  blesse  her  servaunts,  and  them  high  advaunce. 
How  may  straunge  knight  hope  ever  to  aspire, 

By  faithfull  service  and  meete  amenance 
Unto  such  blisse  ?  sufficient  were  that  hire 
For  losse  of  thousand  lives,  to  dye.  at  her_desirQ^ 

6  Said  Guyon,  Noble  lord,  what  meed  so  great, 
Or  grace  of  earthly  prince  so  soveraine, 

But  by  your  wondrous  worth  and  warlike  feat 
Ye  well  may  hope,  and  easely  attaine? 
But  were  your  will  her  sold  to  entertaine, 
And  numbred  be  mongst  knights  of  Maydenhed, 
Great  guerdon,  well  I  wote,  should  you  remaine, 
And  in  her  favor  high  bee  reckoned, 
As  Arthegall  and  Sophy  now  beene  honored. 

7  Certes  (then  said  the  prince)  I  God  avow, 

That  sith  I  armes  and  knighthood  first  did  plight, 
My  whole  jJesjr^hath  beene,  and  yet  is  now, 

j  To"  serve  that  Queene  with  all  my  powre  and  might. 
Now  hath  the  sunne  with  his  lamp-burning  light 
Walkt  round  about  the  world,  and  I  no  lesse, 
Sith  of  that  goddesse  I  have  sought  the  sight,  j 
Yet  no  where  can  her  find:   such  happinesse    ' 

Heven  doth  to  me  envy  and  fortune  favourlesse. 


8  Fortune,  the  foe  of  famous  chevisaunce, 
Seldome  (said  Guyon)  yields  to  vertue  aide, 

But  in  her  way  throwes  mischiefe  and  mischaunce, 
Whereby  her  course  is  stopt,  and  passage  staid. 
But  you,  faire  sir,  be  not  herewith  dismaid, 
But  constant  keepe  the  way,  in  which  ye  stand; 
Which  were  it  not  that  I  am  else  delaid  i 

With  hard  adventure,  which  I  have  in  hand,      |    . 
I  labour  would  to  guide  you  through  all  Faery  land. 

9  Gramercy  sir  (said  he)  but  mote  I  weete 
What  straunge  adventure  doe  ye  now  pursew? 
Perhaps  my  succour  or  advizement  meete 
Mote  stead  you  much  your  purpose  to  subdew. 
Then  gan  Sir  Guyon  all  the  story  shew 

Of  false  Acrasia,  and  her  wicked  wiles;    | 
Which  to  avenge,  the  palmer  him  forth  drew 
From  "Faery  court.     So  talked  they,  the  whiles 
They  wasted  had  much  way,  and  measurd  many  miles. 

10  And  now  faire  Phoebus  gan  decline  in  hast 
His  weary  wagon  to  the  westerne  vale, 
Whenas  they  spide  a  goodly  castle,  plast 
Foreby  a  river  in  a  pleasaunt  dale, 
Which  choosing  for  that  evenings  hospitale, 

They  thither  marcht:  but  when  they  came  in  sight, 
And  from  their  sweaty  coursers  did  avale, 
They  found  the  gates  fast  barred  long  ere  night,    , 
And  every  loup  fast  lockt,  as  fearing  foes  despight.      /  ,  L 

11  Which  when  they  saw,  they  weened  fowle  reproch 
Was  to  them  doen,  their  entrance  to  forstall; 
Till  that  the  squire  gan  nigher  to  approch, 

And  wind  his  home  under  the  castle  wall, 
That  with  the  noise  it  shooke,  as  it  would  fall. 
Eftsoones  forth  looked  from  the  highest  spire 
The  watch,  and  lowd  unto  the  knights  did  call, 
To  weete  what  they  so  rudely  did  require : 
Who  gently  answered,  they  entrance  did  desire. 


12  Fly  fly,  good  knights,  (said  he)  fly  fast  away, 
If  that  your  lives  ye  love,  as  meete  ye  should ; 
Fly  fast,  and  save  yourselves  from  nearejdecgyj 
Here  may  ye  not  have  entraunce,  though  we  would: 
"We  would  and  would  again e,  if  that  we  could ; 

But  thousand  enemies  about  us  rave, 
And  with  long  siege  us  in  this  castle  hould: 
Seven  yeares  this  wize  they  us  besieged  have, 
And  many  good  knights  slaine  that  have  us  sought  to  save. 

13  Thus  as  he  spoke,  loe  with  outragious  cry 

A  thousand  villeins  round  about  them  swarmd 
Out  of  the  rockes  and  caves  adjoyning  nye ;      ^>  "•-*' 
Vile  caitive  wretchesTragged,  rude,  deformd, 
All  threatning  death,  all  in  straunge  manner  armd; 
Some  with  unweldy  clubs,  some  with  long  speares, 
Some  rusty  knives,  some  staves  in  fire  warmd. 
Sterne  was  their  looke,  like  wild  amazed  steares, 
Staring  with  hollow  eyes,  and  stiff  upstanding  heares. 

14  Fiersly  at  first  those  knights  they  did  assaile, 
And  drove  them  to  recoile:   but  when  againe 
They  gave  fresh  charge,  their  forces  gan  to  faile, 
Unhable  their  encounter  to  sustaine; 

For  with  such  puissaunce  and  impetuous  maine 
Those  champions  broke  on  them,  that  forst  them  fly, 
Like  scattered  sheepe,  whenas  the  shepherds  swaine 
A  lyon  and  a  tigre  doth  espye, 
With  greedy  pace  forth  rushing  from  the  forest  nye. 

15  A  while  they  fled,  but  soone  returnd  againe 
With  greater  fury,  then  before  was  found; 
And  evermore  their  cruell  capitaine 

Sought  with  his  raskall  routs  t'enclose  them  round, 
And  overrun  to  tread  them  to  the  ground. 
But  soone  the  knights  with  their  bright-burning  blades 
Broke  their  rude  troupes,  and  orders  did  confound, 
Hewing  and  slashing  at  their  idle  shades; 
For  though  they  bodies  seem,  yet  substaunce  from  them  fades. 

CANTO  IX.  113 

16  As  when  a  swarme  of  gnats  at  eventide 
Out  of  the  fennes  of  Allan  do  arise, 

Their  murmuring  small  trompets  sounden  wide, 
Whiles  in  the  aire  their  clustring  army  flies, 
That  as  a  cloud  doth  seeme  to  dim  the  skies; 
Ne  man  nor  beast  may  rest  or  take  repast       • 
For  their  sharpe  wounds,  and  noyous  injuries,    I 
Till  the  fierce  northerne  wind  with  blustring  blast 
Doth  blow  them  quite  away,  and  in  the  ocean  cast. 

17  Thus  when  they  had  that  troublous  rout  disperst, 
Unto  the  castle  eatethey  come  againe, 

And  entrauncef  crav'dj)  which  was  denied  erst. 

Now  when  report  of  that  their  perlous  paine, 
And  combrous  conflict,  which  they  did  sustaine, 
Came  to  the  ladies  eare,  which  there  did  dwell, 
She  forth  issewed  with  a  goodly  traine 
Of  squires  and  ladies  equipaged  well, 
And  entertained  them  right  fairely,  as  befell. 

1 8  JAlma  sne  called  was,  a  virgin  bright^ 

That  had  not  yet  felt  (Cupides  wanton  raj 
Yet  was  she  woo'd  of  rnlmy~a~  gentleHEnlght, 
And  many  a  lord  of  noble  parentage, 
That  sought  with  her  to  lincke  in  marriage : 
For  shee  was  faire,  as  faire  mote  ever  bee, 
And  in  the  flowre  now  of  her  freshest  age; 
Yet  full  of  grace  and  goodly  modestee, 
That  even  heaven  rejoyced  her  sweete  face  to  see. 

19  In  robe  of  lilly  white  she  was  arayd, 

That  from  her  shoulder  to  her  heele  downe  raught ; 
The  traine  whereof  loose  far  behind  her  strayd, 
Braunched  with  gold  and  pearle,  most  richly  wrought,  n 
And  borne  of  two  faire  damsels  which  were  taught 
That  service  well:   her  yellow  golden  heare 
Was  trimly  woven,  and  in  tresses  wrought, 
Ne  other  tire  she  on  her  head  did  weare, 

But  crowned  with  a  garland  of  sweete  rosiere. 





20  Goodly  she  entertaind  those  noble  knights, 
And  brought  them  up  into  her  castle  hall  ; 
Where  gentle  court  and  gracious  delight 
Shee  to  them  made,  with  mildnesse  virginall, 
Shewing  herselfe  both  wise  and  liberall. 
There  when  they  rested  had  a  season  dew, 
They  her  besought  of  favour  special!^— 
Of  that  faire  castle  to  affoord  therii  vew|/ 

She  graunted,  and  them  leading  forth,  The"  same  did  shew. 

21  First  she  them  led  up  to  the  castle  wall, 
That  was  so  high  as  foe  might  not  it  clime, 
And  all  so  faire  and  fensible  withall  ; 

Not  built  of  bricke,  ne  yet  of  stone  and-4ime. 
But  of  thing  like  to  that  Aegyptian'  slime^y 
Whereof  king  Nine  whilome  built  Babell  towre 
But  O  great  pitty,  that  no  lenger  time 
So  goodly  workmanship  should  not  endure  : 
Soone  it  must  turne  to  earth:  no  earthly  thing  is  sure. 

22  The  frame  thereof  seemd  partly  circulare,/ 
And  part  triangulare,  O  worke  divine;       j 
Those  two  the  first  ,and  last  proportions  are  ; 
The  one  imperfect,  mortall,  faeminine;      \ 
Th'  other  immortall,  perfect,  masculine  ; 

And  twixt  them  both  a  quadrate  was  the  base, 
Proportiond  equally  by  seven  and  nine; 
Nine  was  the  circle  set  in  heavens  place: 
All  which  compacted  made  a  goodly  Dyapase. 

23  Therein  two  gates  were  placed  seemly  well: 
The  one  before,  by  which  all  in  did  pas, 
Did  th'  other  far  in  workmanship  excell; 
For  not  of  wood,  nor  of  ejiduring  bras, 

But  of  more  worthy  substancei*am'd  it  was:    < 
Doubly  disparted,  it  did  locke  and  close, 
That  when  it  locked,  none  might  thorough  pas, 
And  when  it  opened,  no  man  might  it  close  ; 
Still  open  to  their  friends,  and  closed  to  their  foes. 

/j  /x 

S  *]/* 

CANTO  IX.  115 

24  Of  hewen  stone  the  porch  was  fairely  wrought, 
Stone  more  of  valew,  and  more  smooth  and  fine 
Then  jet  or  marble  far  from  Ireland  brought ; 
Over  the  which  was  cast  a  wandring  vine, 
Enchaced  with  a  /vtfantonyvie  twine  : 

And  over  it  a  fair^^SrtcujliSj  hong,  /^g^^ 
Which  to  the  gate  directly  did  incline 
With  comely  compasse,  and  compacture  strong, 
Neither  unseemly  short,  nor  yet  exceeding  long. 

25  Within  the  barbican  a  porter  sate, 

Day  and  night  duely  keeping  watch  and  ward; 
Nor  wight,  nor  word  mote  passe  out  of  the  gate, 
But  in  good  order,  and  with  dew  regard; 
Utterers  of  secrets  he  from  thence  debard, 
Bablers  of  folly,  and  blazers  of  crime : 
His  larum  bell  might  lowd  and  wide  be  hard 
When  cause  requird,  but  never  out  of  time; 
Early  and  late  it  rong,  at  evening  and  at  prime. 

26  And  round  about  the  porch  on  every  syde 
Twise  sixteene  warders  sat,  all  armed  bright  ( 
In  glistring  steele,  and  strongly  fortifide: 

Tall  yeomen  seemed  they,  and  of  great  might, 
And  were  enraunged  ready  still  for  fight. 
By  them  as  Alma  passed  with  her  guestes, 
They  did  obeysaunce,  as  beseemed  right, 
And  then  againe  returned  to  their  restes:     . 
The  porter  eke  to  her  did  lout  with  humble  gestes. 

27  Thence  she  them  brought  into  a  stately  hall, 
Wherein  were  many  tables  faire  dispred, 
And  ready  dight  with  drapets  festivall, 
Against  the  viaundes  should  be  ministred. 
At  th'  upper  end  there  sate,  yclad  in  red 
Downe  to  the  ground,  a  comely  personage, 
That  in  his  hand  a  white  rod  menaged; 

He  steward  was  hight  Diet;   rype  of  age, 
And  in  demeanure  sober,  and  in  counsell  sage. 

I    2 


28  And  through  the  hall  there  walked  to  and  fro 
A  jolly  yeoman,  marshall  of  the  same, 
Whose  name  was  Appetite ;  he  did  bestow 
Both  guestes  and  meate,  whenever  in  they  came, 
And  knew  them  how  to  order  without  blame, 
As  him  the  steward  bad.     They  both  attone 
Did  dewty  to  their  lady,  as  became; 

Who,  passing  by,  forth  led  her  guestes  anone 
Into  the  kitchin  rowme,  ne  spard  for  nicenesse  -'.one. 

29  It  was  a  vaut  ybuilt  for  great  dispence,  VvVO-^ 
With  many  raunges  reard  along  the  wall, 

And  one  great  chimney,  whose  long  tonnell  thence 
The  smoke  forth  threw.     And  in  the  midst  of  all 
There  placed  was  a  caudron  wide  and  tall 

011  a  mighty  furnace,  burning  whot, 
More  whot  then  Aetn',  or  flaming  Mongiball :      /     I 
For  day  and  night  it  brent,  ne  ceased  not,      r$f    (/u^n 
So  long  as  any  thing  it  in  the  caudron  got. 

^2~~—        — ^^-N 

3oQ3ut  to  delay  the  heat)  least  by  mischaunce 
ItTmight  breaks  OfSJi and  set  the  whole  on  fyre, 
There  added  was  by  goodly  ordinaunce 
An  huge  great  paire  of  bellowes,  which  did  styre 
Continually,  and  cooling  breath  inspyre. 
About  the  caudron  many  cookes  accoyld 
With  hookes  and  ladles,  as  need  did  require ; 
The  whiles  the  viaundes  in  the  vessell  boyld, 

They  did  about  their  businesse  sweat,  and  sorely  toyld. 

31  The  maister  cooke  was  cald  Concoction, 
A  carefull  man,  and  full  of  comely  guise : 
The  kitchin  clerke,  that  hight  Digestion, 
Did  order  all  th'  achates  in  seemely  wise,  '   u  I 

And  set  them  forth,  as  well  he  could  devise. 
The  rest  had  severall  offices  assind;  —     (p 

Some  to  remove  the  scum,  as  it  did  rise;   )        ,  (// 
Others  to  beare  the  same  away  did  mind;^ 

And  others  it  to  use  according  to  his  kind. 

CANTO   IX.  117 

33  Which  goodly  order,  and  great  workmans  skill 
Whenas  those  knights  beheld,  with  rare  delight 
And  gazing  wonder  they  their  minds  did  fill ; 
For  never  had  they  scene  so  straunge  a  sight,  _ 
Thence  backe  againe  faire  Alma  led  them  right, 
And  soone  into  a  goodly  parlour  brought, 
That  was  with  royall  arras  richly  dight, 

In  which  was  nothing  pourtrahed  nor  wrought; 
Not  wrought,  nor  pourtrahed,  but  easie  to  be  thought. 

34  And  in  the  midst  thereof  upon  the  floure 
A  lovely  bevy  of  faire  ladies  sate, 
Courted  of  many  a  jolly  paramoure, 

The  which  them  did  in  modest  wise  amate, 
And  each  one  sought  his  lady  to  aggrate: 
And  efee-emongst  them  little  Cupid  playd 
His  kajnton>5poTtes,  being  returned  late 
FrojarSiis  ^rcejwarres,  and  having  from  him  layd 
Hisfcruell,  bow,  wherewith  he  thousands  hath  dismay d. 

35  Diverse  delights  they  found  themselves  to  please; 
Some  song  in  sweet  consort,  some  laught  for  joy ; 
Some  plaid  with  strawes,  some  idly  sat  at  ease, 
But  other  some  could  not  abide  to  toy, 

All  pleasaunce  was  to  them  griefe  and  annoy: 
This  fround,  that  faund,  the  third  for  shame  did  blush, 
Another  seemed  envious,  or  coy, 
Another  in  her  teeth  did  gnaw  a  rush: 
But  at  these  straungers  presence  every  one  did  hush. 

36  Soone  as  the  gracious  Alma  came  in  place, 
They  all  attonce  out  of  their  seates  arose, 
And  to  her  homage  made  with  humble  grace: 
Whom  when  the  knights  beheld,  they  gan  dispose 
Themselves  to  court,  and  each  a  damzell  chose : 
The  prince  by  chaunce  did  on  a  lady  light, 
That  was  right  faire  and  fresh  as  morning  rose, 
But  somewhat  sad,  and  solemne  eke  in  sight, 

As  if  some  pensive  thought  constraind  her  gentle  spright. 


37  In  a  long  purple  pall,  whose  skirt  with  gold 
Was  fretted  all  abou^she  was  arayd; 
And  in  her  hand  a(<poplah  braunch  did  hold.    ' 

To  whom  the  prince^iiicourteous  maner  sayd; 
Gentle  Madame,  why  beene  ye  thus  dismaid, 
And  your  faire  beautie  doe  with  sadnes  spill  ? 
Lives  any,  that  you  hath  thus  ill  apayd?  j 

Or  doen  you  love,  or  doen  you  lack  your  will?  j 
Whatever  be  the  cause,  it  sure  beseemes  you  ill. 

38  Faire  sir,  (said  she,  halfe  in  disdaineful  wise,) 
How  is  it,  that  this  word  in  me  ye  blame, 
And  in  yourselfe  doe  not  the  same  advise  ? 
Him  ill  beseemes  anothers  fault  to  name, 
That  may  unwares  be  blotted  with  the  same: 
Pensive  I  yeeldJ-ttm.  and  sad  in  mind, 
Through  great  (lesireikf  glory  and  of  fame ; 

Ne  ought  I  weene  are  ye  therein  behind,  [find. 

That  have  twelve  months  sought  one,  yet  no  where  can  her 

39  The  prince  was  inly  moved  at  her  speach, 
Well  weeting  trew,  what  she  had  rashly  told; 

Yet  with  faire  semblaunt  sought  to  hide  the  breach, 
Which  chaunge  of  colour  did  perforce  unfold, 
Now  seeming  flaming  whot,  now  stony  cold: 
Tho  turning  soft  aside,  he  did  inquyre 
What  wight  she  was,  that  poplar  bjawwii-did  hold : 
It  answered  was,  her  name  was  ^rays-desire^ 
That  by  well  doing  sought  to  honour  to  aspire. 

40  The  whiles,  the  Faery  knight  did  entertaine 
Another  damsell  of  that  gentle  crew, 

That  was  right  faire  and^  mndest_gf_demaine. 
But  that  too  oft  she  <%ung'd  her  jiative 
Straunge  was  her  tyre,  and  all  heFgarment  blew, 
Close  rownd  about  herituckt  with  many  a  plight: 
Upon  her  fist  the  bird  which  shonneth  vew, 
And  keepes  in  coverts  close  from  living  wight, 
Did  sit,  as  yet  ashamd,  how  rude  Pan  did  her  dight. 

CANTO  IX.  119 

41  So  long  as  Guyon  with  her  commoned, 
Unto  the  ground  she  cast  her  modest  eye, 
And  ever  and  anone  with  rosie  red 

The  bashfull  bloud  her  snowy  cheekes  did  dye, 
That  her  became,  as  polisht  yvory 
Which  cum^ng^a^esman_hand  hath  overlayd 
With  faire  vermilion  or  pure  castory. 
Great  wonder  had  the  knight  to  see  the  mayd 
So  straungely  passioned,  and  to  her  gently  said: 

42  Faire  damzell,  seemeth  by  your  troubled  cheare, 
That  either  me  too  bold  ye  weene,  this  wise 
You  to  molest,  or  other  ill  to  feare 

That  in  the  secret  of  your  hart  close  lyes, 
From  whence  it  doth,  as  cloud  from  sea,  arise: 
If  it  be  I,  of  pardon  I  you  pray; 
But  if  ought  else  that  I  mote  not  devise, 
I  will,  if  please  you  it  discure,  assay 
To  ease  you  of  that  ill,  so  wisely  as  I  may. 

43  She  answerd  nought,  but  more  abasht  for  shame 
Held  downe  her  head,  the  whiles  her  lovely  face 
The  flashing  bloud  with  blushing  did  inflame, 
And  the  strong  passion  mard  her  modest  grace, 
That  Guyon  mervayld  at  her  uncouth  cace; 
Till  Alma  him  bespake,  Why  wonder  yee, 

Faire  sir,  at  that,  which  ye  so  much  embrace?         i- 
She  is  the  fountaine  of  your  modestee, 
You  shamefast  are,  but  Shamefastnesse  itselfe  is  shee. 

t44  Thereat  the  Elfe  did  blush  in  privitee, 

And  turnd  his  face  away;  but  she  the  same 
Dissembled  faire,  and  faynd  to  oversee. 
Thus  they  awhile  with  court  and  goodly  game 
Themselves  did  solace  each  one  with  his  dame, 
Till  that  great  ladie  thence  away  them  sought 
To  vew  her  castles  other  wondrous  frame. 
Up  to  a  stately  turret  she  them  brought, 

Ascending  by  ten  steps  of  alablaster  wrought. 


45  That  turrets  frame  most  admirable  was, 
Like  highest  heaven  compassed  around, 
And  lifted  high  above  this  earthly  masse, 
Which  it  survewd,  as  hils  doen  lower  ground: 
But  not  on  ground  mote  like  to  this  be  found ; 
Not  that,  which  antique  Cadmus  whylome  built 
In  Thebes,  which  Alexander  did  confound ; 

Nor  that  proud  towre  of  Troy,  though  richly  guilt, 
From  which  young  Hectors  bloud  by  cruell  Greekes  was  spilt. 

46  The  roofe  hereof  was  arched  over  head, 
And  deckt'  with  flowres  and  herbars  daintily; 
Two  goodly  beacons,  set  in  watches  stead, 
Therein  gave  light,  and  flam'd  continually: 
For  they  of  living  fire  most  subtilly 

Were  made,  and  set  in  silver  sockets  bright, 
Cover'd  with  lids  deviz'd  of  substance  sly, 
That  readily  they  shut  and  open  might. 
O  who  can  tell  the  prayses  of  that  makers  might? 

47\Ne  can  I  tell,  ne  can  I  stay  to  tell,  \        f- 

This  parts  great  workemanship  and  wondrous' powre, 

That  all  this  other  worldes  worke  doth  excell, 

And  likest  is  unto  that  heavenly  towre 

That  God  hath  built  for  his  owne  blessed  bowre. 

Therein  were  divers  roomes,  and  divers  stages ; 

But  three  the  chiefest  and  of  greatest  powre, 

In  which  there  dwebb^fHree  honorable  sages, 

The  wisest  men,  I  ween&pfiiat  lived  in  their  ages. 

48  Not  he,  whom  Greece,  the  nourse  of  all  good  arts,       4   -  \L 
By  Phoebus  doome  the  wisest  thought  alive, 
Might  be  compar'd  to  these  by  many  parts:  \J" 

Nor  that  sage  Pylian  syre,  which  did  survive 
Three  ages,  such  as  mortall  men  contrive, 
By  whose  advise  old  Priams  cittie  fell, 
With  these  in  praise  of  pollicies  mote  strive. 
These  three  in  these  three  roomes  did  sundry  dwell, 

And  counselled  faire  Alma  how  to  governe  well. 



j|9  The  first  of  them  could  things  to  come  foresee; 
The  next  could  of  thinges  present  best  advize  ; 
The  third  things  past  could  keepe  in  memoree: 
So  that  no  time,  nor  reason  could  arize, 
But  that  the  same  could  one  of  these  comprize. 
Forthy  the  first  did  in  the  forepart  sit, 
That  nought  mote  hinder  his  quicke  prejudize: 
He  had  a  sharpe  foresight,  and  working  wit, 

That  never  idle  was,  ne  once  would  rest  a  whit. 

50  His  chamber  was  dispainted  all  within 
With  sondry  colours,  in  the  which,  were  writ 
Infinite  shapes  of  thinges  dispersed  thin  ; 
Some  such  as  in  the  world  were  never  yit, 
Ne  can  devized  be  of  mortall  wit  ; 

Some  daily  scene,  and  knowen  by  their  names, 
Such  as  in  idle  fantasies  do  flit; 
Infernall  hags,  centaurs,  feendes,  hippodames, 
Apes,  lyons,  aegles,  owles,  fooles,  lovers,  children,  dames. 

51  And  all  the  chamber  filled  was  with  flyes 
Which  buzzed  all  about,  and  made  such  sound 
That  they  encombred  all  mens  eares  and  eyes, 
Like  many  swarmes  of  bees  assembled  round, 
After  their  hives  with  honny  do  abound. 

All  those  were  idle  thoughts  and  fantasies, 
Devices,  dreames,  opinions  unsound, 
Shewes,  visions,  sooth-sayes,  and  prophesies; 
And  all  that  fained  is,  as  leasings,  tales,  and  lies. 

52  Emongst  them  all  sate  he  which  wonned  there,     „      v^ 
That  hight  Phantastes  by  his  nature  trew; 

A  man  of  yeares  yet  fresh,  as  mote  appere, 
Of  swarth  complexion,  and  of  crabbed  hew, 
That  him  full  of  melancholy  did  shew;  ^sjlr 

Bent  hollow  beetle  browes,  sharpe  staring  eyes 
That  mad  or  foolish  seemd:    one  by  his  vew 
Mote  deeme  him  borne  with  ill  disposed  skyes, 
When  oblique  Saturne  sate  in  th'  house  of  agonyes. 


53  Whom  Alma  having  shewed  to  her  guestes, 

Thence  brought  them  to  the  second  roome,  whose  wals 
Were  painted  faire  with  memorable  gestes 
Of  famous  wisards,  and  with  picturals 
Of  magistrates,  of  courts,  of  tribunals, 
Of  commen  wealthes,  of  states,  of  pollicy, 
Of  lawes,  of  judgements,  and  of  decretals ; 
All  artes,  all  science,  all  philosophy, 
And  all  that  in  the  world  was  aye  thought  wittily. 

54  Of  those  that  rowme  was  full ;  and  them  among 

There  sate  a  man  of  ripe  and  perfect  age, 
Who  did  them  meditate  all  his  life  long, 
That  through  continuall  practise  and  usage 

Who  did  them  meditate  all  his  life  long, 

He  now  was  growne  right  wise,  and  wondrous  sage: 
Great  pleasure  had  those  stranger  knights  to  see 
His  goodly  reason  and  grave  personage, 
That  his  disciples  both  desir'd  to  bee: 
But  Alma  thence  them  led  to  th*  hindmost  roome  of  three. 

55  That  chamber  seemed  ruinous  and  old, 
And  therefore  was  removed  far  behind, 

Yet  were  the  wals,  that  did  the  same  uphold, 
Right  firme  and  strong,  though  spmewhaiLjthey  declind^ 
And  therein  sat  an  old  oldman y^halfe^  blind^   !/Ar-C\^ 
And  all  decrepit  in  his  feeble  corse^ 
Yet  lively  vigour  rested  in  his  mind,  '\' 

And  recompenst  them  with  a  better  scorse: 
Weake  body  well  is  chang'd  for  minds  redoubled  forse. 

56  This  man  of  infinite  remembrance  was, 

And  things  foregone  through  many  ages  held, 
Which  he  recorded  still,  as  they  did  pas, 
Ne  suffred  them  to  perish  through  long  eld, 
As  all  things  els,  the  which  this  world  doth  weld; 
But  laid  them  up  in  his  immortall  scrine, 
Where  they  for  ever  in  corrupted  dweld : 
The  warres  he  well  remembred  of  king  Ninet 
Of  old  Assaracus,  and  Inachus  divine. 

CANTO  IX.  123 

57  The  yeares  of  Nestor  nothing  were  to  his, 
Ne  yet  Mathusalem,  though  longest  liv'd; 
For  he  remembred  both  their  infancies: 
Ne  wonder  then  if  that  he  were  depriv'd 

r  Xjt/^^l    ^  native  strength  now  that  he  them  surviv'd. 
His  chamber  all  was  hangd  about  with  rolles 
And  old  records  from  auncient  times  deriv'd, 
Some  made  in  books,  some  in  long  parchment  scrolles, 
.That  were  all  worm-eaten  and  full  of  canker  holes. 

58  Amidst  them  all  he  in  a  chaire  was  set, 
Tossing  and  turning  them  withouten  end; 

But  for  he  was  unhable  them  to  fet,  / 

A  little  boy  did  on  him  still  attend,  $09  °^' 

To  reach,  whenever  he  for  ought  did  send; 
And  oft  when  thinges  were  lost,  or  laid  amis, 
That  boy  them  sought,  and  unto  him  did  lend: 
Therefore  he  Anamnestes  cleped  is; 
And  that  old  man  Eumnestes,  by  their  propertis. 

59  The  knights  there  entring  did  him  reverence  dew, 
And  wondred  at  his  endlesse  exercise. 

Then  as  they  gan  his  librarie  to  vew, 
And  antique  registers  for  to  avise, 
There  chaunced  to  the  princes  hand  to  rize 
An  auncient  booke,  hight  Briton  Moniments, 
That  of  this  lands  first  conquest  did  devize, 
And  old  division  into  regiments, 
Till  it  reduced  was  to  one  mans  governments. 

60  Sir  Guyon  chaunst  eke  on  another  booke, 
That  hight   Antiquitie  of  Faerie  lond  : 

In  which  when  as  he  greedily  did  looke, 

Th'  off-spring  of  Elves  and  Faries  there  he  fond, 

As  it  delivered  was  from  bond  to  bond: 
Whereat  they  -burning  both  with  fervent  fii 
Their  countries 

Crav'd  leave  of  Alma  and  that  aged  sire 
To  read  those  bookes;   who  gladly  graunted  their  desire. 


,    ^       ^ 
v    ^     ' 


A  chronicle  of  Briton  kings, 
From  Brute  to  Uthers  rayne ; 

And  rolles  of  Elfin  emperours, 
Till  time  of  Gloriane. 

1  WHO  now  shall  give  unto  me  words  and  sound 
Equall  unto  this  haughtie  enterprise? 

Or  who  shal  lend  me  wings,  with  which  from  ground 
My  lowly  verse  may  loftily  arise. 
And  lift  itselfe  unto  the  highest  skies? 
More  ample  spirit,  then  hitherto  was  wount 
Here  needes  me,  whiles  the  famous  auncestries 
Of  my  most  dreaded  soveraigne  I  recount, 
By  which  all  earthly  princes  she  doth  farre  surmount. 

2  Ne  under  sunne,  that  shines  so  wide  and  faire, 
Whence  all  that  lives  does  borrow  life  and  light, 
Lives  ought  that  to  her  linage  may  compare ; 
Which  though  from  earth  it  be  derived  right, 
Yet  doth  itselfe  stretch  forth  to  heavens  hight, 
And  all  the  world  with  wonder  overspred; 

A  labor  huge,  exceeding  far  my  might: 
How  shall  fraile  pen,  with  feare  disparaged, 
Conceive  such  soveraine  glory  and  great  bountihed? 

3  Argument  worthy  of  Maeonian  quill ; 

Or  rather  worthy  of  great  Phoebus  rote, 
Whereon  the  ruines  of  great  Ossa  hill,  . 
And  triumphes  of  Phlegraean  Jove,  he  wrotc; 
That  all  the  gods  admird  his  loftie  note. 
But  if  some  relish  of  that  heavenly  lay          , 
His  learned  daughters  would  to  me  report 
To  decke  my  song  withall,  I  would  assay 
Thy  name,  O  soveraine  Queene,  to  blazon  farre  away. 

CANTO   X.  125 

4  Thy  name,  O  soveraine  Queene,  thy  realme  and  race, 
From  this  renowmed  prince  derived  arre, 

Who  mightily  upheld  that  royall  mace 
Which  now  thou  bear'st,  to  thee  descended  farre 
From  mightie  kings  and  conquerours  in  warre, 
Thy  fathers  and  great  grandfathers  of  old, 
Whose  noble  deedes  above  the  northerne  starre 
Immortall  Fame  for  ever  hath  enrold; 
As  in  that  old  mans  booke  they  were  in  order  told. 

5  The  land,  which  warlike  Britons  now  possesse, 
And  therein  have  their  mightie  empire  raysd,j 
In  antique  times  was  salvage  wildernesse, 
Unpeopled,  unmannurd,  unprovd,  unpraysd: 
Ne  was  it  island  then,  ne  was  it  paysd 
Amid  the  ocean  waves,  ne  was  it  sought 

Of  merchants  farre  for  profits  therein  praysd  ; 
But  was  all  desolate,  and  of  some  thought 
By  sea  to'  have  bene  from  the  Celticke  mayn-land  brought. 

6  Ne  did^  it  then  deserve  a  name  to  have. 
Till  that~the  venturous  mflrtner  Ihat  way    , 
Learning  his  ship  from  those  white  rocks  to  save, 
Which  all  along  the  southerne  sea-coast  lay 
Threatning  unheedie  wrecke  and  rash  decay, 
For  safeties  sake  that  same  his  sea-marke  made, 
And  nam'd  it  Albion.     But  later  day, 

Finding  in  it  fit  ports  for  fishers  trade, 
Gan  more  the  same  frequent,  and  further  to  invade. 

7  But  farre  in  land  a  salvage  nation  dwelt 
Of  hideous  giants,  and  halfe  beastly  men, 
That  never  tasted  grace,  nor  goodnesse  felt, 
But  wild  like  beasts  lurking  in  loathsome  den, 
And  flying  fast  as  roebucke  through  the  fen, 
All  naked  without  shame,  or  care  of  cold, 

By  hunting  and  by  spoiling  lived  then ; 
Of  stature  huge,  and  eke  of  courage  bold, 
That  sonnes  of  men  amazd  their  sternesse  to  behold. 


8  But  whence  they  sprong,  or  how  they  were  begot, 
Uneath  is  to  assure ;   uneath  to  wene 

That  monstrous  error  which  doth  some  assot, 
That  Dioclesians  fiftie  daughters  shene 
Into  this  land  by  chaunce  have  driven  bene, 
Where  companing  with  feends  and  filthy  sprights 
They  brought  forth  giants,  and  such  dreadfull  wights 
As  farre  exceeded  men  in  their  immeasurd  mights. 

9  They  held  this  land,  and  with  their  filthinesse 
Polluted  this  same  gentle  soyle  long  time ; 

That  their  owne  mother  loathd  their  beastlinesse, 
And  gan  abhorre  her  broods  unkindly  crime. 
All  were  they  borne  of  her  owne  native  slime ; 
Until  that  Brutus  anciently  deriv'd 
From  royall  stocke  of  old  Assaracs  line, 
Driven  by  fatall  error,  here  arriv'd, 
And  them  of  their  unjust  possession  depriv'd. 

10  But  ere  he  had  established  his  throne, 
And  spred  his  empire  to  the  utmost  shore, 
He  fought  great  battels  with  his  salvage  fone; 
In  which  he  them  defeated  evermore, 

And  many  giants  left  on  groning  flore: 
That  well  can  witness  yet  unto  this  day 
The  westerne  Hogh,  besprincled  with  the  gore 
Of  mighty  Goemot,  whom  in  stout  fray  ' 
Corineus  conquered,  and  cruelly  did  slay. 

11  And  eke  that  ample  pit,  yet  farre  renownd 
For  the  large  leape,  which  Debon  did  compell 
Goulin  to  make,  being  eight  lugs  of  grownd, 
Into  the  which  returning  backe  he  fell: 

But  those  three  monstrous  stones  doe  most  excell 
Which  that  huge  sonne  of  hideous  Albion, 
Whose  father  Hercules  in  Fraunce  did  quell, 
Great  Godmer  threw,  in  fierce  contention, 
At  bold  Canutus ;  but  of  him  was  slaine  anon. 

CANTO  X.  127 

i  a  In  meed  of  these  great  conquests  by  them  got, 
Corineus  had  that  province  utmost  west 
To  him  assigned  for  his  worthy  lot, 
Which  of  his  name  and  memorable  gest 
He  called  Cornewaile,  yet  so  called  best; 
And  Debons  shayre  was  that  is  Devonshyre: 
But  Canute  had  his  portion  from  the  rest, 
The  which  he  cald  Ganutium,  for  his  hyre ; 

Now  Cantium,  which  Kent  we  commenly  inquire. 

13  Thus  Brute  this  realme  unto  his  rule  subdewd, 
And  raigned  long  in  great  felicitie, 

Lov'd  of  his  friends,  and  of  his  foes  eschewd: 
He  left  three  sonnes,  his  famous  progeny, 
Borne  of  faire  Inogene  of  Italy; 
Mongst  whom  he  parted  his  imperiall  state, 
And  Locrine  left  chiefe  lord  of  Britany. 
At  last  ripe  age  bad  him  surrender  late 
His  life,  and  long  good  fortune  unto  finall  fate. 

14  Locrine  was  left  the  soveraine  lord  of  all ; 
But  Albanact  had  all  the  northerne  part, 
Which  of  himselfe  Albania  he  did  call  ; 

And  Camber  did  possesse  the  westerne  quart, 
Which  Severne  now  from  Logris  doth  depart: 
And  each  his  portion  peaceably  enjoyd, 
Ne  was  there  outward  breach,  nor  grudge  in  hart, 
That  once  their  quiet  government  annoyd; 
But  each  his  paines  to  others  profit  still  employd. 

15  Untill  a  nation  straung,  with  visage  swart, 
And  courage  fierce,  that  all  men  did  affray, 

Which  through  the  world  then  swarmd  in  every  part. 
And  overfiowd  all  countries  far  away, 
Like  Noyes  great  flood,  with  their  importune  sway, 
This  land  invaded  with  like  violence, 
And  did  themselves  through  all  the  north  display : 
Untill  that  Locrine  for  his  realmes  defence, 
Did  head  against  them  make,  and  strong  munifience. 


1 6  He  them  encountred,  a  confused  rout, 
Foreby  the  river  that  whylome  was  hight 
The  auncient  Abus,  where  with  courage  stout 
He  them  defeated  in  victorious  fight, 

And  chaste  so  fiercely  after  fearefull  flight, 
That  forst  their  chiefetaine,  for  his  safeties  sake, 
(Their  chiefetaine  Humber  named  was  aright,) 
Unto  the  mightie  streame  him  to  betake, 
Where  he  an  end  of  battell  and  of  life  did  make. 

17  The  king  returned  proud  of  victorie, 
And  insolent  wox  through  unwonted  ease, 
That  shortly  he  forgot  the  jeopardie, 
Which  in  his  land  he  lately  did  appease 
And  fell  to  vaine  voluptuous  disease: 

He  lov'd  faire  Ladie  Estrild,  lewdly  lov'd, 
Whose  wanton  pleasures  him  too  much  did  please, 
That  quite  his  hart  from  Guendolene  remov'd, 
From  Guendolene  his  wife,  though  alwaies  faithful  prov'd. 

1 8  The  noble  daughter  of  Corineus 
Would  not  endure  to  be  so  vile  disdaind, 
But,  gathering  force,  and  courage  valorous, 
Encountred  him  in  battell  well  ordaind, 

In  which  him  vanquisht  she  to  fly  constraind: 
But  she  so  fast  pursewd,  that  him  she  tooke 
And  threw  in  bands,  where  he  till  death  remaind; 
Als  his  faire  leman  flying  through  a  brooke 
She  overhent,  nought  moved  with  her  piteous  looke. 

19  But  both  herselfe,  and  eke  her  daughter  deare 
Begotten  by  her  kingly  paramoure, 

The  faire  Sabrina  almost  dead  with  feare, 
She  there  attached,  far  from  all  succoure: 
The  one  she  slew  in  that  impatient  stoure, 
But  the  sad  virgin  innocent  of  all, 
Adowne  the  rolling  river  she  did  poure, 
Which  of  her  name  now  Severne  men  do  call: 
Such  was  the  end  that  to  disloyall  love  did  fall. 

CANTO  X.  129 

20  Then  for  her  sonne,  which  she  to  Locrin  bore, 
Madan  was  young,  unmeet  the  rule  of  sway, 

In  her  owne  hand  the  crowne  she  kept  in  store, 
Till  ryper  ears  he  raught,  and  stronger  stay: 
During  which  time  her  powre  she  did  display      i     j 
Through  all  this  realme,  the  glorie  of  her  sex,    1 
And  first  taught  men  a  woman  to  obay : 
But  when  her  sonne  to  mans  estate  did  wex,       V 
She  it  surrendred,  ne  herselfe  would  lenger  vex. 

2 1  Tho  Madan  raignd,  unworthie  of  his  race ; 
For  with  all  shame  that  sacred  throne  he  fild. 
Next  Memprise,  as  unworthy  of  that  place, 

In  which  being  consorted  with  Manild, 
For  thirst  of  single  kingdom  him  he  kild. 
But  Ebranck  salved  both  their  infamies 
With  noble  deedes,  and  warreyd  on  Brunchild 
In  Renault,  where  yet  of  his  victories 
Brave  moniments  remaine,  which  yet  that  land  envies. 

22  An  happy  man  in  his  first  dayes  he  was, 
And  happie  father  of  faire  progeny: 

For  all  so  many  weekes  as  the  yeare  has, 
So  many  children  he  did  multiply; 
Of  which  were  twentie  sonnes,  which  did  apply 
Their  minds  to  praise  and  chevalrous  desire: 
Those  germans  did  subdew  all  Germany, 
Of  whom  it  hight ;   but  in  the  end  their  sire 
With  foule  repulse  from  Fraunce  was  forced  to  retire. 

23  Which  blot  his  sonne  succeeding  in  his  seat, 
The  second  Brute,  the  second  both  in  name, 
And  eke  in  semblance  of  his  puissance  great, 
Right  well  recur'd,  and  did  away  that  blame 
With  recompence  of  everlasting  fame. 

He  with  his  victour  sword  first  opened 
The  bowels  of  wide  Fraunce,  a  forlorne  dame, 
And  taught  her  first  how  to  be  conquered ; 
Since  which,  with  sundrie  spoiles  she  hath  been  ransacked 



24  Let  Scaldis  tell,  and  let  tell  Hania, 
And  let  the  marsh  of  Estham  bruges  tell, 
What  colour  were  their  waters  that  same  day, 
And  all  the  moore  twixt  Elversham  and  Dell, 
With  bloud  of  Henalois  which  therein  fell. 
How  oft  that  day  did  sad  Brunchildis  see 
The  greene  shield  dyde  in  dolorous  vermeil  ? 
That  not  sculth  guiridh  it  mote  seeme  to  bee 

But  rather  y  sculth  gogh,  sign  of  sad  crueltee. 

25  His  sonne  king  Leill  by  fathers  labour  long, 
Enjoyd  an  heritage  of  lasting  peace, 

And  built  Cairleill,  and  built  Gairleon  strong. 
Next  Huddibras  his  realme  did  not  encrease, 
But  taught  the  land  from  wearie  warres  to  cease. 
Whose  footsteps  Bladud  following,  in  arts 
Exceld  at  Athens  all  the  learned  preace, 
From  whence  he  brought  them  to  these  salvage  parts, 
And  with  sweet  science  mollifide  their  stubborne  harts. 

26  Ensample  of  his  wondrous  faculty, 
Behold  the  boyling  baths  at  Cairbadon, 
Which  seeth  with  secret  fire  eternally, 

And  in  their  entrails,  full  of  quicke  brimston, 
Nourish  the  flames,  which  they  are  warm'd  upon, 
That  to  their  people  wealth  they  forth  do  well. 
And  health  to  every  forreine  nation : 
Yet  he  at  last,  contending  to  excell 
The  reach  of  men,  through  flight  into  fond  mischief  fell. 

27  Next  him  kingJLeyr  in  happie  peace  long  raind, 
But  had  no  issue  male  him  to  succeed, 

But  three  faire  daughters,  which  were  well  uptraind 
In  all  that  seemed  fit  for  kingly  seed; 
Mongst  whom  his  realme  he  equally  decreed 
To  have  divided.    Tho  when  feeble  age 
Nigh  to  his  utmost  date  he  saw  proceed, 
He  cald  his  daughters,  and  with  speeches  sage 
Inquyrd,  which  of  them  most  did  love  her  parentage. 

CANTO  X.  131 

28  The  eldest  Gonorill  gan  to  protest, 

That  she  much  more  than  her  owne  life  him  lov'd; 
And  Regan  greater  love  to  him  profest 
Then  all  the  world,  whenever  it  were  proov'd; 
But  Cordeill  said  she  loved  him,  as  behoov'd: 
Whose  simple  answere,  wanting  colours  faire 
To  paint  it  forth,  him  to  displeasance  moov'd, 
That  in  his  crowne  he  counted  her  no  haire, 
But  twixt  the  other  twaine  his  kingdom  whole  did  shaire. 

29  So  wedded  th'  one  to  Maglan  king  of  Scots, 
And  th'  other  to  the  king  of  Cambria, 

And  twixt  them  shayrd  his  realme  by  equall  lots; 
But,  without  dowre,  the  wise  Cordelia 
Was  sent  to  Aganip  of  Celtica. 
Their  aged  syre,  thus  eased  of  his  crowne, 
A  private  .life  led  in  Albania 
With  Gonorill,  long  had  in  great  renowne, 
That  nought  him  griev'd  to  beene  from  rule  deposed  downe. 

30  But  true  it  is  that,  when  the  oyle  is  spent, 
The  light  goes  out,  and  weeke  is  throwne  away; 
So  when  he  had  resignd  his  regiment, 

His  daughter  gan  despise  his  drouping  day, 
And  wearie  waxe  of  his  continuall  stay; 
Tho  to  his  daughter  Regan  he  repayrd, 
Who  him  at  first  well  used  every  way; 
But  when  of  his  departure  she  despayrd, 
Her  bountie  she  abated,  and  his  cheare  empayrd. 

31  The  wretched  man  gan  then  avise  too  late, 
That  love  is  not,  where  most  it  is  profest; 
Too  truely  tryde  in  his  extremest  state; 
At  last  resolv'd  likewise  to  prove  the  rest, 
He  to  Cordelia  him  selfe  addrest, 

Who  with  entyre  affection  him  receav'd, 
As  for  her  syre  and  king  her  seemed  best; 
And  after  all  an  army  strong  she  leav'd, 
To  war  on  those,  which  him  had  of  his  realme  bereav'd. 
E  2 


32  So  to  his  crowne  she  him  restor'd  againe, 

In  which  he  dyde,  made  ripe  for  death  by  eld, 
And  after  wild  it  should  to  her  remaine : 
Who  peaceably  the  same  long  time  did  weld, 
And  all  mens  harts  in  dew  obedience  held; 
Till  that  her  sisters  children,  woxen  strong 
Through  proud  ambition,  against  her  rebeld, 
And  overcommen  kept  in  prison  long, 
Till  wearie  of  that  wretched  life  herselfe  she  hong. 

33  Then  gan  the  bloudy  brethren  both  to  raine: 
But  fierce  Cundah  gan  shortly  to  envie 

His  brother  Morgan,  prickt  with  proud  disdaine 
To  have  a  pere  in  part  of  soveraintie ; 
And  kindling  coles  of  cruell  enmitie, 
Raisd  warre,  and  him  in  battell  overthrew: 
Whence  as  he  to  those  woodie  hills  did  flie, 
Which  hight  of  him  Glamorgan,  there  him  slew: 
Then  did  he  raigne  alone,  when  he  none  equall  knew. 

34  His  sonne  Rivall*  his  dead  rowme  did  supply; 
In  whose  sad  time  bloud  did  from  heaven  raine. 
Next  great  Gurgustus,  then  faire   Caecily, 

In  constant  peace  their  kingdomes  did  containe, 
>  After  whom  Lago,  and  Kinmarke  did  raine, 

x'^And  Gorbogud,  till  farre  in  yeares  he  grew: 
Then  his  ambitious  sonnes  unto  them  twaine 
Arraught  the  rule,  and  from  their  father  drew; 

Stout  Ferrex  and  sterne  Porrex  him  in  prison  threw. 

35  But  O,  the  greedy  thirst  of  royall  crowne, 
That  knowes  no  kinred,  nor  regardes  no  right, 
Stird  Porrex  up  to  put  his  brother  downe; 
Who  unto  him  assembling  forreine  might, 
Made  warre  on  him,  and  fell  himselfe  in  fight: 
Whose  death  t'  avenge,  his  mother  mercilesse, 
Most  mercilesse  of  women,  Wyden  hight, 
Her  other  sonne 'last  sleeping  did  oppresse, 

And  with  most  cruell  hand  him  murdred  pittilesse. 

CANTO  X.  133 

36  Here  ended  Brutus  sacred  progenie, 

Which  had  seven  hundred  years  this  sceptre  borne 
With  high  renowme,  and  great  felicity: 
The  noble  braunch  from  th*  antique  stocke  was  torne 
Through  discord,  and  the  royall  throne  forlorne. 
Thenceforth  this  realme  was  into  factions  rent, 
Whilest  each  of  Brutus  boasted  to  be  borne, 
That  in  the  end  was  left  no  moniment 
Of  Brutus,  nor  of  Britons  glory  auncient. 

37  Then  up  arose  a  man  of  matchlesse  might, 
And  wondrous  wit  to  menage  high  affaires, 
Who  stird  with  pitty  of  the  stressed  plight 
Of  this  sad  realme,  cut  into  sundry  shaires 

By  such  as  claymd  themselves  Brutes  rightfull  haires, 
Gathered  the  princes  of  the  people  loose 
To  taken  counsell  of  their  common  cares; 
Who  with  his  wisedom  won,  him  streight  did  choose 
Their  king,  and  swore  him  fealty  to  win  or  loose. 

38  Then  made  he  head  against  his  enimies, 
And  Ymner  slew  of  Logris  miscreate ; 
Then  Ruddoc  and  proud  Stater,  both  allyes, 
This  of  Albanie  newly  nominate, 

And  that  of  Cambry  king  confirmed  late, 
He  overthrew  through  his  owne  valiaunce; 
Whose  countries  he  redus'd  to  quiet  state, 
And  shortly  brought  to  civill  governaunce, 
Now  one,  which  earst  were  many,  made  through  variaunce. 

39  Then  made  he  sacred  lawes,  which  some  men  say 
Were  unto  him  reveald  in  vision; 

By  which  he  freed  the  travellers  highway, 
The  churches  part,  and  ploughmans  portion, 
Restraining  stealth  and  strong  extortion; 
The  gracious  Numa  of  great  Britanie : 
For  till  his  dayes,  the  chiefe  dominion 
By  strength  was  wielded  without  pollicie: 
Therefore  he  first  wore  crowne  of  gold  for  dignitie. 

134  THE    FAERY    QUEENS. 

40  Donwallo  dyde,  (for  what  may  live  for  ay?) 
And  left  two  sonnes,  of  pearelesse  prowesse  both, 
That  sacked  Rome  too  dearely  did  assay, 

The  recompence  of  their  perjured  oth ; 
And  ransackt  Greece  wel  tryde,  when  they  were  wroth; 
Besides  subjected  France  and  Germany, 
Which  yet  their  praises  speake,  all  be  they  loth, 
And  inly  tremble  at  the  memory 
Of  Brennus  and  Bellinus,  kings  of  Britany. 

41  Next  them  did  Gurgunt,  great  Belinus  sonne, 
In  rule  succeede,  and  eke  in  fathers  praise; 
He  Easterland  subdewd,  and  Denmarke  wonne, 
And  of  them  both  did  foy  and  tribute  raise, 
The  which  was  dew  in  his  dead  fathers  dayes: 
He  also  gave  to  fugitives  of  Spayne, 

Whom  he  at  sea  found  wandring  from  their  wayes, 
A  seate  in  Ireland  safely  to  remayne, 
Which  they  should  hold  of  him  as  subject  to  Britayne. 

42  After  him  raigned  Guitheline  his  hay  re, 
The  justest  man  and  trewest  in  his  dayes, 
Who  had  to  wife  Dame  Mertia  the  fayre, 
A  woman  worthy  of  immortall  prayse, 

Which  for  this  realme  found  many  goodly  layes, 
And  wholesome  statutes  to  her  husband  brought: 
Her  many  deemd  to  have  beene  of  the  Fayes, 
As  was  Aegerie  that  Numa  tought: 
Those  yet  of  her  be  Mertian  lawes  both  nam'd  and  thought. 

43  Her  sonne  Sifillus  after  her  did  rayne, 
And  then  Kimarus,  and  then  Danius ; 

Next  whom  Morindus  did  the  crowne  sustaine ; 
Who,  had  he  not  with  wrath  outrageous, 
And  cruell  rancour  dim'd  his  valorous 
And  mightie  deeds,  should  matched  have  the  best 
As  well  in  that  same  field  victorious 
Against  the  forreine  Morands  he  exprest; 
Yet  lives  his  memorie,  though  carcas  sleepe  in  rest. 

CANTO  X.  135 

44  Five  sonnes  he  left  begotten  of  one  wife, 
All  which  successively  by  turnes  did  raine : 
First  Gorboman,  a  man  of  vertuous  life ; 
Next  Archigald,  who  for  his  proud  disdaine 
Deposed  was  from  princedome  soveraine, 
And  pitteous  Elidure  put  in  his  sted; 
Who  shortly  it  to  him  restord  againe, 

Till  by  his  death  he  it  recovered; 
But  Peridure  and  Vigent  him  disthronized. 

45  In  wretched  prison  long  he  did  remaine, 
Till  they  out  raigned  had  their  utmost  date, 
And  then  therein  reseized  was  againe, 

And  ruled  long  with  honorable  state, 
Till  he  surrendred  realme  and  life  to  fate. 
Then  all  the  sonnes  of  these  five  brethren  raynd 
By  dew  successe,  and  all  their  nephewes  late ; 
Even  thrise  eleven  descents  the  crowne  retaynd, 
Till  aged  Hely  by  dew  heritage  it  gaynd. 

46  He  had  two  sonnes,  whose  eldest  called  Lud 
Left  of  his  life  most  famous  memory, 

And  endlesse  moniments  of  his  great  good : 
The  ruin'd  wals  he  did  reaedifye 
Of  Troynovant,  gainst  force  of  enimy, 
And  built  that  gate,  which  of  his  name  is  hight, 
By  which  he  lyes  entombed  solemnly. 
He  left  two  sonnes,  too  young  to  rule  aright, 
Androgeus  and  Tenantius,  pictures  of  his  might. 

47  Whilst  they  were  young,  Gassibalane  their  erne 
Was  by  the  people  chosen  in  their  sted, 
Who  on  him  tooke  the  royall  diademe, 

And  goodly  well  long  time  it  governed; 
Till  the  prowd  Romanes  him  disquieted, 
And  warlike  Caesar,  tempted  with  the  name 
Of  this  sweet  island,  never  conquered, 
And  envying  the  Britons  blazed  fame, 
(O  hideous  hunger  of  dominion)  hither  came 


48  Yet  twise  they  were  repulsed  backe  againe, 
And  twise  renforst  backe  to  their  ships  to  fly; 
The  whiles  with  blood  they  all  the  shore  did  staine, 
And  the  gray  ocean  into  purple  dy: 

Ne  had  they  footing  found  at  last  perdie, 
Had  not  Androgeus,  false  to  native  soyle, 
And  envious  of  uncles  soveraintie, 
Betrayd  his  countrey  unto  forreine  spoyle, 
Nought  els  but  treason  from  the  first  this  land  did  foyle. 

49  So  by  him  Caesar  got  the  victory, 

Through  great  bloudshed,  and  many  a  sad  assay, 
In  which  himselfe  was  charged  heavily 
Of  hardy  Nennius,  whom  he  yet  did  slay, 
But  lost  his  sword,  yet  to  be  scene  this  day. 
Thenceforth  this  land  was  tributarie  made 
T' ambitious  Rome,  and  did  their  rule  obay, 
Till  Arthur  all  that  reckoning  defrayd : 
Yet  oft  the  Briton  kings  against  them  strongly  swayd. 

50  Next  him  Tenantius  raignd,  then  Kimbeline, 
What  time  th'  eternall  Lord  in  fleshljrslmie^) 
Enwombed  was,  from  wretched  AdamsfTme 
To  purge  away  the  guilt  of  sinfull  crime. 

O  joyous  memorie  of  happy  time. 
That  heavenly  grace  so  plenteously  displayd; 
(O  too  high  ditty  for  my  simple  rime.) 
Soone  after  this  the  Romanes  him  warrayd; 
For  that  their  tribute  he  refusd  to  let  be  payd. 

51  Good  Claudius,  that  next  was  emperour, 

An  army  brought,  and  with  him  battell  fought, 
In  which  the  king  was  by  a  treachetour 
Disguised  slaine,  ere  any  thereof  thought : 
Yet  ceased  not  the  bloudy  fight  for  ought : 
For  Arvirage  his  brothers  place  supplide 
Both  in  his  armes  and  crowne,  and  by  that  draught 
Did  drive  the  Romanes  to  the  weaker  side, 
That  they  to  peace  agreed.     So  all  was  pacifide. 

CANTO  X.  137 

53  Was  never  king  more  highly  magnifide, 

Nor  dred  of  Romanes,  then  was  Arvirage, 

For  which  the  emperour  to  him  allide 

His  daughter  Genuiss'  in  marriage: 

Yet  shortly  he  renounst  the  vassallage 

Of  Rome  againe,  who  hither  hastly  sent 

Vespasian,  that  with  great  spoile  and  rage 

Forwasted  all,  till  Genuissa  gent 
Persuaded  him  to  ceasse,  and  her  lord  to  relent. 

53  He  dyde;  and  him  succeded  Marius, 
Who  joyd  his  dayes  in  great  tranquillity. 
Then  Coyll;  and  after  him  good  Lucius, 
That  first  received  Christianity, 

The  sacred  pledge  of  Christes  Evangely,  i; 
Yet  true  it  is,  that  long  before  that  day 
Hither  came  Joseph  of  Arimathy, 
Who  brought  with  him  the  holy  grayle,  (they  say,) 
And  preacht  the  truth;  but  since  it  greatly  did  decay. 

54  This  good  king  shortly  without  issew  dide, 
Whereof  great  trouble  in  the  kingdome  grew, 
That  did  herselfe  in  sundry  parts  divide, 

And  with  her  powre  her  owne  selfe  overthrew, 
Whilest  Romanes  daily  did  the  weake  subdew: 
Which  seeing,  stout  Bunduca  up  arose, 
And  taking  armes  the  Britons  to  her  drew; 
With  whom  she  marched  straight  against  her  foes, 
And  them  unwares  besides  the  Severne  did  enclose. 

55  There  she  with  them  a  cruell  battell  tride, 
Not  with  so  good  successe,  as  she  deserv'd; 
By  reason  that  the  captaines  on  her  syde, 
Corrupted  by  Paulinus,  from  her  swerv'd: 

Yet  such,  as  were  through  former  flight  preserv'd, 
Gathering  againe,  her  host  she  did  renew, 
And  with  fresh  courage  on  the  victor  serv'd: 
But  being  all  defeated,  save  a  few, 
Rather  then  fly,  or  be  captiv'd,  her  selfe  she  slew. 


56  O  famous  moniment  of  womens  prayse, 
Matchable  either  to  Semiramis, 

Whom  antique  history  so  high  doth  raise, 
Or  to  Hypsiphil',  or  to  Thomids: 
Her  host  two  hundred  thousand  numbred  is, 
Who  whiles  good  fortune  favoured  her  might, 
Triumphed  oft  against  her  enemis; 
And  yet,  though  overcome  in  haplesse  fight, 
She  triumphed  on  death,  in  enemies  despight. 

57  Her  reliques  Fulgent  having  gathered, 
Fought  with  Severus,  and  him  overthrew; 

Yet  in  the  chace  was  slaine  of  them,  that  fled: 
So  made  them  victours,  whom  he  did  subdew. 
Then  gan  Carausius  tirannize  anew, 
And  gainst  the  Romanes  bent  their  proper  powre; 
But  him  Allectus  treacherously  slew, 
And  tooke  on  him  the  robe  of  emperoure; 
Nath'lesse  the  same  enjoyed  but  short  happy  howre. 

58  For  Asclepiodate  him  overcame, 

And  left  inglorious  on  the  vanquisht  playne, 
Without  or  robe  or  rag  to  hide  his  shame: 
Then  afterwards  he  in  his  stead  did  rayne ; 
But  shortly  was  by  Coyll  in  battell  slaine: 
Who  after  long  debate,  since  Lucies  time, 
Was  of  the  Britons  first  crownd  soverairie : 
Then  gan  this  realme  renew  her  passed  prime : 
He  of  his  name  Coylchester  built  of  stone  and  lime. 

59  Which  when  the  Romanes  heard,  they  hither  sent 
Constantius,  a  man  of  mickle  might, 

With  whome  king  Coyll  made  an  agreement, 
And  to  him  gave  for  wife  his  daughter  bright, 
Faire  Helena,  the  fairest  living  wight, 
Who  in  all  godly  thewes  and  goodly  prayse 
Did  far  excell,  but  was  most  famous  hight 
For  skill  in  musicke  of  all  in  her  dayes, 
As  well  in  curious  instruments,  as  cunning  layes. 

CANTO  X.  139 

60  Of  whome  he  did  great  Constantine  beget, 
Who  afterward  was  emperour  of  Rome ; 

To  which  whiles  absent  he  his  mind  did  set, 
Octavius  here  lept  into  his  roome, 
And  it  usurped  by  unrighteous  doome : 
But  he  his  title  justifide  by  might, 
Slaying  Traherne,  and  having  overcome 
The  Romane  legion  in  dreadfull  fight : 
So  settled  he  his  kingdome,  and  confirmd  his  right : 

6 1  But  wanting  issew  male,  his  daughter  deare 
He  gave  in  wedlocke  to  Maximian, 

And  him  with  her  made  of  his  kingdome  heyre, 
Who  soone  by  meanes  thereof  the  empire  wan, 
Till  murdred  by  the  freends  of  Gratian. 
Then  gan  the  Hunnes  and  Picts  invade  this  land, 
During  the  raigne  of  Maximinian ; 
Who  dying  left  none  heire  them  to  withstand, 
But  that  they  overran  all  parts  with  easie  hand. 

62  The  weary  Britons,  whose  war-hable  youth 
Was  by  Maximian  lately  led  away, 

With  wretched  miseries  and  woefull  ruth 
Were  to  those  pagans  made  an  open  pray, 
And  daily  spectacle  of  sad  decay : 
Whom  Romane  warres,  which  now  foure  hundred  years 
And  more  had  wasted,  could  no  whit  dismay; 
Till  by  consent  of  Commons  and  of  Peares, 
They  crownd  the  second  Constantine  with  joyous  teares. 

63  Who  having  oft  in  battell  vanquished 

Those  spoilefull  Picts  and  swarming  Easterlings, 
Long  time  in  peace  his  realme  established, 
Yet  oft  annoyd  with  sundry  bordragings 
Of  neighbour  Scots,  and  forrein  scatterlings, 
With  which  the  world  did  in  those  dayes  abound, 
Which  to  outbarre,  with  painefull  pyonings 
From  sea  to  sea  he  heapt  a  mightie  mound, 
Which  from  Alcluid  to  Panwelt  did  that  border  bound. 


64  Three  sonnes  he  dying  left,  all  under  age; 
By  meanes  whereof  their  uncle  Vortigere 
Usurpt  the  crowne  during  their  pupillage; 
Which  thf  infants  tutors  gathering  to  feare, 
Them  closely  into  Armorick  did  beare: 

For  dread  of  whom,  and  for  those  Picts  annoyes, 
He  sent  to  Germanic  straunge  aid  to  reare; 
From  whence  eftsoones  arrived  here  three  hoyes 
Of  Saxons,  whom  he  for  his  safetie  imployes. 

65  Two  brethren  were  their  capitayns,  which  hight 
Hengist  and  Horsus,  well  approv'd  in  warre, 
And  both  of  them  men  of  renowmed  might; 
Who  making  vantage  of  their  civile  Jarre, 

And  of  those  forreiners  which  came  from  farre, 
Grew  great,  and  got  large  portions  of  land, 
That  in  the  realme  ere  long  they  stronger  arre 
Then  they  which  sought  at  first  their  helping  hand, 
And  Vortiger  enforst  the  kingdome  to  aband. 

66  But,  by  the  helpe  of  Voytimere  his  sonne, 
He  is  againe  unto  his  rule  restord ; 

And  Hengist,  seeming  sad  for  that  was  donne, 
Received  is  to  grace  and  new  accord, 
Through  his  faire  daughters  face,  and  flattring  word 
Soone  after  which,  three  hundred  lords  he  slew 
Of  British  bloud,  all  sitting  at  his  bord ; 
Whose  dolefull  moniments  who  list  to  rew, 
Th'  eternall  marks  of  treason  may  -at  Stonheng  vew. 

67  By  this  the  sonnes  of  Gonstantine,  which  fled, 
Ambrose  and  Uther,  did  ripe  yeares  attaine, 
And  here  arriving,  strongly  challenged 

The  crowne  which  Vortiger  did  long  detaine : 
Who  flying  from  his  guilt,  by  them  was  slaine ; 
And  Hengist  eke  soone  brought  to  shamefull  death. 
Thenceforth  Aurelius  peaceably  did  rayne, 
Till  that  through  poyson  stopped  was  his  breath; 
So  now  entombed  lies  at  Stoneheng  by  the  heath. 

CANTO   X.  141 

68  After  him  Uther,  which  Pendragon  hight, 
Succeeding — There  abruptly  it  did  end, 
Without  full  point,  or  other  cesure  right; 
As  if  the  rest  some  wicked  hand  did  rend, 
Or  th'  author  selfe  could  not  at  least  attend 
To  finish  it:  that  so  untimely  breach 

The  prince  him  selfe  halfe  seemed  to  offend; 
Yet  secret  pleasure  did  offence  empeach, 
And  wonder  of  antiquitie  long  stopt  his  speach. 

69  At  last,  quite  ravisht  with  delight,  to  heare 
The  royall  ofspring  of  his  native  land, 

Cryde  out,  Deare  countrey,  O  how  dearely  deare 
Ought  thy  remembraunce  and  perpetuall  band 
Be  to  thy  foster  childe,  that  from  thy  hand 
Did  commun  breath  and  nouriture  receave? 
How  brutish  is  it  not  to  understand 
How  much  to  her  we  owe,  that  all  us  gave, 
That  gave  unto  us  all  whatever  good  we  have. 

70  But  Guyon  all  this  while  his  booke  did  read, 
Ne  yet  has  ended:  for  it  was  a  great 

And  ample  volume,  that  doth  far  excead 
My  leasure  so  long  leaves  here-  to  repeat  : 
It  told  how  first  Prometheus  did  create 
A  man,  of  many  parts  from  beasts  deriv'd, 
And  then  stole  fire  from  heaven  to  animate 
His  worke,  for  which  he  was  by  Jove  depriv'd 
Of  life  him  selfe,  and  hart-strings  of  an  aegle  riv'd. 

71  That  man  so  made  he  called  Elfe,  to  weet 
Quick,  the  first  authour  of  all  Elfin  kind; 

Who  wandring  through  the  world  with  wearie  feet, 
Did  in  the  gardins  of  Adonis  find 
A  goodly  creature,  whom  he  deemd  in  mynd 
To  be  no  earthly  wight,  but  either  spright, 
Or  angell,  th'  authour  of  all  woman  kind ; 
Therefore  a  Fay  he  her  according  hight, 
Of  whom  all  Faeryes  spring,  and  fetch  their  lignage  right. 


72  Of  these  a  mightie  people  shortly  grew, 

And  puissant  kings,  which  all  the  world  warrayd. 
And  to  themselves  all  nations  did  subdew: 
The  first  and  eldest,  which  that  scepter  swayd, 
Was  Elfin;  him  all  India  obayd, 
And  all  that  now  America  men  call : 
Next  him  was  noble  Elfinan,  who  layd 
Cleopolis  foundation  first  of  all : 
But  Elfiline  enclosd  it  with  a  golden  wall. 

73  His  sonne  was  Elfinell,  who  overcame 
The  wicked  Gobbelines  in  bloudy  field: 
But  Elfant  was  of  most  renowmed  fame, 
Who  all  of  christall  did  Panthea  build : 
Then  Elfar,  who  two  brethren  gyantes  kild, 

The  one  of  which  had  two  heads,  th*  other  three: 
Then  Elfinor,  who  was  in  magick  skild; 
He  built  by  art  upon  the  glassy  see 
A  bridge  of  bras,  whose  sound  heavens  thunder  seem'd  to  be. 

74  He  left  three  sonnes,  the  which  in  order  raynd, 
And  all  their  ofspring,  in  their  dew  descents ; 
Even  seven  hundred  princes,  which  maintaynd 
With  mightie  deedes  their  sundry  governments; 
That  were  too  long  their  infinite  contents 
Here  to  record,  ne  much  materiall: 

Yet  should  they  be  most  famous  moniments, 
And  brave  ensample,  both  of  martiall 
And  civil  rule  to  kinges  and  states  imperiall. 

75  After  all  these  Elficleos  did  rayne, 
The  wise  Elficleos  in  great  majestic, 
Who  mightily  that  scepter  did  sustayne, 
And  with  rich  spoyles  and  famous  victorie 
Did  high  advaunce  the  crowne  of  Faery : 
He  left  two  sonnes,  of  which  faire  Elferon 
The  eldest  brother  did  untimely  dy; 
Whose  emptie  place  the  mightie  Oberon 

Doubly  supplide,  in  spousall,  and  dominion. 

CANTO  X.  143 

76  Great  was  his  power  and  glorie  over  all, 
Which  him  before,  that  sacred  seate  did  fill, 
That  yet  remain es  his  wide  memoriall : 

He  dying  left  the  fairest  Tanaquill, 
Him  to  succeede  therein,  by  his  last  will: 
Fairer  and  nobler  liveth  none  this  howre, 
Ne  like  in  grace,  ne  like  in  learned  skill; 
Therefore  they  Glorian  call  that  glorious  flowre: 
Long  mayst  thou,  Glorian,  live  in  glory  and  great  powre. 

77  Beguild  thus  with  delight  of  novelties,  f 
And  naturall  desire  of  countreys  state, 

So  long  they  red  in  those  antiquities, 
That  how  the  time  was  fled  they  quite  forgat^ 
Till  gentle  Alma  seeing  it  so  late, 
Perforce  their  studies  broke,  and  them  besought 
To  thinke  how  supper  did  them  long  awaite: 
So  halfe  unwilling  from  their  bookes  them  brought, 
And  fayrely  feasted,  as  so  noble  knights  she  ought. 



The  enimies  of  Temperaunce 
Besiege  her  dwelling  place; 

Prince  Arthur  e  them  repelles,  and  fowls 
Maleger  doth  deface. 

i  WHAT  warre  so  cruel,  or  what  siege  so  sore, 
As  that,  which  strong  Affections  do  apply 
Against  the  fort  of  Reason  evermore, 
To  bring  the  sowle  into  captivity: 
Their  force  is  fiercer  through  infirmitie 
Of  the  fraile  flesh,  relenting  to  their  rage; 
And  exercise  most  bitter  tyranny 
Upon  the  parts,  brought  into  their  bondage: 
No  wretchednesse  is  like  to  sinfull  vellenage. 

2  But  inabody  which  doth  freely  yeeld 
His  paries  to  reasons  rule  obedient, 

And  letteth  her  that  ought  the  scepter  weeld, 
All  happy  peace  and  goodly  government 
Is  settled  there  in  sure  establishment. 
There  Alma  like  a  virgin  Queene  most  bright, 
Doth  florish  in  all  beautie  excellent; 
And  to  her  guestes  doth  bounteous  banket  dight, 
Attempred  goodly  well  for  health  and  for  delight. 

3  Early  before  the  morne  with  cremosin  ray 
The  windowes  of  bright  heaven  opened  had, 
Through  which  into  the  world  the  dawning  day 
Might  looke,  that  maketh  every  creature  glad, 
Uprose  Sir  Guyon,  in  bright  armour  clad, 

And  to  his  purposd  journey  him  prepar'd: 
With  him  the  palmer  eke  in  habit  sad 
Himselfe  addrest  to  that  adventure<Kard  f- 
So  to  the  rivers  side  they  both  together  far'd. 

CANTO  XL  145 

4  Where  them  awaited  ready  at  the  ford 
The  ferriman,  as  Alma  had  behight, 

With  his  well-rigged  boate:  they  goe  abord, 
And  he  eftsoones  gan  launch  his  barke  forthright. 
Ere  long  they  rowed  were  quite  out  of  sight, 
And  fast  the  land  behind  them  fled  away. 
But  let  them  pas,  whiles  wind  and  weather  right 
Do  serve  their  turnes:  here  I  a  while  must  stay, 
To  see  a  cruell  fight  doen  by  the  Prince  this  day. 

5  For  all  so  soone,  as  Guyon  thence  was  gon 
Upon  his  voyage  with  his  trustie  guide, 
That  wicked  band  of  villeins  fresh  begon 
That  castle  to  assaile  on  every  side, 

And  lay  strong  siege  about  it  far  and  wide. 
So  huge  and  infinite  their  numbers  were, 
That  all  the  land  they  under  them  did  hide; 
So  fowle  and  ugly,  that  exceeding  feare 
Their  visages  imprest,  when  they  approched  neare. 

6  Them  in  twelve  troupes  their  captein  did  dispart, 
And  round  about  in  fittest  steades  did  place,-^ 
Where  each  might  best  offend  his  proper  ipart,'} 
And  his  contrary  object  most  deface, 

As  every  one  seem'd  meetest  in  that  cace. 
Seven  of  the  same  against  the  castle  gate 
In  strong  entrenchments  he  did  closely  place, 
Which  with  incessaunt  force  and  endlesse  hate 
They  battred  day  and  night,  and  entraunce  did  awate. 

7  The  other  five,  five  sundry  wayes  he  set 
Against  the  five  great  bulwarkes  of  that  pile, 
And  unto  each  a  bulwarke  did  arret, 

T*  assayle  with  open  force  or  hidden  guile, 
In  hope  thereof  to  win  victorious  spoile. 
They  all  that  charge  did  fervently  apply 
With  greedie  malice  and  importune  toyle, 
And  planted  there  their  huge  artillery, 
With  which  they  dayly  made  most  dreadfull  battery. 



8  The  first  troupe  was  a  monstrous  rablement 

Of  fowle  misshapen  wights,  of  which  some  were 
Headed  like  owles,  with  beckes  uncomely  bent, 
Others  like  dogs,  others  like  gryphons  dreare; 
And  some  had  wings,  and  some  had  clawes  to  teare: 
And  every  one  of  them  had  lynces  eyes, 
And  every  one  did  bow  and  arrowes  beare  : 
All  those  were  lawless  lustes,  and  corrupt  envies, 
And  covetous  aspectes,  all  cruel  enimies. 

9  Those  same  against  the  bulwarke  of  thejsight 
Did  lay  strong  siege  and  battailous  assault, 

Ne  once  did  yield  it  respit  day  nor  night; 
But  soone  as  Titan  gan  his  head  exault, 
And  soone  againe  as  he  his  light  withhault, 
Their  wicked  engins  they  against  it  bent; 
That  is  each  thing,  by  which  the  eyes  may  fault. 
But  two  then-^ll  more  huge  and  violent, 
(   Beautie  and  money,  they  that  bulwarke  sorely  rent. 

10  The  second  bulwarke  was  the  Hearing  sence, 
Gainst  which  the  second  troupe  dessignment  makes; 
Deformed  creatures,  in  straunge  difference, 

Some  having  heads  like  harts,  some  like  to  snakes, 
Some  like  wild  bores  late  rouzd  out  of  the  brakes : 
Slaunderous  reproches,  and  fowle  infamies, 
Leasinges,  backbytinges,  and  vaine-glorious  crakes, 
Bad  counsels,  prayses,  and  false  flatteries. 
All  those  against  that  fort  did  bend  their  batteries. 

11  Likewise  that  same  third  fort,  that  is  the  Smell, 
Of  that  third  troupe  was  cruelly  assayd  ; 
Whose  hideous  shapes  were  like  to  feends  of  hell, 
Some  like  to  houndes,  some  like  to  apes,  dismayd; 
Some  like  to  puttockes,  all  in  plumes  arayd; 

All  shap't  according  their  conditions : 
For,  by  those  ugly  formes,  weren  pourtrayd       <J  (J/^ 
Foolish  delights  and  fond  abusions, 
Which  do  that  sence  besiege  with  light  illusions. 

CANTO  XI.  147 

12  And  that  fourth  band,  which  cruell  battry  bent 
Against  the  fourth  bulwarke,  that  is  the  Tast, 
Was  as  the  rest,  a  grysie  rablement, 
Some  mouth'd  like  greedy  oystriges,  some  fast 
Like  loathly  toades,  some  fashioned  in  the  wast 
Like  swine  ;  for  so  deformd  is  luxury, 

Surfeat,  misdiet,  and  unthriftie  wast,  o»»     « 

Vaine  feasts,  and  idle  superfluity:  ' 

All  those  this  sences  fort  assayle  incessantly. 

13  But  the  fift  troupe  most  horrible  of  hew 
And  fierce  of  force,  is  dreadfull  to  report; 

For  some  like  snailes,  some  did  like  spyders  shew, 
And  some  like  ugly  urchins  thicke  and  short:    ^ 
Cruelly  they  assayled  that  fift  fort, 
Armed  with  dartes  of  sensuall  delight, 
And  feeling  pleasures,  with  which  day  and  night 
Against  that  same  fift  bulwarke  they  continued  fight. 

14  Thus  these  twelve  troupes  with  dreadfull  puissaunce 
Against  that  castle  restlesse  siege  did  lay, 

And  evermore  their  hideous  ordinance 
Upon  the  bulwarkes  cruelly  did  play, 
That  now  it  gan  to  threaten  neare  decay: 
And  evermore  their  wicked  capitaine 
Provoked  them  the  breaches  to  assay, 
Sometimes  with  threats,  sometimes  with  hope  of  gaine, 
Which  by  the  ransack  of  that  peece  they  should  attaine. 

15  On  th*  other  side,  th*  assieged  castles  ward 
Their  steadfast  stonds  did  mightily  maintaine, 
And  many  bold  repulse,  and  many  hard 
Atchievement  wrought  with  perill  and  with  payne, 
That  goodly  frame  from  mine  to  sustaine  : 

And  tho5£j3EQ  brethren  giantes  did  defend 
The  walles  so  stoutly  with  their  sturdie  maine, 
That  never  entraunce  any  durst  pretend, 
But  they  to  direfull  death  their  groning  ghosts  did  send. 
L  2 

148  THE  FA1.RY  QUEENE. 

1 6  The  noble  virgin,  ladie  of  the  place, 

Was  much  dismayed  with  that  dreadfull  sight ; 
For  never  was  she  in  so  evill  cace ; 
Till  that  the  Prince  seeing  her  wofull  plight, 
Gan  her  recomfort  from  so  sad  affright, 
Offring  his  service  and  his  dearest  life 
For  her  defence  against  that  carle  to  fight, 
Which  was  their  chiefe  and  th'  author  of  that  strife : 
She  him  remercied  as  the  patrone  of  her  life. 

17  Eftsoones  himselfe  in  glitterand  armes  he  dight, 
And  his  well  proved  weapons  to  him  hent; 

So  taking  courteous  conge  he  behight 
Those  gates  to  be  unbar'd,  and  forth  he  went. 
Fayre  mote  he  thee,  the  prowest  and  most  gent; 
That  ever  brandished  bright  steele  on  high: 
Whom  soone  as  that  unruly  rablement 
With  his  gay  squire  issuing  did  espy, 
They  reard  a  most  outrageous  dreadfull  yelling  cry: 

1 8  And  therewithall  attonce  at  him  let  fly 

Their  fluttring  arrowes,  thicke  as  flakes  of  snow, 
And  round  about  him  flocke  impetuously, 
Like  a  great  water  flood,  that  tombling  low 
From  the  high  mountaines,  threates  to  overflow 
With  suddein  fury__al^_the  fertile  plaine, 
And  the  sad  husband  mans  long  hope  doth  throw 
Adowne  the  streame,  ancTall  his  vowes  make  vaine: 
Nor  bounds  nor  banks  his  headlong  mine  may  sustaine. 

19  Upon  his  shield  their  heaped  hayle  he  bore, 
And  with  his  sword  disperst  the  raskall  flockes, 
Which  fled  asonder,  and  him  fell  before, 

As  withered  leaves  drop  from  their  dried  stockes, 
When  the  wroth  western  wind  does  reave  their  locks 
And  underneath  him  his  courageous  steed, 
The  fierce  Spumador,  trode  them  down  like  docks. 
The  fierce  Spumador  borne  6f  heavenly  seed ; 
Such  as  Laomedon  of  Phoebus  race  did  breed. 

CANTO  XI.  149 

20  Which  suddeine  horrour  and  confused  cry 
Whenas  their  capteine  heard,  in  haste  he  yode 
The  cause  to  weet,  and  fault  to  remedy: 
Upon  a  tygre  swift  and  fierce  he  rode,  ft 

That  as  the  winde  ran  underneath  his  lode, 
Whiles  his  long  legs  nigh  raught  unto  the  ground;    r     jj/^ 

Full  large  he  was  of  limbe,  and  shoulders  brode^ -- 

But  of  such  subtile  substance  and  unsound,          [bound: 
That  like  a  ghost  he  seem'd  whose  grave-clothes  were  un- 

21  And  in  his  hand  a  bended  bow  was  scene, 
And  many  arrowes  under  his  right  side, 
All  deadly  daungerous,  all  cruell  keene, 
Headed  with  flint,  and  feathers  bloudie  dide; 
Such  as  the  Indians  in  their  quivers  hide: 
Those  could  he  well  direct  and  streight  as  line, 
And  bid  them  strike  the  marke,  which  he  had  eyde ; 
Ne  was  there  salve,  ne  was  there  medicine,  \ 

That  mote  recure  their  woundes;  so  inly  they  did  tine. 

22  As  pale  and  wan  as  ashes  was  his  looke, 
His  bodie  leane  and  meagre  as  a  rake, 
And  skin  all  withered  like  a  dryed  rooke, 

Thereto  as  cold  and  drery  as  a  snake,  '  XStH"^ 

That  seem'd  to  tremble  evermore,  and  quake: 
All  in  a  canvas  thin  he  was  bedight, 
And  girded  with  a  belt  of  twisted  brake: 
Upon  his  head  he  wore  an  helmet  light, 
Made  of  a  dead  mans  skull,  that  seemd  a  ghastly  sight. 

23  Maleger  was  his  name,  and  after  him 
There  follow'd  fast  at  hand  two  wicked  hags, 
With  hoarie  lockes  all  loose,  and  visage  grim; 
Their  feet  unshod,  their  bodies  wrapt  in  rags, 
And  both  as  swift  on  foot  as  chased  stags; 

And  yet  the  one  her  other  legge  had  lame,  (yvK^ 

Which  with  a  staffe  all  full  of  litle  snags 
She  did  support,  and  Impotence  her  name: 
But  th'  other  was  Impatience,  arm'd  with  raging  flame. 


24  Soone  as  the  carle  from  farre  the  Prince  espyde 
Glistring  in  armes,  and  warlike  ornament, 

His  beast  he  felly  prict  on  either  syde, 
And  his  mischievous  bow  full  readie  bent, 
With  which  at  him  a  cruell  shaft  he  sent: 
But  he  was  warie,  and  it  warded  well 
Upon  his  shield,  that  it  no  further  went, 
But  to  the  ground  the  idle  quarrell  fell : 
Then  he  another  and  another  did  expell. 

25  Which  to  prevent,  the  Prince  his  mortall  speare 
Soone  to  him  raught,  and  fierce  at  him  did  ride, 
To  be  avenged  of  that  shot  whyleare : 

But  he  was  not  so  bardie  to  abide 
That  bitter  stownd,  but  turning  quicke  aside 
His  light-foot  beast,  fled  fast  away  for  feare : 
Whom  to  pursue,  the  Infant  after  hide 
So  fast  as  his  good  courser  could  him  beare : 
But  labour  lost  it  was  to  weene  approch  him  neare. 

26  For  as  the  winged  wind  his  tigre  fled, 
That  vew  of  eye  could  scarse  him  overtake, 

Ne  scarse  his  feet  on  ground  were  scene  to  tred ; 
Through  hils  and  dales  he  speedie  way  did  make, 
Ne  hedge  ne  ditch  his  readie  passage  brake, 
And  in  his  flight  the  villein  turn'd  his  face, 
(As  wonts  the  Tartar  by  the  Caspian  lake, 
When  as  the  Russian  him  in  fight  does  chace,)      »       lu 
Unto  his  tygres  taile,  and  shot  at  him  apace.  'y 

27  Apace  he  shot,  and  yet  he  fled  apace, 

Still  as  the  greedy  knight  nigh  to  him  drew; 
And  oftentimes  he  would  relent  his  pace, 
That  him  his  foe  more  fiercely  should  pursew:        .- 
Who  when  his  uncouth  manner  he  did  vew, 
He  gan  avize  to  follow  him  no  more, 
But  keepe  his  standing,  and  his  shaftes  eschew, 
Until  he  quite  had  spent  his  perlous  store, 
And  then  assayle  him  fresh,  ere  he  could  shift  for  more. 

CANTO  XI.  151 

a 8  But  that  lame  hag,  still  as  abroad  he  strew 
His  wicked  arrowes,  gathered  them  againe, 
And  to  him  brought,  fresh  battell  to  renew ; 
Which  he  espying,  cast  her  to  restraine 
From  yielding  succour  to  that  cursed  swaine, 
And  her  attaching  thought  her  hands  to  tye; 
But  soone  as  him  dismounted  on  the  plaine 
That  other  hag  did  farre  away  espy 

Binding  her  sister,  she  to  him  ran  hastily; 

29  And  catching  hold  of  him,  as  downe  he  lent,          .        * JQ 
Him  backwarde  overthrew,  and  downe  him  stayd  \   I 
With  their  rude  hands  and  griesly  graplement; 

Till  that  the  villein,  comming  to  their  ayd, 
Upon  him  fell,  and  lode  upon  him  layd : 
Full  litle  wanted,  but  he  had  him  slaine, 
And  of  the  battell  balefull  end  had  made, 
Had  not  his  gentle  squire  beheld  his  paine, 
And  commen  to  his  reskew,  ere  his  bitter  bane. 

30  So  greatest  and  most  glorious  thing  on  ground 
May  often  need  the  helpe  of  weaker  hand; 
So  feeble  is  mans  state,  and  life  unsound, 
That  in  assurance  it  may  never  stand, 

Till  it  dissolved  be  from  earthly  band. 
Proofe  be  thou,"  Prince,  the  prowest  man  alive, 
And  noblest  borne  of  all  in  Briton  land; 
Yet  thee  fierce  fortune  did  so  nearely  drive, 
That  had  not  grace  thee  blest,  thou  shouldest  not  survive, 

31  The  squire  arriving,  fiercely  in  his  armes 
Snatcht  first  the  one,  and  then  the  other  jade, 
His  chiefest  lets  and  authors  of  his  harmes, 

And  them  perforce  withheld  with  threatned  blade, 
Least  that  his  lord  they  should  behind  invade; 
The  whiles  the  Prince  prickt  with  reprochfull  shame, 
As  one  awakt  out  of  long  slombring  shade, 
Reviving  thought  of  glorie  and  of  fame, 
United  all  his  powres  to  purge  himselfe  from  blame. 


32  Like  as  a  fire,  the  which  in  hollow  cave 

Hath  long  bene  underkept,  and  downe  supprest, 
With  murmurous  disdaine  doth  inly  rave, 
And  grudge,  in  so  streight  prison  to  be  prest, 
At  last  breakes  forth  with  furious  unrest, 
And  strives  to  mount  unto  his  native  seat; 
All  that  did  earst  it  hinder  and  molest, 
It  now  devoures  with  flames  and  scorching  heat, 
And  carries  into  smoake  with  rage  and  horror  great. 

33  So  mightily  the  Briton  prince  him  rouzd 

Out  of  his  holde,  and  broke  his  caitive  bands  ; 
And  as  a  beare,  whom  angry  curres  have  touzd, 
Having  off-shakt  them  and  escapt  their  hands, 
Becomes  more  fell,  and  all  that  him  withstands 
Treads  down  and  overthrowes.     Now  had  the  carle 
Alighted  from  his  tigre,  and  his  hands 
Discharged  of  his  bow  and  deadly  quar'le, 
To  seize  upon  his  foe  flat  lying  on  the  marie. 

34  Which  now  him  turnd  to  disavantage  deare ; 
For  neither  can  he  fly,  nor  other  harme, 

But  trust  unto  his  strength  and  manhood  meare, 
Sith  now  he  is  farre  from  his  monstrous  swarme, 
And  of  his  weapons  did  himselfe  disarme. 
The  knight  yet  wrothfull  for  his  late  disgrace, 
Fiercely  advaunst  his  valorous_right  arme,  ^J^f  £A/ 

And  him  so  sore  smote  with  his  yron  mace, 
That  groveling  to  the  ground  he  fell,  and  fild  his  place. 

35  Wei  weened  he  that  field  was  then  his  owne, 
And  all  his  labour  brought  to  happie  end; 
When  suddein  up  the  villein  overthrowne 
Out  of  his  swowne  arose,  fresh  to  contend, 
And  gan  himselfe  to  second  battell  bend, 

As  hurt  he  had  not  bene.     Thereby  there  lay 
An  huge  great  stone,  which  stood  upon  one  end, 
And  had  not  bene  removed  many  a  day : 
Some  land-marke  seem'd  to  be,  or  signe  of  sundry  way: 

CANTO  XI.  153 

36  The  same  he  snatcht,  and  with  exceeding  sway 
Threw  at  his  foe,  who  was  right  well  aware 
To  shunne  the  engine  of  his  meant  decay; 

It  booted  not  to  thinke  that  throw  to  beare, 
But  ground  he  gave,  and  lightly  leapt  areare; 
Eft  fierce  returning,  as  a  faulcon  faire, 
That  once  hath  failed  of  her  souse  full  neare, 
Remounts  againe  into  the  open  aire, 
And  unto  better  fortune  doth  herselfe  prepaire: 

37  So  brave  returning,  with  his  brandisht  blade, 
He  to  the  carle  himselfe  againe  addrest, 
And  strooke  at  him  so  sternely,  that  he  made 
An  open  passage  through  his  riven  brest, 

That  halfe  the  steele  behind  his  backe  did  rest; 
Which  drawing  backe,  he  looked  evermore 
When  the  hart  bloud  should  gush  out  of  his  chest, 
Or  his  dead  corse  should  fall  upon  the  flore; 
But  his  dead  corse  upon  the  flore  fell  nathemore:     ^ 

38  Ne  drop  of  bloud  appeared  shed  to  bee, 

All  were  the  wounde  so  wide  and  wonderous 
That  through  his  carcasse  one  might  plainely  see. 
Halfe  in  amaze  with  horror  hideous, 
And  halfe  in  rage  to  be  deluded  thus, 
Againe  through  both  the  sides  he  strooke  him  quight, 
That  made  his  spright  to  grone  full  piteous; 
Yet  nathemore  forth  fled  his  groning  spright,  \. — ' 
But  freshly  as  at  first,  prepard  himselfe  to  fight. 

39  Thereat  he  smitten  was  with  great  affright, 
And  trembling  terror  did  his  hart  apall; 

Ne  wist  he  what  to  thinke  of  that  same  sight, 
Ne  what  to  say,  ne  what  to  doe  at  all: 
He  doubted  least  it  were  some  magicall 
Illusion,  that  did  beguile  his  sense, 
Or  wandring  ghost  that  wanted  funerall, 
Or  aerie  spirit  under  false  pretence, 
Or  hellish  feend  raysd  up  through  divelish  science. 


40  His  wonder  farre  exceeded  reasons  reach, 
That  he  began  to  doubt  his  dazeled  sight, 
And  oft  of  error  did  him  selfe  appeach : 
Flesh  without  bloud,  a  person  without  spright, 
Wounds  without  hurt,  a  body  without  might, 
That  could  doe  harme,  yet  could  not  harmed  bee, 
That  could  not  die,  yet  seem'd  a  mortall  wight, 
That  was  most  strong  in  most  infirmitee ; 

Like  did  he  never  heare,  like  did  he  never  see. 

41  Awhile  he  stood  in  this  astonishment, 
Yet  would  he  not  for  all  his  great  dismay 
Give  over  to  effect  his  first  intent, 

And  th'  utmost  meanes  of  victorie  assay, 
Or  th'  utmost  issew  of  his  owne  decay. 
His  owne  good  sword  Mordure,  that  never  fayld 
At  need,  till  now,  he  lightly  threw  away, 
And  his  bright  shield  that  nought  him  now  avayld; 
And  with  his  naked  hands  him  forcibly  assayld. 

42  Twixt  his  two  mightie  armes  him  up  he  snatcht, 
And  crusht  his  carcasse  so  against  his  brest, 
That  the  disdainfull  soule  he  thence  dispatcht,       * 
And  th'  ydle  breath  all  utterly  exprest: 

Tho  when  he  felt  him  dead,  adowne  he  kest 
The  lumpish  corse  unto  the  senselesse  grownd; 
Adowne  he  kest  it  with  so  puissant  wrest, 
That  backe  againe  it  did  alofte  rebownd, 
And  gave  against  his  mother  earth  a  gronefull  sownd. 

43  As  when  Joves  harnesse-bearing  bird  from  hie 
Stoupes  at  a  flying  heron  with  proud  disdaine, 
The  stone-dead  quarrey  falls  so  forciblie, 
That  it  rebownds  against  the  lowly  plaine, 

A  second  fall  redoubling  backe  againe. 
Then  thought  the  Prince  all  peril  sure  was  past, 
And  that  he  victor  onely  did  remaine; 
No  sooner  thought,  then  that  the  carle  as  fast 
Gan  heap  huge  strokes  on  him,  as  ere  he  down  was  cast. 

CANTO   XI.  155 

44(^Nigh  his  wits  end) then  woxe  th'  amazed  knight. 
And  thought  his  labor  lost,  and  travell  vaine, 
Against  this  lifelesse  shadow  so  to  fight: 
Yet  life  he  saw,  and  felt  his  mightie  maine, 
That  whiles  he  marveild  still,  did  still  him  paine ; 
For  thy  he  gan  some  other  wayes  advize, 
How  to  take  life  from  that  dead-living  swaine. 
Whom  still  he  marked  freshly  to  arize 

From  th'  earth,  and  from  her  wombe  new  spirits  to  reprize. 

45  He  then  remembred  well,  that  had  bene  sayd, 
How  th'  Earth  his  mother  was,  and  first  him  bore; 
She  eke  so  often,  as  his  life  decayd, 

Did  life  with  usury  to  him  restore, 
And  raysd  him  up  much  stronger  then  before, 
So  soone  as  he  unto  her  wombe  did  fall : 
Therefore  to  ground  he  would  him  cast  no  more, 
Ne  him  commit  to  grave  terrestriall, 
But  beare  him  farre  from  hope  of  succour  usuall. 


46  Tho  up  he  caught  him  twixt  his  puissant  hands, 
And  having  scruzd  out  of  his  carrion  corse 
The  lothfull  life,  now  loosd  from  sinfull  bands, 
Upon  his  shoulders  carried  him  perforse 
Above  three  furlongs,  taking  his  full  course, 
Until  he  came  unto  a  standing  lake; 

Him  thereinto  he  threw  without  remorse, 
Ne  stird,  till  hope  of  life  did  him  forsake : 
So  end  of  that  carles  dayes  and  his  owne  paines  did  make. 

47  Which  when  those  wicked  hags  from  farre  did  spy, 
Like  two  mad  dogs  they  ran  about  the  lands, 

And  th'  one  of  them  with  dreadfull  yelling  cry, 
Throwing  away  her  broken  chaines  and  bands, 
And  having  quencht  her  burning  fier  brands, 
Hedlong  her  selfe  did  cast  into  that  lake ; 
But  Impotence  with  her  owne  wilfull  hands 
One  of  Malegers  cursed  darts  did  take, 
So  riv'd  her  trembling  hart,  and  wicked  end  did  make. 


48  Thus  now  alone  he  conquerour  remaines : 

Tho  comming  to  his  squire,  that  kept  his  steed, 
Thought  to  have  mounted,  but  his  feeble  vaines 
Him  faild  thereto,  and  served  not  his  need, 
Through  losse  of  bloud  which  from  his  wounds  did  bleed, 
That  he  began  to  faint,  and  life  decay: 
But  his  good  squire,  him  helping  up  with  speed, 
With  stedfast  hand  upon  his  horse  did  stay, 
And  led  him  to  the  castle  by  the  beaten  way. 

49  Where  many  groomes  and  squiers  readie  were 
To  take  him  from  his  steed  full  tenderly ; 
And  eke  the  fairest  Alma  met  him  there 
With  balme,  and  wine,  and  costly  spicery, 
To  comfort  him  in  his  infirmity : 
Eftsoones  she  causd  him  up  to  be  convayd, 
And  of  his  armes  despoyled  easily ; 

In  sumptuous  bed  she  made  him  to  be  layd, 
And  all  the  while  his  wounds  were  dressing,  by  him  stayd. 




Guyon  by  palmers  governance, 
Passing  through  perils  great, 

Dotb  overthrow  the  Boivre  of  Blisse, 
And  Acrasie  defeat.  ^jj^J^jh 

3K^>^        \ 

1  Now  gins  that  goodly  frame  of  Temperance. 
Fairely  to  rise,  and  her  adorned  hed 

To  pricke  of  highest  praise  forth  to  advance, 
Formerly  grounded,  and  fast  setteled 
On  firme  foundation  of  true  bountihed ; 
And  this  brave  knight,  that  for  this  vertue 
Now  comes  to  point  of  that  same  perilous 
Where  Pleasure  dwelles  in  sensuall  delightsJr 
Mongst  thousand  dangers  and  ten  thousand  mfgick  mights. 

2  Two  dayes  now  in  that  sea  he  sayled  has, 
Ne  ever  land  beheld,  ne  living  wight, 

Ne  ought  save  perill,  still  as  he  did  pas: 
Tho  when  appeared  the  third  morrow  bright 
Upon  the  waves  to  spred  her  trembling  light. 
An  hideous  roaring  far  away  they  heard, 
That  all  their  senses  filled  with  affright; 
And  streight  they  saw  the  raging  surges  reard 
Up  to  the  sky'es,  that  them  of  drowning  made  affeard. 

3  Said  then  the  boteman,  Palmer  stere  aright, 
And  keepe  an  even  course;  for  yonder  way 

We  needes  must  passe  (God  doe  us  well  acquight,) 
That  is  the  Gulfe  of  Greedinesse,  they  say, 
That  deepe  engorgeth  all  this  worldes  pray: 
Which  having  swallowd  up  excessively, 
He  soone  in  vomit  up  againe  doth  lay. 
And  belcheth  forth  his  superfluity, 
That  all  the  seas  for  feare  doe  seeme  away  to  fly. 


4  On  th'  other  side  an  hideous  rocke  is  pight 
Of  mighty  magnes  stone,  whose  craggie  clift 
Depending  from  on  high,  dreadfull  to  sight, 
Over  the  waves  his  rugged  armes  doth  lift, 
And  threatneth  downe  to  throw  his  ragged  rift 
On  whoso  cometh  nigh;  yet  nigh  it  drawes 
All  passengers,  that  none  from  it  can  shift : 
For,  whiles  they  fly  that  gulfes  devouring  jawes, 

They  on  the  rock  are  rent,  and  sunck  in  helplesse  wawes. 

5  Forward  they  passe,  and  strongly  he  them  rowes, 
Untill  they  nigh  unto  that  gulfe  arrive, 

Where  streame  more  violent  and  greedy  growes: 
Then  he  with  all  his  puissance  doth  stryve 
To  strike  his  oares,  and  mightily  doth  drive 
The  hollow  vessell  through  the  threatfull  wave  ; 
P"  Which,  gaping  wide  to  swallow  them  alive 
l^In  th'  huge  abysse  of  his  engulfing  grave, 
Doth  rore  at  them  in  vaine,  and  with  great  terror  rave. 

6  They,  passing  by,  that  griesly  mouth  doe  see 
Sucking  the  seas  into  his  entralles  deepe, 
That  seemd  more  horrible  than  hell  to  bee, 
Or  that  darke  dreadfull  hole  of  Tartare  steepe, 
Through  which  the  damned  ghosts  doen  often  creep 
Backe  to  the  world,  bad  livers  to  torment : 

But  nought  that  falles  into  this  direfull  deepe, 
Ne  that  approcheth  nigh  the  wide  descent, 
May  backe  returne,  but  is  condemned  to  be  drent. 

7  On  th'  other  side  they  saw  that  perilous  rocke, 
Threatning  itselfe  on  them  to  ruinate, 

On  whose  sharp  clifts  the  ribs  of  vessels  broke  ; 
And  shivered  ships,  which  had  bene  wrecked  late, 
Yet  stuck,  with  carcases  exanimate 
Of  such,  as  having  all  their  substance  spent 
In  wanton  joyes  and  lustes  intemperate, 
Did  afterwArdes  make  shipwracke  violent 
Both  of  theikjife  and  fame  for  ever  fowly  blent. 

CANTO  XII.  159 

8  For  thy  this  hight  the  Rock  of  vile  (Reproch, 
A  daungerous  and  detestable  place, 

To  which  nor  fish  nor  fowle  did  once  approch, 
But  yelling  meawes,  with  seagulles,  hoarse  and  bace, 
And  cormoyrants,  with  birds  of  ravenous  race, 
Which  still  sat  waiting  on  that  wastfull  clift 
For  spoile  of  wretches,  whose  unhappie  cace, 
After  lost  credit  and  consumed  thrift, 
At  last  them  driven  hath  to  this  despairefull  drift. 

9  The  palmer  seeing  them  in  safetie  past, 
Thus  said ;   Behold  th'  ensamples  in  our  sights 
Of  lustfull  luxurie  and  thriftlesse  wast : 
What  now  is  left  of  miserable  wights, 

Which  spent  their  looser  daies  in  lewd  delights, 
But  shame  and  sad  reproch,  here  to  be  red 
By  these  rent  reliques  speaking  their  illplightes? 
Let  all  that  live  hereby  be  counselled 
To  shunne  Rocke  of  Reproch,  and  it  as  death  to  dred. 

10  So  forth  they  rowed,  and  that  ferryman 

With  his  stiffe  oares  did  brush  the  sea  so  strong, 
That  the  hoare  waters  from  his  frigot  ran, 
And  the  light  bubbles  daunced  all  along, 
Whiles  the  salt  brine  out  of  the  billowes  sprong. 
At  last  farre  off  they  many  islands  spy 
On  every  side  floting  the  floods  emong: 
Then  said  the  knight,  Loe  I  the  land  descry, 
Therefore  old  syre  thy  course  do  thereunto  apply. 

11  That  may  not  be,  said  then  the  ferryman, 
Least  we  unweeting  hap  to  be  fordonne : 

For  those  same  islands,  seeming  now  and  than, 
Are  jipJLfirme  laud,  nor  any  certein  wonne, 
But  straggling  plots,  which  to  and  fro  do  ronne 
In  the  wide  waters :   therefore  are  they  hight 
The  Wandrinff  Islands :   therefore  doe  them  shonne ; 
-For  they  have  oft  drawne  many  a  wandring  wight 
Into  most  deadly  daunger  and  distressed  plight. 


12  Yet  well  they  seeme  to  him,  that  farre  doth  vew, 
Both  faire  and  fruitfull,  and  the  ground  dispred 
With  grassie  greene  of  delectable  hew, 

And  the  tall  trees  with  leaves  apparelled 
Are  deckt  with  blossomes  dyde  in  white  and  red, 
That  mote  the  passengers  thereto  allure; 
But  whosoever  once  hath  fastened 
His  foot  thereon,  may  never  it  recure, 
But  wandreth  evermore  uncertein  and  unsure. 

13  As  th*  isle  of  Delos  whylome  men  report 
Amid  th'  Aegaean  sea  long  time  did  stray, 
Ne  made  for  shipping  any  certaine  port, 
Till  that  Latona  travelling  that  way, 
Flying  from  Junoes  wrath  and  hard  assay, 
Of  her  faire  twins  was  there  delivered, 
Which-  afterwards  did  rule  the  night  and  day  : 
Thenceforth  it  firmely  was  established, 

And  for  Apolloes  temple  highly  herried. 

14  They  to  him  hearken,  as  beseemeth  meete; 
And  passe  on  forward:  so  their  way  does  ly, 
That  one  of  those  same  islands,  which  doe  fleet 
In  the  wide  sea,  they  needes  must  passen  by, 
Which  seemd  so  sweet  and  pleasant  to  the  eye, 
That  it  would  tempt  a  man  to  touchen  there: 
Upon  the  banck  they  sitting  did  espy 

A  daintie  damsell  dressing  of  her  heare, 
By  whom  a  little  skippet  floting  did  appeare. 

15  She  them  espying,  loud  to  them  gan  call, 
Bidding  them  nigher  draw  unto  the  shore, 
For  she  had  cause  to  busie  them  withall ; 
And  therewith  loudly  laught :  but  nathemore 
Would  they  once  turne,  but  kept  on  as  afore: 
Which  when  she  saw,  she  left  her  lockes  undight, 
And  running  to  her  boat  withouten  ore, 

From  the  departing  land  it  launched  light, 
And  after  them  did  drive  with  all  her  power  and  might. 

CANTO  XII.  l6l 

1 6  Whom  overtaking,  she  in  merry  sort 
Then  gan  to  bord,  and  purpose  diverslyj 
Now  faining  dalliance  and  wanton  sport, 
Now  throwing  forth  lewd  words  immodestly; 
Till  that  the  palmer  gan  full  bitterly 

Her  to  rebuke,  for  being  loose  and  light: 
Which  not  abiding,  but  more  scornfully 
Scoffing  at  him  that  did  her  justly  wite, 
She  turnd  her  bote  about,  and  from  them  rowed  quite. 

17  Thgt  was  the  wanton  Phaedria,  which  late 
Did  ferry  him  over  the  Idle  Lake: 

Whom  nought  regarding,  they  kept  on  their  gate, 
And  all  her  vaine  allurements  did  forsake ; 
When  them  the  wary  boateman  thus  bespake; 
Here  now  behoveth  us  well  to  avyse, 
And  of  our  safety  good  heede  to  take; 
For  here  before  a  perlous  passage  lyes, 
Where  many  mermayds  haunt,  making  false  melodies. 

1 8  But  by  the  way  there  is  a  great  quicksand, 
And  a  whirlepoole  of  hidden  jeopardy ; 
Therefore,  Sir  Palmer,  keepe  an  even  hand; 
For  tvvixt  them  both  the  narrow  way  doth  ly. 
Scarse  had  he  said,  when  hard  at  hand  they  spy, 
That  quicksand  nigh  with  water  covered; 

But  by  the  checked  wave  they  did  descry 
It  plaine,  and  by  the  sea  discoloured: 
It  called  was  the  quicksand  of  Unthriftyhed. 

19  They  passing  by,  a  goodly  ship  did  see 
Laden  from  far  with  precious  merchandize, 
And  bravely  furnished,  as  ship  might  bee, 
Which  through  great  disaventure,  or  mesprize, 
Her  selfe  had  runne  into  that  hazardize ; 
Whose  mariners  and  merchants  with  much  toyle 
Labour'd  in  vaine  to  have  recur'd  their  prize, 
And  the  rich  wares  to  save  from  pitteous  spoyle; 

But  neither  toyle  nor  travell  might  her  backe  recoyle. 



20  On  th'  other  side  they  see  that  perilous  poole, 
That  called  was  the  Whirlepoole  of  Decay ; 

In  which  full  many  hacT^wiffT  hapTesSe-tkrole 
Beene  suncke,  of  whom  no  memorie  did  stay: 
Whose  circled  waters  rapt  with  whirling  sway, 
Like  to  a  restlesse  wheele,  still  running  round, 
Did  covet,  as  they  passed  by  that  way, 
To  draw  the  boate  within  the  utmost  bound 
Of  his  wide  labyrinth,  and  then  to  have  them  dround. 

21  But  th'  heedful  boateman  strongly  forth  did  stretch 
His  brawnie  armes,  and  all  his  body  straine, 

That  th'  utmost  sandy  breach  they  shortly  fetch, 
Whiles  the  dred  daunger  does  behind  remaine. 
Suddeine  they  see  from  midst  of  all  the   maine 
The  surging  waters  like  a  mountaine  rise, 
And  the  great  sea  puft  up  with  proud  disdaine,    \J\ 
To  swell  above  the  measure  of  his  guise,  \ 

As  threatning  to  devoure  all,  that  his  powre  despise. 

22  The  waves  come  rolling,  and  the  billowes  rore 
Outragiously,  as  they  enraged  were, 

Or  wrathfull  Neptune  did  them  drive  before 
His  whirling  charet  for  exceeding  feare; 
For  not  one  puffe  of  winde  there  did  appeare; 
That  all  the  three  thereat  woxe  much  afrayd, 
Unweeting  what  such  horrour  straunge  did  reare. 
Eftsoones  they  saw  an  hideous  hoast  arrayd 
Of  huge  sea  monsters  such  as  living  sence  dismayd. 

23  Most  ugly  shapes,  and  horrible  aspects, 

Such  as  dame  Nature  selfe  mote  feare  to  see, 
Or  shame,  that  ever  should  so  fowle  defects 
From  her  most  cunning  hand  escaped  bee: 
All  dreadfull  pourtraicts  of  deformitee: 
Spring-headed  hydraes ;  and  sea-shouldring  whales ; 
Great  whirlpooles,  which  all  fishes  make  to  flee; 
Bright  scolopendraes  arm'd  with  silver  scales; 
Mighty  monoceros  with  immeasured  tayles; 

CANTO  XII.  163 

24  The  dreadfull  fish,  that  hath  deserv'd  the  name 
Of  Death,  and  like  him  lookes  in  dreadfull  hew ; 
The  griesly  wasserman,  that  makes  his  game 
The  flying  ships  with  swiftnesse  to  pursew; 
The  horrible  sea-satyre,  that  doth  shew 

His  fearefull  face  in  time  of  greatest  storme 
Huge  ziffius,  whom  mariners  eschew 
No  lesse  than  rockes,  (as  travellers  informe,) 
And  greedy  rosmarines  with  visages  deforme. 

25  All  these,  and  thousand  thousands  many  more, 
And  more  deformed  monsters  thousand  fold, 
With  dreadfull  noise  and  hollow  rombling  rore 
Came  rushing  in  the  fomy  waves  enrold, 
Which  seem'd  to  fly  for  feare  them  to  behold: 
Ne  wonder,  if  these  did  the  knight  appall ; 
For  all  that  here  on  earth  we  dreadfull  hold, 
Be  but  as  bugs  to  fearen  babes  withall, 

Compared  to  the  creatures  in  the  seas  entrall. 

26  Feare  nought,  (then  saide  the  palmer  well  aviz'd,) 
For  these  same  monsters  are  not  these  in  deed, 
But  are  into  these  fearefull  shapes  disguiz'd 

By  that  same  wicked  witch,  to  worke  us  dreed, 
And  draw  from  on  this  journey  to  proceede. 
/""*Tho  lifting  up  his  vertuous  staffe  on  hye, 
/     He  smote  the  sea,  which  calmed  was  with  speed, 
/       And  all  that  dreadfull  armie  fast  gan  flye 
Into  great  Tethys  bosome,  where  they  hidden  lye. 

27  Quit  from  that  danger  forth  their  course  they  kept; 
And  as  they  went  they  heard  a  ruefull  cry 

Of  one,  that  wayld  and  pittifully  wept, 
That  through  the  sea  th'  resounding  plaints  did  fly: 
At  last  they  in  an  island  did  espy 
A  seemely  maiden,  sitting  by  the  shore, 
That  with  great  sorrow  and  sad  agony 
Seemed  some  great  misfortune  to  deplore, 
And  lowd  to  them  for  succour  called  evermore. 
M  2 


28  Which  Guyon  hearing,  straight  his  palmer  bad 
To  stere  the  boate  towards  that  dolefull  mayd, 
That  he  might  know  and  ease  her  sorrow  sad: 
Who,  him  avizing  better,  to  him  sayd; 

Faire  sir,  be  not  displeased,  if  disobayd: 
For  ill  it  were  to  hearken  to  her  cry; 
For  she  is  inly  nothing  ill  apayd; 
But  onely  womanish  fine  forgery, 
Your  stubborne  hart  t'affect  with  .fraile  infirmity. 

29  To  which  when  she  your  courage  hath  inclind 
Through  foolish  pitty,  then  her  guilefull  bayt 
She  will  embosome  deeper  in  your 'mind, 
And  for  your  mine  at  the  last  awayt. 

The  knight  was  ruled,  and  the  boateman  strayt 
Held  on  his  course  with  stayed  stedfastnesse, 
Ne  ever  shruncke,  ne  ever  sought  to  bayt 
His  tyred  armes  for  toylesome  wearinesse, 
But  with  his  oares  did  sweepe  the  watry  wildernesse. 

30  And  now  they  nigh  approched  to  the  sted* 
Whereas  those  mermayds  dwelt:  it  was  a  still 
And  calmy  bay,  on  th'  one  side  sheltered 
With  the  brode  shadow  of  an  hoarie  hill ; 

On  th'  other  side  an  high  rocke  toured  still, 
That  twixt  them  both  a  pleasaunt  port  they  made, 
And  did  like  an  halfe  theatre  fulfill : 
There  those  five  sisters  had  continuall  trade, 
And  usd  to  bath  themselves  in  that  deceiptfull  shade. 

31  They  were  faire  ladies,  till  they  fondly  striv'd 
With  th'  Heliconian  maides  for  maistery ; 

Of  whom  they  over-comen  were  depriv'd 
Of  their  proud  beautie,  and  th'  one  moyity 
Transform'd  to  fish  for  their  bold  surquedry; 
But  th'  upper  halfe  their  hew  retained  still, 
And  their  sweet  skill  in  wonted  melody ; 
Which  ever  after  they  abusd  to  ill, 
T*  allure  weake  travellers,  whom  gotten  they  did  kill. 

CANTO  XII.  165 

33  So  now  to  Guyon,  as  he  passed  by, 

Their  pleasaunt  tunes  they  sweetly  thus'  applide ; 
*O  thou  faire  sonne  of  gentle  Faery, 
That  art  in  mighty  armes  most  magnifide 
Above  all  knights,  that  ever  battell  tride, 
O  turne  thy  rudder  hither-ward  a  while: 
Here  may  thy  storme-bet  vessell  safely  ride; 
This  is  the  port  of  rest  from  troublous  toyle, 

The  worlds  sweet  in,  from  paine  and  wearisome  turmoyle. 

33  With  that  the  rolling  sea  resounding  soft, 
In  his  big  base  them  fitly  answered; 

And  on  the  rocke  the  waves  breaking  aloft 
A  solemne  meane  unto  them  measured; 
The  whiles  sweet  Zephyrus  lowd  whisteled 
His  treble,  a  straunge  kinde  of  harmony  ;X 
Which  Guyons  senses  softly  tickeled, 
That  he  the  boteman  bad  row  easily, 
And  let  him  heare  some  part  of  their  rare  melody. 

34  But  him  the  palmer  from  that  vanity 
With  temperate  advice  discounselled, 
That  they  it  past,  and  shortly  gan  descry 
The  land,  to  which  their  course  they  leveled; 
When  suddeinly  a  grosse  fog  over  spred 
With  his  dull  vapour  all  that  desert  has, 
And  heavens  chearefull  face  enveloped, 

That  all  things  one,  and  one  as  nothing  was, 
And  this  great  universe  seemd  one  confused  mas. 

35  Thereat  they  greatly  were  dismay d,  ne  wist 
How  to  direct  theyr  way  in  darkenesse  wide, 
But  feard  to  wander  in  that  wastfull  mist, 
For  tombling  into  mischiefe  unespide: 
Worse  is  the  daunger  hidden,  then  descride. 
Suddeinly  an  innumerable  flight 

Of  harmefull  fowles  about  them  fluttering,  cride, 
And  with  their  wicked  wings  them  ofte  did  smight, 
And  sore  annoyed,  groping  in  that  griesly  night. 

1 66 


36  Even  all  the  nation  of  unfortunate 

And  fatall  birds  about  them  flocked  were, 
Such  as  by  nature  men  abhorre  and  hate, 
The  ill-faste  owle,  deaths  dreadfull  messengere, 
The  hoars  night-raven,  trump  of  dolefull  drere, 
The  lether-winged  bat,  dayes  enimy, 
The  ruefull  strich,  still  waiting  on  the  bere, 
The  whistler  shrill,  that  whoso  heares  doth  dy, 
The  hellish  harpies,  prophets  of  sad  destiny. 

37  All  those,  and  all  that  els  does  horrour  breed, 
About  them  flew,  and  fild  their  sayles  with  fea 
Yet  stayd  they  not,  but  forward  did  proceed, 
Whiles  th'  one  did  row,  and  th'  other  stifly  steare"? 
Till  that  at  last  the  weather  gan  to  cleare, 

And  the  faire  land  itselfe  did  plainly  show. 
Said  then  the  palmer,  Lo  where  does  appeare 
The  sacred  soile,  where  all  our  perils  grow ; 
Therefore,  Sir  Knight,  your  ready  armes  about  you  throw. 

38  He  hearkned,  and  his  armes  about  him  tooke, 
The  whiles  the  nimble  boat  so  well  her  sped, 
That  with  her  crooked  keele  the  land  she  strooke, 
Then  forth  the  noble  Guyon  sallied, 

And  his  sage  palmer,  that  him  governed; 
But  th'  other  by  his  boate  behind  did  stay. 
They  marched  fairly  forth,  of  nought  ydred, 
Both  firmely  armd  for  every  hard  assay, 
With  constancy  and  care,  gainst  daunger  and  dismay. 

39  Ere  long  they  heard  an  hideous  bellowing 
Of  many  beasts,  that  roard  outrageously, 
As  if  that  hungers  point  or  Venus  sting 
Had  them  enraged  with  fell  surquedry; 
Yet  nought  they  feard,  but  past  on  hardily, 
Untill  they  came  in  vew  of  those  wild  beasts, 
Who  all  attonce,  gaping  full  greedily, 

And  rearing  fercely  their  upstarting  crests, 
Ran  towards  to  devour  those  unexpected  guests. 


40  But  soone  as  they  approcht  with  deadly  threat, 
The  palmer  over  them  his  staffe  upheld, 

His  mighty  staffe,  that  could  all  charmes  defeat: 
Eftsoones  their  stubborne  courages  were  queld, 
And  high  advaunced  crests  downe  meekely  feld; 
Instead  of  fraying,  they  themselves  did  feare, 
And  trembled,  as  them  passing  they  beheld: 
Such  wondrous  powre  did  in  that  staffe  appeare, 
All  monsters  to  subdew  to  him,  that  did  it  beare. 

41  Of  that  same  wood  it  fram'd  was  cunningly, 
Of  which  Gaduceus  whilome  was  made, 
Caduceus,  the  rod  of  Mercury, 

With  which  he  wonts  the  Stygian  realmes  invade 
Through  ghastly  horrour  and  eternall  shade; 
Th'  infernall  feends  with  it  he  can  asswage, 
And  Orcus  tame,  whom  nothing  can  persuade, 
And  rule  the  Furyes  when  they  most  doe  rage; 
Such  vertue  in  his  staffe  had  eke  this  palmer  sage. 

42  Thence  passing  forth,  they  shortly  doe  arrive 
Whereas  the  Bowre  of  Blisse  was  situate; 

A  place  pickt  out  by  choice  of  best  alive, 
That  natures  worke  by  art  can  imitate: 
In  which  whatever  in  this  worldly  state 
Is  sweet,  and  pleasing  unto  living  sense, 
Or  that  may  dayntiest  fantasie  aggrate, 
Was  poured  forth  with  plentifull  dispence, 
And  made  there  to  abound  with  lavish  affluence. 

43  Goodly  it  was  enclosed  round  about, 

As  well  their  entred  guestes  to  keepe  within, 
As  those  unruly  beasts  to  hold  without ; 
Yet  was  the  fence  thereof  but  weake  and  thin ; 
Nought  feard  their  force,  that  fortilage  to  win, 
But  wisedome's  powre,  and  temperaunces  might, 
By  which  the  mightiest  things  efforced  bin : 
And  eke  the  gate  was  wrought  of  substau 
Rather  for  pleasure,  then  for  battery  or  fig 




44  Yt  framed  was  of  precious  yvory, 
That  seemd  a  worke  of  admirable  witt ; 
And  therein  all  the  famous  history 

Of  Jason  and  Medaea  was  ywrit; 
Her  mighty  charmes,  her  furious  loving  fit; 
His  goodly  conquest  of  the  golden  fleece, 
His  falsed  faith,  and  love  too  lightly  flit; 
The  wondred  Argo,  which  in  venturous  peece 
First  through  the  Euxine  seas  bore  all  the  flowr  of  Greece. 

45  Ye  might  have  seen  the  frothy  billowes  fry 
Under  the  ship  as  thorough  them  she  went, 
That  seemd  the  waves  were  into  yvory, 

Or  yvory  into  the  waves  were  sent; 
And  otherwhere  the  snowy  substaunce  sprent 
With  vermeil,  like  the  boyes  blond  therein  shed, 
A  piteous~spectacle  did  represent; 
And  otherwhiles  with  gold  besprinkeled 
Yt  seemed  th'  enchaunted  flame,  which  did  Greusa  wed. 

46  All  this  and  more  might  in  that  goodly  gate 
Be  red,  that  ever  open  stood  to  all, 

Which  thether  came:  but  in  the  porch  there  sate 
A  comely  personage  of   stature  tall, 
And  semblaunce  pleasing,  more  then  naturall, 
That  travellers  to  him  seemd  to  entize; 
His  looser  garment  to  the  ground  did  fall, 
And  flew  about  his  heeles  in  wanton  wize, 
Not  fit  for  speedy  pace  or  manly  exercize. 

47  They  in  that  place  him  Genius  did  call : 
Not  that  celestiall  powre,  to  whom  the  care 
Of  life,  and  generation  of  all 

That  lives,  perteines  in    charge  particulare, 
Who  wondrous  things  concerning  our  welfare, 
And  straunge  phantomes  doth  let  us  ofte  foresee, 
And  ofte  of  secret  ill  bids  us  beware: 
Tha't  is  our  Selfe,  whom  though  we  do  not  see, 
Yet  each  doth  in  himselfe  it  well  perceive  to  bee. 

CANTO  XII.  169 

48  Therefore  a  god  him  sage  antiquity 

Did  wisely  make,  and  good  Agdistes  call; 

But  this  same  was  to  that  quite  contrary, 

The  foe  of  life,  that  good  envyes  to  all, 

That  secretly  doth  us  procure  to  fall 

Through  guilefull  semblaunts,  which  he  makes  us  see. 

He  of  this  gardin  had  the  governall, 

And  Pleasures  porter  was  devizd  to  bee, 
Holding  a  staffe  in  hand  for  more  formalitee. 

49  With  diverse  flowres  he  daintily  was  deckt, 
And  strowed  round  about;  and  by  his  side 

A  mighty  mazer  bowle  of  wine  was  set,       /T^*/^ 
As  if  it  hacPEo  him  bene  sacrifide ; 
Wherewith  all  new-come  guests  he  gratifide: 
So  did  he  eke  Sir  Guyon  passing  by; 
But  he  his  idle  curtesie  defide, 
And  overthrew  his  bowle  disdainfully, 
And  broke  his  staffe,  with  which  he  charmed  semblants  sly, 

50  Thus  being  entred,  they  behold  around 

A  large  and  spacious  plaine,  on  every  side 
Strowed  with  pleasauns;  whose  faire  grassy  ground 
Mantled  with  greene,  and  goodly  beautifide 
.  AyV\  f   With  all  the  ornaments  of  Floraes  pride,  4 

1  Wherewith  her  mother  Art,  as  halfe  in  scorne, 
Of  niggard  Nature,  like  a  pompous  bride 
Did  decke  her,  and  too  lavishly  adorne, 
When  forth  from  virgin  bowre  she  comes  in  th*  early  morne. 

51  Thereto  the  hevens  alwayes  joviall 

Lookt  on  them  lovely,  still  in  stedfast  state, 

Ne  suffred  storme  nor  frost  on  them  to  fall, 

Their  tender  buds  or  leaves  to  violate: 

Nor  scorching  heat,  nor  cold  intemperate, 

T*  afflict  the  creatures,  which  therein  did  dwell; 

But  the  milde  aire  with  season  moderate 

Gently  attempred,  and  disposd  so  well, 

That  still  it  breathed  forth  sweet  spirit  and  holesome  smell : 



52  More  sweet  and  holesome,  then  the  pleasaunt  hill 
Of  Rhodope,  on  which  the  nimphe,  that  bore 

A  gyaunt  babe,  her  selfe  for  griefe  did  kill ; 
Or  the  Thessalian  Tempe,  where  of  yore 
Faire  Daphne  Phoebus  hart  with  love  did  gore; 
Or  Ida,  where  the  gods  lov'd  to  repaire, 
Whenever  they  their  hevenly  bowres  forlore; 
Or  sweet  Parnasse  the  haunt  of  muses  faire: 
Or  Eden  selfe,  if  ought  with  Eden  mote  compaire. 

53  Much  wondred  Guyon  at  the  faire  aspect 
Of  that  sweet  place,  yet  suffred  no  delight 
To  sincke  into  his  sence  nor  mind  affect ; 
But  passed  forth,  and  lookt  still  forward  right, 
Bridling  his  will  and  maistering  his  might : 
Till  that  he  came  unto  another  gate; 

No  gate,  but  like  one,  being  goodly  dight 
With  boughes  and  braunches,  which  did  broad^  dilate 
t\Their  clasping  armes  in  wanton  wreathings  intri 

54  So  fashioned  a  porch  with  rare  devj££_  §*M 
Archt  over  head  with  an  embracing  vine, 
Whose  bounches  hanging  downe  seemd  to  entice 
All  passers  by  to  taste  their  lushious  wine, 

And  did  themselves  into  their  hands  incline, 
As  freely  offering  to  be  gathered; 
/       Some  deepe  empurpled  as  the  hyacint, 

Some  as  the  rubine  laughing  sweetly  red, 
{  Some  like  faire  emeraudes,  not  yet  well  ripened: 

55  And  them  amongst  some  were  of  burnisht  gold, 
So  made  by  art  to  beautifie  the  rest, 

Which  did  themselves  emongst  the  leaves  enfold, 
As  lurking  from  the  vew  of  covetous  guest, 
That  the  weake  boughes  with  so  rich  load  opprest 
Did  bow  adowne,  as  over-burdened. 
Under  that  porch  a  comely  dame  did  rest 
Clad  in  faire  weedes  but  fowle  disordered, 
And  garments  loose,  that  seemd  unmeet  for  womanhed: 

CANTO  XII.  171 

In  her  left  hand  a  cup  of  gold  she  held, 
And  with  her  right  the  riper  fruit  did  reach. 
Whose  sappy  liquor,  that  with  fulnesse  sweld, 
Into  her  cup  she  scruzd  with  daintie  breach 
On  her  fine  fingers,  without  fowle  empeach, 
That  so  faire  wine-presse  made  the.  wine  more  sweet : 
l^      Thereof  she  usd  to  give  to  drinke  to  each, 
Whom  passing  by  she  happened  to  meet: 

It  was  her  guise  all  straungers  goodly  so  to  greet. 

57  So  she  to  Guyon  offred  it  to  tast; 

Who  taking  it  out  of  her  tender  hond, 
The  cup  to  ground  did  violently  cast, 

hat  all  in  peeces  it  was  broken  fond, 

nd  with  the  liquor  stained  all  the  lond:  J(fJ* 

Whereat  Excesse  exceedingly  was  wroth, 
Yet  no'te  the  same  amend,  ne  yet  withstond, 
But  suffered  him  to  passe,  all  were  she  loth; 
Who  nought  regarding  her  displeasure  forward  goth. 

58  There  the  most  daintie  paradise  on  ground 
Itselfe  doth  offer  to  his  sober  eye, 

In  which  all  pleasures  plenteously  abownd, 
And  none  does  others  happinesse  envye; 
The  painted_flowres,  the  trees  upshooting  hye, 
The  dates  for  shade,  the  hilles  for  breathing  space, 
The  trembling  groves,  the  christall  running  by; 
And  that,  which  all  faire  workes  doth  most  aggrace, 
The  art,  which  all  that  wrought,  appeared  in  no  place. 

59  One  would  have  thought,  (so  cunningly  the  rude 
And  scorned  partes  were  mingled  with  the  fine,) 
That  nature  had  for  wantonesse  ensude 

Art,  and  that  art  at  nature  did  repine;    ,- 
"So  striving  each  th*  other  to  undermine, 
Each  did  the  others  worke  more  beautifle ; 
So  difFring  both  in  willes  agreed  in  fine: 
So  all  agreed,  through  sweete  diversitie, 
-This  gardin  to  adorne  with  all  varietie. 



60  And  in  the  midst  of  all  a  fountaine  stood, 

Of  richest  substance  that  on  earth  might  bee, 
So  pure  and  shiny,  that  the  silver  flood 
Through  every  channell  running  one  might  see; 
Most  goodly  it  with  curious  imageree 
Was  over-wrought,  and  shapes  of  naked  boyes, 
Of  which  some  seemd  witlrlTv^ry-^ellibsfi  ^ 
To  fly  about,  playing  thefir  wanton  toyej^ 
L  Whylest  others  did  themselveV-embay  -m-Tiquid  joyes. 


6 1  And  over  all  of  purest  gold  was  spred 

A  trayle  of  yvie  in  his  native  hew; 
For  the  rich  metall  "was  so  coloured, 
That  wight,  who  did  not  well  avis'd  it  vew, 
Would  surely  deeme  it  to  bee  yvie  trew: 
Low  hisjascivious  armes  adown  did  creepe, 
That  themselves  dipping  in  the  silver  dew 
Their  fleecy  flowres  they  fearfully  did  steepe, 
Which  drops  of  christall  seemd  for  wantones  to  \fteepe. 

62  Infinit  streames  continually  did  well 

/Out  of  this  fountaine,  sweet  and  faire  to  see, 
v.-The  which  into  an  ample  laver  fell, 
And  shortly  grew  to  so  great  quantitie, 
That  like  a  little  lake  it  seemd  to  bee; 
Whose  depth  exceeded  not  three  cubits  hight, 
That  through  the  waves  one  might  the  bottom  see, 


All  pav'd  beneath  with  jaspar  shining  bright, 
That  seemd  the  fountaine  in  that  sea  did  sayle  upright. 

*  *  *  * 

which  when  gazing  him  the  palmer  saw, 
much  rebukt  those  wandring  eyes  of  his, 
nd  counseld  well,  him  forward  thence  did  draw 
Now  are  they  come  nigh  to  the  Bowre  of  Blis, 
Of  her  fond  favorites  so  nam'd  amis; 
When  thus  the  palmer ;   Now  sir,  well  avise ; 
P"or  here  the  end  of  all  our  travell  is : 
Here  wonnes  Acrasia,  whom  we  must  surprise, 
Els  she  will  slip  away,  and  all  our  drift  despise. 



CANTO  XII.  173 

70  Eftsoones  they  heard  a  most  melodious  sound, 

Of  all  that  mote  delight  a  daintie  eare, 
Such  as  attonce  might  not  on  living  ground, 
Save  in  this  paradise,  be  heard  elsewhere : 
Right  hard  it  was  for  wight,  which  did  it  heare, 
To  read  what  manner  musicke  that  mote  bee ; 
For  all  that  pleasing  is  to  living  eare  T 

Was  there  consorted  in  one  harmonee ;  7 

Birdes,  voices,  instruments,  windes,  waters,  all  agree:     / 

71  The  joyous  birder  shrouded  in  chearefull  shade,    f/^^ 
Their  notes  unto  the  voyce  attempred  sweet; 
Th'  angelicalljsoft  trembling  voyces  made 
To  th'  instruments  divine  respondence  meet; 
The  silver  sounding  instruments  did'flieet 
With . tfcg  1>ase ^murmure  of  the f waters  fall; 
The  waters  fall  with  difference 
Now  soft, -now  loud,  unto  the  wind  did  call; 

The  gentle  warbling  wjnd  low  answered  to  all. 


74  The  whiles  some  one  did  chaunt  this  lovely  lay; 
Ah  see,  whoso  faire  thing  doest  faine  to  see, 

In  springing  flowre  the  image  of  thy  day  ; 
Ah  see  the  virgin  rose,  how  sweetly  shee 
Doth  first  peepe  foorth  with  bashfull  modestee, 
That  fairer  seemes  the  lesse  ye  see  her  may  ,• 
Lo  see  soone  after,  how  more  bold  and  free 
Her  bared  bosome  she  doth  broad  display; 
Lo  see  soone  after,  how  she  fades,  and  falls  away. 

75  So  passeth,  in  the  passing  of  a  day, 

Of  mortal/  life  the  leafe,  the  bud,  the  flowre ; 
Ne  more  doth  flourish  after  first  decay, 
That  earst  was  sought  to  decke  both  bed  and  bowrf 
Of  many  a  ladie,  and  many  a  paramowre  ! 
Gather  therefore  the  rose,  whilest  yet  is  prime, 
For  soone  comes  age,  that  will  her  pride  deflowre: 
Gather  the  rose  of  love,  whilest  yet  is  time, 
Whilest  loving  thou  mayst  loved  be  with  equal/  crime. 

174  THE  fAERF   QUEENE. 

76  He  ceast ;  and  then  gan  all  the  quire  of  birdes 
Their  diverse  notes  t'attune  unto  his  lay, 
As  in  approvance  of  his  pleasing  words. 
sv  ^       The  constant  paire  heard  all  that  he  did  say, 
Yet  swarved  not,  but  kept  their  forward  way 
Through  many  covert  groves  and  thickets  close, 
In  which  they  creeping  did  at  last  display 
That  wanton  ladie,  with  her  lover  lose, 
Whose  sleepie  head  she  in  her  lap  did  soft  dispose. 

79  The  young  man,  sleeping  by  her,  seemd  to  be 
Some  goodly  swayne  of  honorable  place ; 
That  certes  it  great  pittie  was  to  see 

Him  his  nobility  so  foule  deface: 
A  sweet  regard  and  amiable  grace, 
Mixed  with  manly  sternesse  did  appeare, 
Yet  sleeping,  in  his  well proportiond  face; 
And  on  his  tender  lips  the  downy  heare 
Did  now  but  freshly  spring,  and  silken  blossomes  beare. 

80  His  warlike  armes,  the  idle  instruments 

Of  sleeping  praise,  were  hong  upon  a  tree : 
And  his  brave  shield,  full  of  old  moniments, 
Was  fowly  ras't,  that  none  the  signes  might  see; 
Ne  for  them,  ne  for  honour  cared  hee, 
Ne  ought  that  did  to  his  advauncement  tend; 
But  in  lewd  loves,  and  wastfull  luxuree, 
His  dayes,  his  goods,  his  bodie  he  did  spend: 
O  horrible  enchantment,  that  him  so  did  blend. 

8 1  The  noble  elfe  and  carefull  palmer  drew 

So  nigh  them,  minding  nought  but  idle  game, 
That  suddein  forth  they  on  them   rusht,  and  threw 
A  subtile  net,  which  only  for  that  same 
The  skilfull  palmer  formally  did  frame : 
So  held  them  under  fast;   the  whiles  the  rest 
Fled  all  away  for  feare  of  fowler  shame. 
The  faire  enchauntresse,  so  unwares  opprest, 
Tryde  all  her  arts,  and  all  her  sleights  thence  out  to  wrest 


CANTO   XII.  175 

82  And  eke  her  lover  strove;   but  all  in  vaine; 
For  that  same  net  so  cunningly  was  wound, 
That  neither  guile  nor  force  might  it  distraine. 
They  tooke  them  both,  and  both  them  strongly  bound 
In  captive  bandes,  which  there  they  readie  found: 
But  her  in  chaines  of  adamant  he  tyde; 

For  nothing  else  might  keepe  her  safe  and  sound: 
But  Verdant  (so  he  hight)  he  soone  untyde, 
And  counsell  sage  in  steed  tnereof  to  him  applyde. 

83  But  all  those  pleasaunt  bowi^s,  and  pallace  brave, 
Guyon  broke  downe  witlAigpurpittilesse  : 

Ne  ought  their  goodly  worEmanship  might  save 
Them  from  the  tempest  j>Miis_wratlrfulnesj^ 
,  But  that  their  blisseHSe"  tun^d^lxTbalefuTnesse, 
Their  groves  he  feld,  then-  gardins  did  deface, 
Their  arbers  spoyld,  then*  cabinets  suppresse, 
Their  banket  houses  burne,  their  buildings  race, 
And  of  the  fairest  late,  now  made  the  fowlest  place. 

84  Then  led  they  her  away,  and  eke  that  knight 
They  with  them  led,  both  sorrowful!  and  sad: 
The  way  they  came,  the  same  retourn'd  they  right, 
Till  they  arrived,  where  they  lately  had 

Charm'd  those  wild  beasts,  that  rag*d  with  furie  mad; 
Which,  now  awaking,  fierce  at  them  gan  fly, 
As  in  their  mistresse  reskew,  whom  they  lad; 
But  them  the  palmer  soone  did  pacify.  [did  ly. 

Then  Guyon  askt,  what  meant  those  beastes,  which  there 

.     .     85  Said  he,  These  seeming  beasts  are  men  in  deed, 
Whom  this  enchauntresse  hath  transformed  thus, 
Whylome  her  lovers,  which  her  lusts  did  feed, 
Now  turned  into  figures  hideous, 
*  According  to  then"  mindes  like  monstruous. 

Sad  end  (quoth  he)  of  life  intemperate, 
^  And  mournefull  meed  of  joyes  delicious  : 

But  palmer,  if  it  mote  thee  so  aggrate, 
*    Let  them  returned  be  unto  their  former  state. 


86  Streightway  he  with  his  vertuous  staffe  them  strooke, 
And  streight  of  beasts  they  comely  men  became ; 
Yet  being  men  they  did  unmanly  looke, 

And  stared  ghastly ;  some  for  inward  shame, 
And  some  for  wrath,  to  see  their  captive  dame : 
But  one  above  the  rest  in  special!, 
That  had  an  hog  beene  late,  hight  Grille  by  name, 
Repined  greatly,  and  did  him  miscall, 
That  had  from  hoggish  forme  him  brought  to  naturall. 

87  Said  Guyon ;   See  the  mind  of  beastly  man, 
That  hath  so  soone  forgot  the  excellence 
Of  his  creation,  when  he  life  began, 

That  now  he  chooseth  with  vile  difference 
To  be  a  beast,  and  lacke  intelligence. 
To  whom  the  palmer  thus ;   The  donghill  kind 
Delights  in  filth  and  foule  incontinence : 
Let  Grill  be  Grill,  and  have  his  hoggish  mind : 
But  let  us  hence  depart,  whilest  wether  serves  and  wind. 



1.  The  Introduction  is  addressed,  courtier-fashion,  to  Queen  Elizabeth. 
The    Poet   makes  apology  for   his  Faery- land.     'Truth   is  stranger  than 
fiction :'  who  could  have  foreseen  the  discovery  of  Peru  and  Virginia  ?  may 
there  not  be  worlds  in  the  moon  and  stars?    And,  after  all, Faery-land  is  not 
so  far  off :  the  doubter,  if  he  will  search  for  it,  may  find  it  at  home ;  for  it 
is  England,  ruled  by  the  fairest  of  Princesses.     The  Poet  is  fain  thus  to  veil 
her  glories  under  the  misty  shadows  of  Faery-land,  lest  men's  eyes  should  be 
dazzled  by  them.     He  now  prays  the  Queen  to  listen  to  the  tale  of  Guyon, 
the  Knight  of  Temperance. 

2,  6.  tb'  Indian  Peru; — '  Indian,'  because  men  had  believed  that  America 
was  India  taken  from  the  other  side.     See  canto  xi.  st.  21,  and  note  there. 
Peru,  discovered  by  Vasco  Nunez  de  Balboa  about  A.D.  1513,  was  conquered 
by  Pizarro  in  1532. 

8.  The  Amazons  huge  river; — the  Amazon,  in  South  America,  the 
greatest  river  on  the  globe,  runs  a  course  of  about  3000  (some  say  4000) 
miles  from   source  to  sea,  and  in  the  rainy  season  is  said   to   be   thirty 
miles  broad  at  its  mouth.     Yanez  Pincon  first  discovered  the  mouth  of  the 
river,  A.D.  1500:   but  a  Spaniard,  Francesco  d'Orillana,  was  the  first  who 
sailed  down  any  part  of  it,  in  1540.     He  reported  that  there  was  a  com 
munity  of  female  warriors  on  its  banks ;   and  the  river  was  named  after 
them.     The  scattered  accounts  of  the  Amazons  were  collected  by  Sir  W. 
Raleigh,  and  are  to  be  found  in  his  History  of  the  World,  Life  of  Alexander 
the  Great. 

9.  fruit/vilest  Virginia; — now  one  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
When  Sir  W.  Raleigh  returned  from  his  expedition  in  1584  with  a  glowing 
report  of  the  country  discovered  in  North  America,  and  laid  the  new  lands 
at  the  feet  of  the  '  Virgin  Queen/  she  was  pleased  to  accept  them,  and  to 
give  them  the  name  of  Virginia.     In  1589,  after  much  outlay  in  unsuccessful 
attempts  at  colonisation,  Sir  Walter  handed  over  his  rights  to  a  London 
Company,  reserving  to  himself  a  royalty  of  one-fifth  of  all  precious  metals 
found  there.     The  colony  then  prospered  ;  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that 
while  the  Dedication  to  the  first  edition  of  the  Faery  Queene  (A.D.  1590) 
styles  Elizabeth  "  Queene  of  England,  Fraunce  and  Ireland,"  that  of  the 


178  NOTES.  [St. 

second  edition  (1596)  adds  the  words  "and  of  Virginia,"  shewing  that  the 
colony  had  risen  to  high  credit  in  the  interval. 

3,  2 .  from  wisest  ages ; — hidden  from  ages  renowned  for  their  wisdom: 
why  then  should  our  dull  age  think  an  undiscovered  Faery-land  impossible  ? 

9.  yet  such  to  some  appears; — such  worlds  (in  the  moon,  stars,  &c.) 
seem  to  some  persons  to  exist. 

4,  2.  in  sondrie  place; — either,  as  the  Prayer-book  phrase  'in  sundry 
places '=  in  many  different  spots;  or  =  in  one  distinct  place  separated  off 
from  all  others.     In  the  latter  case  the  clause  'here  sett  in  sondrie  place' 
will  come  after  '  find ' :  in  the  former  case  '  sett'  will  agree  with  '  signes.' 

5.  no'te  .  .  .  trace; — 'knows  not  how  to  track  out.'  This  Old  English 
contraction  is  common  in  Spenser's  writings. 

9.  thy  great  auncestry ; — especially  described  in  canto  10,  where  the 
two  knights,  Arthur  and  Guyon,  find  two  books,  '  Briton  Moniments '  and 
'  Antiquitee  of  Faery  Lond,'  and  read  in  them  '  their  countreys  auncestry.' 

5,  i.  The  style  of  this  high  compliment  is  a  kind  of  parody  on'  things 
divine  :  it  is  the  veil  on  Moses'  face  transferred  to  the  glory  and  majesty  of 
the  Queen. 

4.  beames; — notice  the  dissyllabic  plural,  a  relic  of  the  old  Northern 
English  dialects. 

9.  great  rule  of  Temp'raunce ; — thus  Spenser  states  the  subject  of  the 
Book.  Guyon's  part  is  to  work  out  the  triumph  of  moral  virtue  over  the 
various  temptations  of  vice. 


^N  Archimago,  having  escaped  out  of  Eden,  sets  himself  to  work  fresh  woe  to  the 

J      Red  Cross  Knight.     He  meets  Sir  Guyon  attended  by  his  Palmer,  and 

J        with  a  false  tale  and  the  sight  of  the  false  grief  of  Dtiessa,  pricks  him 

I        to  a'tack  the  Red  Cross  Knight.     But  Sir  Guyon,  seeing  the  cross  on  the 

i         other's  shield,  forbears  to  fight ;  and  they  fall  to  friendly  converse.     Soon 

^—      after  they  part  in  all  good-will ;  the  Red  Cross  Knight  disappears  from 

the  scene ;  Archimago  and  Duessa  flee  discomfited.     Sir  Guyon  presently 

finds  the  dying  Amavia,  by  the  side  of  her  dead  husband,  with  her  little 

babe  whose  hands  are  bedabbled  with  her  blood.     He  hears  her  last  words, 

the  tale  of  excess  in  drink,  and  swears  to  avenge  her  on  Acrasia  (or 

Intemperance}.     Then  be  gives  them  decent  burial,  takes  up  the  babe,  and 

fares  forth  on  his  way. 

1,  i.   That  cunning  architect,  &c. ; — sc.  Archimago:  see  Bk.  I.  xii.  24  36. 
In  Milton  (Par.  Lost,  4.  121)  we  have  a  like  phrase,  "  Artificer  of  fraud  :" 
,  both  drawn  from  the  Latin  "  sceleris  infandi  artifex." — Cic.  Or.  48.     Archi 
mago  and  the  Red  Cross  Knight  are  introduced  in  order  to  link  together  the 
First  and  Second  Books,  and  to  form  a  natural  introduction  to  the  new '  gest ' 
\    or  jMtgeant  of  Sir  Guyon. 

i  jTTJut  of  caytives  hands ; — what  is  meant  by  '  he  frees  himself  out  of 

caytives  hands'?     Probably  Spenser  means  '  out  of  the  hands  of  those  who 


CANTO    I.  179 

held  him  captive;'  or  'out  of  the  hands  of  the  rascals/  his  gaolers.  »It  has 
been  suggested  that  this  is  a  misprint  for  '  caytive  hands '  =  either  '  hands  of 
the  base,'  or  =  ' captivity*  simply;  or  another  misprint  for  'caytive  bands,' 
which  would  make  the  best  sense :  but  then  '  bands '  occurs  already  as  one 
of  the  rhymes  of  this  stanza. 

8.  his  artes  be  moves; — Proteus-like:    cp.  Virg.  Aen.  I.  661,  "novas 
artes  .  .  .  versat ;"  and  12.  397,  "  agitare  .  .  .  artes." 

2,  2.  to  worken; — notice  the  old  Southern  infinitive.     Spenser  was  not 
particular  as  to  the  dialect  he  used. 

4.  onely  =  special,  as  in  the  theological  usage  of  the  word:  see  Bk.  I. 
vii.  50,  '  mine  onely  foe.'     '  Only*  is  first  an  adj.,  then  an  adv. 
6.  bis ; — i.  e.  the  Red  Cross  Knight's. 

3,  2.  food; — peculiar  spelling  of  feud.     See  Bk.  I.  viii.  9  :  in  Bk.  IV.  i.  26, 
the  word  is  spelt  feood. 

6.  fayre  filed  long ; — he  was  a  smooth-tongued  rascal.     See  Glossary 
to  Bk.  I.  File. 

9.  For  hardly,  &c. ; — i.  e.  the  man  who  has  once  been  hit  will  not  be 
likely  to  fall  again  into  Archimago's  hands. 

4,  5.  ketch; — note  this  spelling  of  the  word  'catch.'  answering  to  the 
now  vulgar  pronunciation. 

5,  2.  to  win  occasion  to  bis  will; — to  get  a  good  opportunity  to  work  his 
will.     Spenser  personifies  Occasion  in  canto  iv,  bringing  her  in  as  the  mother 
and  cause  of  Fury. 

9.  no  place  appeared; — i.  e.  he  was  armed  cap-a-pie,  and  no  unarmed 
spot  could  be  seen  from  head  to  foot. 

6,  8.  Sir  Huon; — Sir  Huon  of  Bordeaux.     He  was  King  Oberon's  fa- 
Yonrite.     In  the  romance  named  after  him,  Oberon,  after  many  gifts  and 
marks  of  good-will,  makes  him  his  successor  in  his  kingdom  of  Faery-land% 
Todd  adds  that  as  such  he  obtained  the  kingly  right  of  conferring  knight 
hood.     But  in  true  days  of  chivalry,  knighthood  could  be  conferred  not  only 
by  kings,  but  by  any  knight.     Thus  the  dead  Sir  Launcelot  knights  the 
hero  of  one  romance,  the  sword  being  placed  in  his  skeleton  hand :    in 
history,  Francis  I  requested  the  great  Bayard  to  dub  him  a  knight.     So  that 
no  kingly  powers  were  needed  in  the  case  of  Sir  Huon. 

9.  King  Oberon ; — King  of  Faery-land.     In  canto  x.  75,  Henry  VIII  of^ 
England  is  introduced  under  this  name. 

7,  2.  a  comely  Palmer; — under  the  person  of  the  Palmer  Spenser  wishes 
to  indicate  the  prudence  and  sobriety  which  counsel  aright  in  times  of  moral 
trial.     The  Palmer  plays  the  part  of  a  kind  of  Chorus;    he  brings  sober 
reason  to  bear  upon  every  question;  his  remarks  throughout  the  Book  are 
sententious  and  soothing.     When  he  is  hindered  from  following  his  master, 
the  Knight  falls  into  violent  passions,  and  is  wellnigh  undone.     He  corre 
sponds  to  the  Mentor  of  Telemachus,  a  slow-paced  "  sage  and  sober  sire," 
without  imagination,  aged  and  free  from  youthful  temptations,  clad  in  black. 
Spenser  may  have  meant  to  shadow  out  also  the  Church,  as  the  moral  guide 
and  teacher  of  noble  spirits. 

8,  3.  deceiptfull  clew ; — the  clew,  or  twisted  hank  of  string,  kept  ready 
to  be  made  into  nets. 

7.  seeke; — 2nd  pers.  sing,  for  seekest. 

N  2 

l8o  NOTES.  [St. 

8,  9.  miser; — an  Italian  and  Latin  usage.     So  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.,  "Che  '1 
miser  suole,"  &c. 

9,  3.   Who; — notice  the  Latinized  construction.     Modern  writers  would 
have  broken  the  sentence,  and  begun  again  with  '  He.' 

8.  in  place ; — favourite  phrase  with  Spenser,  either  =  '  here,  in  this 
place ;'  or  (as  we  now  say)  '  in  a  position'  to  tell. 

9.  thy  sight ; — Latinism  =  '  sight  of  thee.' 

10,  4.  virgin  cleene ; — so   in  Sir  Bevis   of  Hampton,  a   romance  which 
Spenser  knew  well,  we  have  "  But  were  she  a  maiden  cleene." 

It,  5.  looser; — Spenser  affects  this  Latin  comparative  ='  too  loose' — 
dishevelled  by  her  tormentor. 

12,  3.  doen; — here  is  a  present  tense  plural  which  belongs  rightly  to  the 
Midland  dialects  (see  Morris  and  Skeat's  Specimens,  Introduction,  p.  xix) : 
another  example  of  Spenser's  seizing  on  antique  forms  from  any  part  of 

9.  The  stricken  deare; — Shakespeare  has  the  same  epithet  in  Hamlet, 
act.  3.  sc.  2  : 

"Why,  let  the  stricken  deer  go  weep." 

16,  6.  but  doth  the  ill  increase; — an  intricate  construction,  half  interro 
gative,  half  direct.  '  What  boots  it  to  lament  ? — to  do  so,  when  the  mischiet 
is  done,  but  increases  the  evil.' 

9.  voluntarie ; — i.  e.  it  was  a  feigned  tale,  and  feigned  grief  throughout 
The  'gentle  lady'  was  Duessa,  the  spirit  of  falsehood. 

18,  9.  that  quartred  all  the  field; — heraldic  phrase.     The  red  cross  di- 
rided  the  whole  'field'  of  the  shield  into  four  equal  quarters. 

19,  J.'armes  he  swore; — swore  the  oaths  usually  taken  when  a  knight 
first  dons  his  armour. 

8.  TV  adventure,  &c. ; — i.  e.  the  succouring  of  Una. 

20,  7.  blotted; — ed.  1590,  'blotting.' 

21,  4.  Duessa; — in  Book  I  she  did  her  utmost  to  lead  true  men  into  false 
doctrine ;  here  into  immoral  life. 

22,  7.  Sitb  her,  &c. ;— cp.  Book  I.  viii.  45. 

23,  3.   To  slug  in  slouth,  &c. ; — in  Bunyan's  Pilgrim's  Progress,  the  Chris 
tian's  course  is  first  endangered  by  the  Slough  of  Despond  ; .  Bunyan  was 
drawing  the  spiritual,  Spenser  the  moral  state  of  man.     This  temptation  to 
idle   sensuality  meets  Guyon,  the  hero  of  morality,  at  the  outset,  just  as 
Error  met  the  Red  Cross  Knight  at  the  beginning  of  his  career.     He  was 
striving  after  truth  and  was  tried  by  error ;   Guyon  after  moral  perfectness 
and  is  tempted  by  idleness. 

9.  as  virtues  like,  &c. ; — such  good  knights  as  Guyon  and  the  Red 
Cross  Knight  ought  to  be  friends  by  nature ;  but  the  Evil  One  sets  them 
sometimes  at  variance. 

25,  5.  but  vaine; — the  phrase  is  a  Latinism,  'at  vanum':  'vaine'  being 
elliptical  or  adverbial. 

8.  So  .  .  .  that; — '  ita  .  .  .  ut,'  so  angry  that,  &c. 

26,  I.  to  pricke; — note  this  use  of  the  infinitive. 

3.  in  the  rest; — this  was  a  catch  under  the  knight's  right  arm,  into 
which  the  spear  was  lowered :  not  the  place  on  the  stirrup  on  which  the 
lance  is  rested  while  the  horseman  is  not  riding  a  tilt.  It  is  the  "  ferro  al 


CANTO    I.  l8l 

petto  del  cavaliere,  ove  s'accomoda  il  calce  della  lancia  per  colpire."  Cp. 
Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  I.  61: 

"  Sprona  a  un  tempo,  e  la  lancia  in  resta  pone." 

28,  3.  Note  the  courtesy  of  '  well  becommeth  you,  But  me  behoveth,' 

7.  fayre  image  of  that  heavenly  maid ; — i.  e.  the  portrait  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  on  Sir  Guyon's  shield.     She  is  the  Virgin  of  English  sixteenth- 
century  courtier-chivalry.     In  the  shows  and  tilts  of  her  reign,  her  figure 
was  a  favourite  device.     Camden,  in  his  Remains,  says  that  one  of  her 
courtiers  displayed  on  one  such  occasion  a  half  zodiac  on  his  shield,  with 
Virgo  rising,  and  the  motto  "  Jam  redit  et  virgo :"  a  conceit  in  many  ways 
pleasing  to  the  Queen. 

29,  3.  each  to  other  beare; — note  the  pi.  verb;    'each  to  other'  =  '  one 
with  another  they.' 

5.  mote  I  u'eet ; — answers  nearly  to  our  modern  'Might  I  know  . .  ?' 

30,  3.  A  false,  &c. ; — the  construction  is,  '(It)  once  befell  me  to  meet  a 
traitor.'      Note  the  use  of  '  for ' :  for  Spenser's  parallel  use  of  '  from '  see 
note  below,  xii.  26. 

31,  I.  earnest  with  game; — so  Chaucer,  Prologue  to  the  Milleres  Tale, 
78  :  "  Men  schulde  nat  make  earnest  of  game." 

8.  and  that  deare  Crosse,  &c. ; — in  the  same  construction  with  '  you,' 
a  dative  after  '  happie  chance.' 

32,  5.  a  saint  with  saints; — the  Red  Cross  Knight  is  also  '  Saint  George 
of  mery  England.'     Cp.  Book  I.  x.  61. 

33,  6.   whose  pageant  next  ensues; — pageants  were   favourite  pastimes 
at  the  Queen's  court.     Virtues  and  vices  were  therein  personified.     So  in 
st.  36.  1.  3,  we  have 

'  To  see  sad  pageaunts  of  mens  miseries.' 

The  pageant  that  was  about  to  follow  was  that  of  Sir  Guyon,  the  subject  of 
the  coming  book.  The  Red  Cross  Knight  now  takes  his  farewell  of  the 
audience,  and  puts  his  successor  forward  as  the  next  actor. 

7.  Well  mote yee  thee ; — 'may  you  prosper.'     See  Glossary,  Thee. 

8.  thrise; — edd.  1590,  1596,  'these';  but  in  'Faults  Escaped'  at  end 
of  ed.  1 590,  it  is  corrected  to  '  thrise.' 

39,  4.  dolour; — ed.  1596,  'labour.' 

half  dead,  half  quiche  ', — so  in  the  Creeds  "  the  quick  and  the 
dead."     See  Glossary,  Quick. 

40,  4.  gore; — ed.  1596,  'gold.' 

41,  5.  yett  being  ded ; — in  apposition  to  'his';  'his'  =  'of  him,' — 'the 
cheeks  of  him  yet  being  dead.' 

6.  seemd; — 'he    seemed/   the   personal    pronoun   being   not   rarely 
omitted  by  Spenser. 

44,  8.  your  untimely  date; — the  allotted,  or  given,  end  of  her  days, 
coming  before  the  kindly  term  of  life  ;  cp.  Virg.  Aen.  4:  697,  of  Dido, 
"  misera  ante  diem."  These  stanzas  are  modelled  upon  the  description 
of  Dido's  last  moments.  So  the  'Therewith  her  dim  eye-lids,'  &c.,  is 
imitated  from  Virgil's 

"  Ilia,  graves  oculos  conata  attollere,  rursus  Deficit," 
and  'Thrise  he  her  reard,'  &c.,  from  "  Ter  se  attollens,"  &c.    (Aen.  4  690.) 

NOTES.  [st. 

46,  I.  eie-Iids,  On  which  the  drery  death  did  sit ; — so  Homer,  II.  10.  91, 
speaks  of  sleep  sitting  on  the  eyes. 

2.  sad  As  lump  of  lead; — so  in  viii.  30  : 

'With  that  his  hand,  more  sad  than  lump  of  lead 

Uplifting  hye.' 
See  Glossary,  Sad. 

47,  9.  now  got,  which; — Latinism ;  'the  death,  now  got  by  me,  which,' 
&c.,  i.  e.  the  self-caused  boon  of  death. 

50,  I.  ay  the  while; — cp.  the  equivalent  'Woe  worth  (be  to)  the  while,' 
&c.     '  Ay '  is  our  present  '  Ah  ! ' 

51,  2.  vile  Acrasia; — the  Aristotelian  aKpaaia,  that  condition  of  man  in 
which  the  due  government  of  the  appetites,  or  the  combination  of  the 
elements  of  human  nature,  is  neglected.     She  is  the  self-indulgent  opposite 

:of  self-ruling  Temperance.     Spenser's  Temperance  is  manly,  not  cloistered 

or  retiring ;  the  condition  of  the  full-grown  man,  who  has  met  his  trials  and 

fought  them  down,  supported  and  guided  by  his  monitor,  '  the  Palmer,'  who 

may  be  either  '  Conscience,'  or  '  God's  Word,'  or  '  Reason,'  or  '  Sobriety.' 

.'  Spenser  here  introduces  the  central  figure  of  Evil,  antagonist  to  Guyon,  the 

!  central  figure  of  Good.     Her  features  are  copied  from  the  Homeric  Circe. 

5.  a  wandring  island; — one  of  the  established  properties  of  romance 

52,  3.  with  words  and  weedes,  &c.; — Horn.  Od.  10.  234-236:  probably 
also  alluding  to  Rev.  14.  8;  17.  4- 

8.  palmers  weed; — the  'palmer's  weed'  was  a  very  common  disguise 
in  romance  ;  so  Sir  Bevis  says,  "  palmers  weed  thou  shalt  weare."  The 
black  robe  and  staff  were  an  excuse  for  wandering  anywhither,  and  therefore 
very  suitable  for  a  disguise.  A  distinction  is  drawn  between  palmer  and 
pilgrim,  to  the  effect  that  while  the  pilgrim  was  bound  to  some  particular 
holy  place  or  shrine,  the  palmer  had  a  sort  of  general  roving  commission  of 
a  more  permanent  character.  The  pilgrim  went  from  home  to  the  shrine 
he  had  vowed  to  visit,  and  returned  home  again ;  the  palmer  had  no  home, 
and  was  a  kind  of  permanent  beggar.  Chaucer  in  his  Prologue  13  seems  to 
favour  a  distinction : 

"Thanne  longen  folk  to  gon  on  pilgrimages 

And  palmeres  for  to  seeken  straunge  strondes." 

Tyrwhitt,  in  his  ed.  of  Chaucer,  quotes  Dante's  Vita  Nuova,  "Chiamansi 
Palmieri,  inquanto  vanno  oltra  mare,  laonde  molte  volte  recano  la  palma." 
The  palmer  carried  in  his  hand  a  staff  of  palm-tree  wood,  or  a  branch  of  it, 
whence  his  name.  Consequently  the  name  of  Palmer  belongs  properly  to 
those  only  who  went  as  pilgrims  to  the  Holy  Land.  And  thus  the  author  of 
the  anonymous  Passio  S.  Thomae  Cant.  (ed.  Dr.  Giles,  p.  134)  says,  "  Pere- 
grinationis  suae  signum  primi  quidem  et  soli  vel  a  Christi  sepulchro  vel  a 
sancto  lacobo  revertentes,  hi  cochleas,  illi  palmarum  spatulas  referre  con- 
sueverunt."  The  name,  however,  came  to  signify  a  homeless  wanderer, 
under  a  religious  guise  and  character.  The  journey  to  Jerusalem  had  a 
natural  tendency  to  become  discursive,  whether  undertaken  by  single  pil 
grims  or  crusading  armies.  Camden,  Remains,  Surnames,  seems  to  recognise 
no  difference:  "As  palmer,  that  is,  pilgrime,  for  that  they  carried  palme 
when  they  came  from  Jerusalem." 

45-6i. J  CANTO    I.  183 

54,  i.  Milton  seems  to  have  had  this  description  in  his  mind  when  he 
drew  the  besotted  revellers  in  his  Comus,  1.  524  sqq.      The  fall  of  Sir; 
Mordant,  and  the  miserable  death  of  Amavia,  are  intended  to  express  the  { 
consequences  of  intemperance  in   drink.  ^The  English,  thanks  chiefly  to  \. 
their  relations  with  the  Dutch  and  Flemish,  grew  more  drunken  during  the  '& 
latter  half  of  the  sixteenth  century  than  they  had  been  before.  JGamden,  fe^ 
Britannia,  speaking  of  the  year  1581,  says  that  up  to  that  time  there  had 
been  no  habit  of  drunkenness  in  England,  nor  laws  nor  punishments  for  it.  & 
Spenser  himself,  View  of  the  State  of  Ireland,  says  :  "  If  it  should  be  made  a  l^/ 
capital  crime  for  the  Flemmings  to  be  taken  in  drunkenness,  there  should  i 
have  been  fewer  Flemmings  now ;"  shewing  the  character  they  had  got  for  av 
drinking.     The  chief  drinks  hitherto  had  been  beer  and  mead,  with  sack 
for  the  upper  classes ;  and  even  on  these  the  English  had  a  reputation  for 
tippling :   but  the  ardent  spirits  now  brought  in  seem  to  have  thrown  the 
nation  oft'  its  balance. 

55,  6.  Bacchus  with  the  Nympbe ; — i.e.  as  soon  as  the  wine  in  her  en 
chanted  cup  (Bacchus,  god  of  wine)  should  be  mixed  with  water  (the  Nymph 
of  the  stream).     Heliod.  Aethiop.  Bk.  5.  p.  234,  has  Kadapas  ras  vvp.<pas  KO! 
oKotvcavfiTovs  rov  Aiovvaov.     Boyd,  in  his  note  on  this  passage,  poetically 
suggests  an  allusion  to  the  dropsy!  which  so  often  follows  and  punishes 

56,  2.  off; — ed.  1590,  'of.' 

57,  i.  This  stanza  and  the  £8th  express,  as  at  the  outset,  thej^eneral  \   ; 
aim  and  'moral'  of  the  Book — the  ruin  of  man  through  Passion,  and  his 
happiness  if  he  can  'measure  out 'a  meane'  through  Temperance. 

58,  8.  Reserve  "her  cause,  &c. ; — i.  e.  let  us  not  judge  her,  but  leave  it  to 
the  last  judgment  of  doomsday. 

59,  I.  equall; — ed.  1596,  '  evill.' 

5.  But  both  alike; — '  (to)  both  alike.' 

7.  The  pagan  notion  of  the  want  of  funeral  rites  being  a  distress 
to  the  dead. 

8.  For  all,  &c. ; — I  count  it  altogether  as  great  an  evil  to  be  badly 
(miserably)  unburied,  as  to  die  miserably. 

60,  3.  sad  cypresse; — see  Book  I.  i.  8  (note).     So  Sidney,  in  his  Arcadia, 
speaks  of  "  cypress  branches,  wherewith  in  old  times  they  were  wont  to 
dress  graves." 

8.  affection; — here  =  sense  of  piety. 

61,  i.  bis; — the  neuter  possessive  pronoun  'it'  was  already  in  use,  being 
a  shortened  form  of  the  neuter  'hit';  but  'its'  does  not  appear  till  close  to 
the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 

2.  be  cut  a  lock; — so  Iris  is  sent  to  cut  a  lock  of  Dido's  hair.  Aen.  4. 
694,  704.  Cp.  also  Euripides,  Alcestis,  76.  In  these  cases,  however,  the 
cutting  off  a  lock  of  hair  is  supposed  to  release  the  dying  spirit. 

184  NOTES.  [St. 


Sir  Guyon  tries  in  vain  to  cleanse  the  babe's  bands.  He  and  tbe  Palmer 
return  with  the  infant  to  where  they  had  left  the  horse,  but  find  it  stolen. 
They  must  fare  afoot.  Presently  they  come  to  a  castle,  where  dwell  three 
sisters,  Medina,  just  moderation,  and  tbe  two  extremes,  Elissa,  too  little, 
Perissa,  too  much.  The  strife  between  these  two  is  pourtrayed,  and  the 
manner  in  which  Medina  moderates  their  wrath. 

Heading,  1.  2.  The  face  of  Golden  Meane ; — part  for  whole -'the  appear 
ance,  figure.  The  French  figure  is  used  for  the  face  only,  by  an  opposite 

1,  6.  that; — notice  the  three  uses  of 'that'  in  this  passage;  (i)  the  babe 
who;  (2)  in  1.  8  =  that  which  (now  'what');  (3)  in  1.  8  =  so  that. 

2,  I.  borne  under  cruell  starre; — dar^p  fcaicoiroios.     It  was  believed  that 
each  man's  fortunes  throughout  life  depended  upon  the  aspect  of  the  heavens 
at  the  moment  of  birth.     The  whole  life  was  influenced  especially  by  the 
star  that  was  rising  at  that  moment,  and  by  the  stars  which  grouped  them 
selves  round  that  rising  star,  or  were  on  or  near  the  opposite  extremity  of 
the  same  diameter  of  the  heavens.     The  benign  stars  were  Venus,  Jupiter, 
Luna,  Virgo,  Taurus ;    the  malign,  Saturn,  Mars,  Scorpio,  Capricorn ;    the 
doubtful,  Mercury,  &c.     See  Smith's  Diet,  of  Antiquities,  art.  Astrology. 

2.  in  dead  parents,  &c. ; — an  allusion  to  the    birth    of  the  Phoenix, 
said  to  be  sprung,  according  to  one  account,  from  his  father's  ashes. 

8.  Such  is  tbe  state  of  men; — so  Wolsey  in  Shakespeare's  Henry  VIII, 
act  3.  sc.  2,  exclaims, 

"  This  is  the  state  of  men ! " 

8,4.  His  guiltie  handes; — i.e.  the  babe's  hands,  which  were  guilty, 
either  because  they  had  dabbled  in  their  mother's  life-blood,  or,  possibly, 
because  of  the  stain  of  their  parents'  crimes.  The  proposed  reading  '  guilt- 
lesse  '  is  without  foundation. 

4,  I.  He  wist  not; — notice  the  two  negatives  ;  '  He  did  not  know  whether 
the  offence  was  indelible,  or  whether,'  &c.     Compare  the  blood  on  Lady 
Macbeth's  hands,  Macbeth,  act  5.  sc.  I. 

5.  hat'th; — notice  the  harsh  elision  for  metre  and  rhyme's  sake. 

7.  hath; — change  of  construction  from  'might  not  be  purged,'  and 
'  imprinted  had.' 

5,  6.  secret  vertues  are  infused,  &c. ; — medicinal  waters  attracted  much 
attention  at  the  time.     Spenser  himself  alludes  to  them  in  Bk.  I.  xi.  29,  30. 

8.  Which,  who,  &c. ; — notice  the  involved  construction.     The  meaning 
is,  '  He  who  chooses  them  wisely,  has  often  used  them  so  as  to  produce 
(as  proofs  of  their  efficacy)  surpassing  wonders.' 

6,  6.  later  grace; — some  fountains  are  full  of  'virtue*  from  their   first 
source,  others  gain  it  by  favour  shewn  later. 

7,  2.  her  nymph; — the  well  or  fountain  is  probably  made  fern,  by  Spenser, 
because  fountains  are  always  tenanted  by  nymphs ;  the  A.  S.  wyl  is  masc., 

fern. ;  the  same  word  in  Germ.,  quells,  is  always  fem. 

i-i7.]  CANTO    II.  *         185 

7.  cbace; — does  not  rhyme  with  'way,'  &c.  as  it  should  do.     But  I 
know  of  no  other  reading. 

8,  5.  deare  besought; — '  deare '=  earnestly.     See  Glossary.     This  is  the 
tale  of  Arethusa,  taken  from  Ovid,  Metam.  5.  618,  &c. 

9,  1.  Contrast  with  this  the  legend  of  St.  Winifred's  Well,  which  is  the 
Christian  form  of  the  same  thought. 

8.  Ne  lets  her  waves; — in  i.  40  we  read,  'And  the  cleane  waves  with 
purple  gore  did  ray ;'   which  seems  to   contradict  this  passage.      But   to 
'  ray '  may  mean  to  '  streak '  with  blood,  the  blood  not  mixing  with  the 
water.  , 

10,  7.  as  a  sacred  symbole ; — Upton  says  that  this  passage  images  forth 
the  rebellion  of  the  O'Neals,  and  quotes  Spenser's  View  of  the  State  of 
Ireland :   "  As  they  under  Oneale  cry  Lanndarg-abo,  that  is,  the   bloody 
hand,  which  is  Oneales  badge." 

11,  2.  to  the  Palmer  gave  to  beare; — this  does  not  agree  with  the  state 
ment  in  the  Letter  to  Sir  W.  Raleigh.     Spenser  there  says :  '  The  second 
day  there  came  in  a  Palmer  bearing  an  Infant  with  bloody  bands ;"  that  is, 
before  the  beginning  of  Sir  Guyon's  adventure. 

9.  here  Jits  not  to  tell ; — not  here,  but  in  iii.  4,  so  weaving  skilfully  the 
tale  together. 

12,  I.  a//  ...  algates; — although  .  .  .  yet. 
8.  fame; — ed.  1590,  'frame,'  wrongly. 

13,  I.  three  sisters; — this  is  an  allegory  of  the  Aristotelian  doctrine  of  the 
Mean.     "  Virtue,  a  mean  between  the  extremes  of  excess  and  defect."     The 
three  sisters  are  named  and  described  in  stanzas  35-38.     Spenser  seems  also 
to  work  in  the  Platonic  theory  of  morals.     For  the  '  too  little '  sister  also 
shews  a  tendency  towards  anger,  and  the  '  too  much '  one  towards  intem 
perate  living.     (See  the  next  note.)     It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  whereas 
Spenser  set  out  with  declaring  that  he  would  display  'the  twelve  private 
morall  vertues,  as  Aristotle  hath  devised ;  the  which  is  the  purpose  of  these 
first  twelve  bookes,'    we    s6on  find  that   he  wanders   very  far   from  the 
Aristotelian  series.      The  first  Book  pourtrays  Holiness,  the  second  Tem 
perance.     But  the  first  is  really  the  triumph  of  Faith  and  Truth,  and  is  far 
more  intellectual  and  spiritual  than  moral ;   while  the  second  covers  almost 
the  whole  ground  of  the  Aristotelian  moral  virtues. 

2.  one  syre  by  mothers  three; — connected,  yet  very  different.  An  al 
lusion  to  the  theory  laid  out  by  Plato,  Rep.  Bk.  4.  p.  439,  and  Bk.  9.  p.  580. 
The  three  mothers  will  be  hoyum/cr),  kmdv^TiK^,  and  Ovjj.r)TiKr),  the 
reasonable,  the  appetitive,  the  passionate  or  high-spirited  elements  of  our 
nature r  the  'one  syre'  is  probably  the  human  reason  (\6yos}. 

4.  in  equall  fee ; — with  equal  right  of  holding  or  tenure.  '  To  hold 
in  fee'  is  a  feudal  term,  meaning  to  hold  upon  the  tenure  of  a  feud  (fee-od, 
fee-good,  that  is,  property  held  in  fee).  See  Glossary,  Fee. 

6.  in  partes ; — a  Latinism, '  in  partes,'  i.  e.  on  different  sides  or  parties. 

14,  5,  sober; — an  adverb  in  this  place  (  =  soberly),  'sober  sad*  balancing 
'  comely  courteous.' 

15,  6.  Above  the  reason,  &c. ; — 'ultra  rationem' — beyond  the  proportion 
one  would  have  expected  from  so  young  a  person.  ^^ 

17i  2.  Sir  Hiiddibras ; — i.  e.  rashness,  the  Greek  Ovfids,  or  OpavvTrjs  its 


NOTES.  [St. 

development.  There  is  also  in  him  the  element  of  morose  joylessness,  which 
makes  one  think  that  Spenser  intended  to  shadow  forth  the  Puritans,  who 
were  already  a  strong  party.  It  will  be  remembered  that  Samuel  Butler  gives 
this  name  to  the  hero  of  his  burlesque  on  Puritanism. 

18,  I .  Sans-loy ; — unbridled  excess  ;  the  lawless  side  of  unbelief,  the  '  un 
ruly'  and  'boldest  boy'  who  outraged  purity  and  truth  alike. 

19,  These  stanzas  express  the  general  opposition  of  extremes ;  answering 
to  Aristotle's  dictum  that  the  extremes  are  opposed  to  one  another  and  to 
the  mean.     We  are  now  engaged  with  the  general  principles  of  morals,  not 
with  any  of  its  special  applications. 

9.  themselves ; — if  this  pronoun  refers  to  '  Both  knightes  and  ladies,' 
it  will  mean,  '  they  prepared  themselves,  the  knights  to  battle,  the  ladies  to 
encourage  their  champions :'  but  '  themselves '  probably  refers  only  to  the 

20,  5.  the  scorned  life  to  quell; — each   extreme   strove   to   destroy  its 
opposite,  which  it  scorned. 

7.  all  that  in  did  dwell; — an  elliptical  expression :  '  in '  =  therein,  or  =  in 
that  house. 

21,  5.  sunbroad  shield; — so  in  Milton,  Par.  Lost,  6.  305  : 

"  Two  broad  suns  their  shields 
Blazed  opposite." 

7.  their  strife  to  understand ; — to  interfere  in,  to  run  in  underneath, 
and  stop  it.  Or,  possibly,  only  '  to  learn  what  they  were  fighting  about.' 

22,  5.  As  when  =  l\ke   as  when.     The  illustration   is  here  preceded  by 
that  which  it  illustrates :  '  The  two  turn  upon  Sir  Guyon,  like  a  bear  and 
tiger  which  espying  a  traveller  leave  their  strife  and  attack  him.' 

6.  on  lybicke  ocean ; — :i.  e.  on  the  deserts  of  Africa,  which  are  spread 
out  in  hillocks,  like  an  ocean.     Not  on  the  syrtes,  as  some  would  have  it. 
Upton  quotes  as  an  illustration  the  Greek  phrase  ire\ayi6v  n  x€^a»  used  of 
the  desert.     Spenser  had  in  mind  Virg.  Georg.  2.  105, 

"  Quern  si  scire  velit,  Libyci  velit  aequoris  idem 
Discere  quam  multae  Zephyro  turbentur  arenae." 

23,  a.  boldly;— ed.  1596,  'bloudy.' 

3.  byte  him  nere ; — Warton  says  = '  to  pierce  him  to  the  quick.' 

'24,  a.   Whom; — the  ship  made  personal,  as  seems  always  natural.    A  very  , 
fine"  stanza.     Spenser  is  always  fine  in  his  naval  similes.     See  note  on  xii.  19. 

25,  7.  forcing  to  invade; — using  force  so  as  to  invade  his  foes  and  drive 
them  back. 

9.  So  ...  so  =  As  ...  so. 

26,  I.  Sidney's  Arcadia  has  a  like  fight  between  three  knights  at  once. 

4.  All  for . . .  to  gaine; — analogous  to  the  Greek  use  of  the  infinitive 
as  a  substantive  neuter,  fls  rb  KraoOai.     Spenser  also  uses  '/rom  to  ..." 
See  note  on  '  from  to,'  xii.  26. 

7.  He  makefh,  &c. ; — so  Terence,  Eunuch., 

"  In  amore  haec  omnia  insunt  vitia,  iniuriae, 

Bellum,  pax  rursum." 
Cp.  also  Hor.  Sat.  2.  3,  267. 

27,  9.  to  her  . .  .to  heare ; — 'to  heare  to'  used  as  we  still  use  'to  hearken, 
listen  to.'     Cp.  also  the  archaic  '  to  obey  to.' 

iS-39-]  CANTO    II.  187 

29,  2.  fell  Erinnys ; — the  Erinnyes  were  the  Furies  of  Greek  and  Latin 
mythology.     They  were  originally  only  personifications  of  the  curses  pro 
nounced  on  a  guilty  criminal.     These  spirits  of  cursing  sojourn  in  Erebus, 
until  some  curse  duly  pronounced  on  an  offender  calls  them  up  to  earth. 
They  then  pursue  the  guilty  wretch  with  unrelenting  steps,  and  bring  down 
the  curse  upon  his  head.      Their  later  name  was  'the  Eumenides'  ('the 
well-disposed  ones ')  ;  so  called  by  the  trembling  flattery  of  the  Greeks. 

30,  2.  faire  it  to  accord; — to  bring  it  to  fair  agreement. 

32,  9.   Which  to  observe; — Latin  construction  =  'and  they  assured  (pro 
mised)  to  observe/  &c. 

33,  5.  grace  to  reconcile; — Latinisrn,  '  gratiam  conciliare,'  to  regain  each 
other's  favour. 

34,  3.  fained  cheare,  &c. ; — they  pretended  to  be  of  good  cheer ;    the 
passions  being  not  subdued,  but  held  under  for  a  time. 

4.  could  not  colour; — they  could  not  so  far  disguise  their  feelings. 
The  Latin  rhetoricians  used  the  term  '  color '  in  the  sense  of  speciously 
covering  over  a  thing  by  argument. 

7.  as  doth  an  hidden  moth  The  inner  garment  fret; — cp.  Ps.  39.  12, 
"  Like  as  it  were  a  moth  fretting  a  garment" 

8.  not  ih'  utter  touch ; — touch  is  a  verb ;  for  utter,  see  Glossary. 

35,  I.  Elissa; — the  personification  of  Moral  Deficiency,  the  Aristotelian  \ 
$\\€nf/is.     Spenser  probably  derives  the  name  from  k\aao<uvt '  too  little.'     It    \ 
is  curious  that  it  should  have  also  been  so  like  one  of  the  names  of  the  j 
Virgin  Queen,  the  great  but  parsimonious  Eliza. 

did  deeme  Such  entertainment  base,  &c. ; — the  churlishness  of  the  Puri-  \ 
tanic  feeling  which  found  fault  with  moderate  feasting,  &c.  The  Puritans  ] 
revenged  themselves_qn  Spenser  by  forbidding  the  faithful  to  look  into  the  I 
Faery  Queene. 

36,  I.  Perissa; — personification  of  Excess;  from  irrpiffarj,  'too  much.' 

37,  I.  Fast;— «dd.  1590,  1596,  'first':  but  corrected  in  ' Faults  Escaped/y 
1590,  to  'fast.*""" 

2%  a  mincing  mineon ; — '  an  affected  favourite.' 

4.  a  franker  franion ; — '  too    free  a    companion.'     Cp.  Heywood's 
Edward  IV  (A.  D.  1600): 

"  He 's  a  frank  franion,  a  merry  companion." 
See  Glossary,  Franion. 

6.  malecontent; — a  term  often  used  at  that  time  of  the  Puritans. 
Todd  quotes  Barnabie  Rich's  'Faults  and  nothing  his  Faults'  in  confirma 

38,  I.  Medina; — personifying  the  golden   mean,  halfway  between   the 
morose  Puritanism  of  Elissa  and  the  loose  behaviour  of  Perissa. 

5,  7-  forward  paire,  .  .  .froward  paire ; — Excess  is  forward,  or  too 
bold,  Defect  froward,  or  wayward  and  dissatisfied.      Upton  says  that  the  two 
knights,  Sansloy  and  Huddibras,  are  the  forward  pair,  the  two  ladies  the 
froward  pair.     But  this  is  an  obvious  mistake.     The  pairs  are  the  two  sets  of 
knights  and  dames — Elissa  with  Huddibras,  Perissa  with  Sansloy. 

9.  her  selfe  in  heed; — kept  due  watch  over  her  own  conduct. 

39,  3.  when  lust,  &c. ; — a  well-known  Homeric  line  translated  ; 

aAA'  OTTOTO.V  iroaios  fcal  (Srjrvos  l£  tpov  tvro. 

'l88  NOTES.  [St.  39-46. 

39,  4.  She  Guyon,  &c.  ;  —  this  calling  on  the  guest  to  relate  his  adventures 
is  modelled  on  Dido  and  Aeneas,  Virg.  Aen.  I.  757-760,  and  2.  1-5. 

40,  I.  Notice  here  how  the  poet  never  lets  slip  an  occasion  of  praising 
Queen  Elizabeth. 

41,  I.  The  ricbesse  .  .  .  are  heaped  up;  —  '  richesse'  is  here,  as  often,  a  noun 
plural  :    there  never  seems  to  have  been  any  distinct  rule  laid  down,  and 
grammarians  err  if  they  speak  of  'riches'  as  a  noun  singular  solely.     The 
word  is  used  in  the  English  Bible  of  161  1  chiefly  in  the  plural. 

42,  I.  To  her  I  homage,  &c.  ;  —  the  feudal  style,  as  befitting  loyalty  to 
chief  and  respect  for  lady,  was  much  affected  by  the  Elizabethan  courtiers. 

2.  In  number,  &c.  ;  —  Spenser,  as  one  who  did  not  hold  any  sure 
position  at  court,  would  naturally  take  this  opportunity  of  paying  a  graceful 
compliment  to  the  gentlemen  who  surrounded  the  Queen.  The  allusion  may 
refer  specially  to  the  Knights  of  the  Garter,  as  seems  probable  from  the 
phrase  in  line  4,  '  Order  of  Maydenhead.' 

6.  Aft  yearely  solemne  feast;  —  this  alludes  first  to  the  plot  of  the 

'  whole  work,  which  begins,  according  to  the  Letter  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 

with  this  high  festival,  lasting  twelve  days,  at  which  twelve  knights  come  in, 

and  undertake  the  twelve  labours,  which  were  intended  to  form  the  subject 

of  the  twelve  Books. 

'  The  day  which  first  doth  lead  the  yeare  around  '  will  mean,  not  the 
1st  of  January,  but  March  25  ;  spring-time,  not  mid-winter,  according  to 
the  reckoning  of  that  time.  Edward  III,  before  he  established  the  order  of 
the  Garter,  endeavoured  to  create  an  annual  festival  of  the  Knights  of  the 
Round  Table,  who  were  to  be  gathered  out  of  all  nations  to  his  court.  It 
is  probably  to  this  that  Spenser  here  primarily  alludes,  rather  than  to  the 
Order  of  the  Garter,  which  Edward  III  established  in  its  stead,  when  he 
found  that,  through  the  jealousy  and  antagonism  of  Philip  of  Valois,  his  first 
and  grander  plan  could  not  be  carried  out. 

In  this  line,  the  last  word  '  make,'  the  reading  of  all  the  old  editions, 
is  clearly  a  slip  for  '  hold.' 

44,  2.  This  line  is  quoted  by  Warton  as  an  instance  of  Spenser's  weak 
elongations  caused  by  exigency  of  the  metre.     He  regards  it  as  a  "lengthy 
paraphrase  for  the  words  '  three  months  have  passed.'     There  are,  however, 
those  who  will  regard  the  image  of  the  placid  moon  looking  down  upon  the 
shadows  of  this  nether  world  as  something  better  than  mere  verbiage  to  fill 


6.  Acrasia;  —  the  personification  of  ungoverned,  unbridled  life.     See 

i.  51. 
8.  and  this,  &c.  ;  —  '  and  (so  also  is)  this  their  son  witness.' 

45,  5.  Ill  by  ensaumple;  —  this   is  the  principle  on  which  the  Spartans 
shewed  drunken  Helots  to  their  sons,  that  by  seeing  the  example  of  evil  they 
might  learn  to  hate  and  avoid  it. 

46,  I.  now  in  ocean  deepe,  &c.  ;  —  Orion  and  the  Serpent  are  neighbouring 
constellations  on  the  sidereal  globe.     Orion  sets  towards  morning,  and  the 
poet  means  to  say  that  the  night  was  far  spent.     It  is  an  astrological,  rather 
than  a  classical  allusion.     One  of  the  classical  legends  describe  him  as  pur 
sued  and  killed  by  a  scorpion. 

8.  the  cbaunged  skyes  ;  —  L  e.  the  variation  in  the  position  of  the  stars. 


St.  1-8.]  CANTO    III.  189 


Braggadoccbio,  having  stolen  Guyon's  steed  and  spear,  subdues  Trompart,  a 
weak  but  wily  knave.  Arcbimago,  meeting  them,  incites  the  false  knight  to 
avenge  him  on  the  Red  Cross  Knight  and  Guyon,  and  promises  to  bring 
him  Prince  Arthur's  sword.  Braggadocchio  is  mortally  affrighted  by 
Belpbaebe,  the  hunter-goddess. 

Heading,  1.  2.    The  metre  is  at  fault  here:  it  should  have  been  printed 

'  getting  Guy- 
ons  horse  is  made  the  scorne.' 

1,  2.   Disperst  the  shadoives  of  (he  mistie  night ; — cp.  Virg.  Aen.  4.  7, 

"  Humentemque  Aurora  polo  dimoverat  umbram." 
Also  for  '  purple  beams,'  see  Virg.  Aen.  6.  640, 

"  Largior  hie  campos  aether  et  lumine  vestit 

9.  many-folded; — so  the  Virgilian  septemplex.     See  note  on  v.  6. 

2,  8.  Ruddymane ; — rouge-main,  red-hand. 

3,  3.  Patience  perforce ; — a  proverbial  phrase  quoted  in  Romeo  and  Juliet, 
ict  I.  sc.  5  :  "Patience  perforce,  with  wilful  choler  meeting."     Upton  says 
that  the  whole  proverb  was  "  Patience  perforce  (or,  upon  force)  is  a  medicine 
for  a  mad  dog ;"  but  it  seems  more  probable  that  the  shorter  phrase  was  the 
real  proverb.     The  meaning  of  the  proverb  is, '  What  can't  be  cured  must  be 

helplesse  what  may  it  boot; — a  Latin  arrangement  of  words  =' what 
may  it  profit  a  helpless  man.' 

4,  I.  a  losell ; — sc.  Braggadocchio,  as  the  name  signifies,  a  big  bragging} 
fool.     He  personifies  Cowardice,  and  is  the  comic  element  in  the  Bookijx^ 

4.  his  kestrell  kind; — his  low-bred  hawk-nature.     The  kestrel  was  a 
hawk  looked  on  with  contempt  by  falconers,  as  being  vain  and  cowardly. 

5.  he; — ed.  1596  repeats  'vaine'  for  'he.' 

?.  to  court  =  'at  court.'     So  in  America  'to  home'  (cp.  Germ.z«  bans) 
used  as  we  now  use  '  at  home.' 

6,  2.  One  sitting; — sc.  Trompart,  weak  and   deceitful,  a  flatterer  and  N 

I  knave.      The  pair  serve  as  a  foil  to  the  noble  figures  of  Guyon  and  the    I 

/  Palmer,  the  sjiam  knight  and  lying  squire,  to  the  true  soldier  and  his  grave    / 

/  adviser ;    and  also  lighten  the  tone  of  a  Book  otherwise  filled  with   dark  / 

'    characters.     More  especially  they  form  a  contrast  to  the  angry  passions  oi 

the  brothers  Cymocles  and  Pyrocles. 

7,  I.  the  scarecrow ; — so  called  for  his  false  bravery,  terrible  in  appearance 
to  the  foolish  and  bird-witted,  but  really  of  no  strength  at  all. 

6.  dead  dog ; — cp.  2  Sam.  9.  8 ;   16.  9;  also  I  Sam.  24.  14. 

8,  I.  dead-doing; — Horn.  II.  18.  317,  x€?Pas  en'  dv$po(f>6vovs. 

6.  kisse  my  stirrup ; — one  of  the  established  forms  of  homage  was  to 
hold  the  stirrup  of  one's  lord. 

190  NOTES.  [St. 

8,  7«  as  an  °ff<dl> — this  word  is  not  now  used  with  the  indefinite  article, 
which  here  points  out  the  true  origin  of  the  word.     See  Glossary,  Offall. 

9.  to  bold  of  him  in  fee ; — term  used  properly  of  land,  but  here  only  of 
service  "  Feodum,  or  fee,  is  that  [sc.  land]  which  is  held  of  some  superior 
on  condition  of  rendering  him  service,  in  which  superior  the  ultimate 
property  of  the  land  resides."  Blackstone,  Comm.  II.  7.  I.  By  the  sixteenth 
century  the  term  was  quite  degraded,  and  from  the  first  sense  of  a  recom 
pense  for  service  rendered,  leading  on  to  a  return  sense  of  service  to  be  paid 
for  the  use  of  the  land,  it  came  to  mean  simply  any  recompense  or  gift ; 
thence  it  reached  the  modern  usage  of '  fee '  or  payment  of  certain  charges 
at  law,  &c.  In  the  text  it  is  used  solely  of  personal  service  of  a  liegeman  to 
his  liege  lord ;  '  to  hold  of  him '  meaning  simply  *  to  be  his  subject,  as  a 
feudal  inferior  to  his  lord.' 

9,  2.  this  liegeman; — Trompart.     These  are  the  two  sides  of  low  and 
cowardly  depravity,  the  loud  boasting  bully  and  the  supple  foxy  cheat ;  the 
stupid  bully  is  the  apparent  master,  but  the  sharp  servant  soon  has  the  real 
command,  his  '  wylie-witted'  nature  taking  advantage  of  the  other's  folly. 
One  cannot  help  suspecting  that  Spenser  had  before  his  mind's  eye  some 
master  and  man  at  court. 

11,  3.  in  armour  fayre  ; — a  slight  confusion  here  :  for  Braggadocchio  steals 
only  the  horse  and  spear  from  Sir  Guyon.  He  may  however  be  imagined  to 
have  worn  some  body  armour  of  his  own.  On  the  other  hand,  in  st.  15  of 
this  canto  he  is  advised  to  arm  himself  in  surest  steel  that  may  be  found. 

5.  Eftsoones   supposed; — Archimago  is  a   singular   mixture   of  the 
ignorant  and  the  magician  :  a  character,  in  this  respect,  drawn  very  true  to 
>     nature,  the  deceiver  being  made  at  the  same  time  the  most  credulous  of  men. 
Spenser  may  have  also  meant  to  shew  up  the  crafty  shifts  to  which  the 
|\ .    Jesuit  priests  and  emissaries  in  England  were  apt  to  resort. 
'    \      12,  7.  now  bath  vowd; — a  common  incident  in  Romance  writing.     In 
Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  23.  78,  Mandricardo  says, — 

"  Ho  sacramento  di  non  cinger  spada 
Fin  ch'  io  non  tolgo  Durindana  al  Conte." 
14,  3.  gaged; — left  as  gages,  or  hostages,  in  his  power. 

16,  6.  7s  not  enough,  &c. ; — notice  the  construction  here :  '  foure  quarters 
of  a  man*  is  taken  as  =  '  a  man,'  and  followed  by  a  sing.  verb.     The  '  foure 
quarters  of  a  man '  is  only  a  piece  of  bombast  in  Braggadocchio's  mouth. 

17,  7-  seven  knigbtes,  &c. ; — the  character  of  the  fire-eater  and  braggart 
was  not  an  uncommon  one  in  Spenser's  time.    Cp.  Shakespeare's  Falstafr,  and 
Sir  P.  Sidney's  Dametas  in  the  Arcadia. 

18,  6.  by  my  device ; — a  knightly  oath ;  *  by  the  device  upon  my  shield ' 
«=  by  my  knightly  honour — the  shield  being  supposed  to  represent  the  knight, 
and  the  device  to  express  his  character  or  qualities. 

9.  that  monster  ; — that  marvel. 

20,  5.  their  haire  on  end  does  reare ; — ed.  1590, '  does  unto  them  affeare ;' 
and  in  the  '  Faults  Escaped*  at  the  end  of  that  ed.  the  word  '  unto'  is  cor 
rected  to  '  greatly.' 

21,  3.  crept  into  a  bush ; — Dametas,  in  the  Arcadia,  does  just  the  same, 
when  the  wild  beasts  are  let  loose. 

7.  A  goodly  ladie,  &c. ; — Belphoebe,  i.  e.  Queen  Elizabeth,  who  much 

8-30.]  CANTO    III.  191      I 

affected  a  likeness  to  the  chaste  Diana.  With  this  picture  may  be  compared  I 
that  of  Chastity  in  Milton's  Comus,  420  sqq.  The  incident  is  very  skilfully  // 
introduced  here,  by  way  of  contrasting  the  pure  Virgin  Queen  with  the  loose  ^ 
idle  Phaedria  of  canto  vi. 

22,  5.  With  this  description  of  Belphoebe,  the  picture  of  Alcina  (Ariosto, 
Orl.  Fur.  7.  10)  may  well  be  compared.     '  In  her  cheekes,'  &c.,  answers  to 

"  Spargeasi  per  la  guancia  delicata 

Misto  color  di  rose  e  di  ligustri." 
The  picture  of  her  hair  in  stanza  30  to 

"  Bionda  chioma  lunga,  ed  annodata, 

Oro  non  fc  che  piii  risplenda  e  lustri." 

'  Without  blame '  is  the  Homeric  apv/juav,  used  sometimes  of  fair  women  (as 
of  Nausicaa,  Od.  7.  303).  The  '  ambrosial  odours '  may  be  drawn  from 
Virgil,  Aen.  I.  403,  where,  however,  the  phrase  refers  to  the  hair. 

23,  8.  For,  with  dredd  mqjestie,  &c. ; — so  in  Milton's  Comus,  i.  444,  Diana 

"Set  at  nought 
The  frivolous  bolt  of  Cupid." 

This  stanza  is  probably  intended  as  an  answer  to  the  attacks  on  the  Queen's 
character  and  conduct  which  were  very  rife  at  this  time. 

24,  7-  Sweet  wordes,  like  dropping  bonny ; — so  Solomon's  Song,  .}.  II. 

8.  twixt  the  perles  and  rubins; — cp.  Spenser's  Sonnet,  81 : 

"  The  gate,  with  perles  and  rubyes  richly  dight." 
Both  from  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  12.  94: 

"  Che  dai  coralli  e  dalle  preziose 
Perle  uscir  fanno  i  dolci  accent!  mozzi." 

25,  I.  Upon  Tier  eyelids,  &c. ; — so  in  Sonnet  40  : 

"  When  on  each  eyelid  sweetly  doe  appeare 

An  hundred  Graces  as  in  shade  to  sit." 

And  these  again  from  Alcina,  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  7. 12  ;  or  from  Tasso,  Aminta, 
act  2.  sc.  I,  where  Cupid  sits 

"  Sotto  al  ombra  de  le  palpebre." 

26,  4.  a  silken  Camus ; — a  thin  transparent  robe ;  twice  used  in  Spenser  of 
a  silken  dress.     The  word  is  a  form  of  the  word  chemise ;  see  Glossary. 

9.  An  unfinished  line.      There  is  another  such  in  viii.  55,  'But  to 
be  ever  bound — ,'  where,  however,  there  is  a  reason  for  an  abrupt  break. 
Here  it  can  only  be  accounted  for  by  Spenser's  unwillingness  to  use  that 
'  padding'  which  the  critics  have  so  often  accused  him  of.     He  would  have 
had  no  difficulty  in  finishing  the   line,  and  finding  a  rhyme  to  'about.' 
Indeed,  some  of  his  critics  have  had  the  goodness  to  finish  it  for  him. 

27,  I.  Here  the  statues  and  coins  bearing  the  figure  of  Diana  have  been 
exactly  followed.     Compare  with  this  the  account  in  Sidney's  Arcadia  of  the 
dress  of  Pyrocles,  when  disguised  as  an  Amazon. 

28,  i.  fain  marble  pillours ; — cp.  Solomon's  Song,  5.  15. 

6.  she  herself  would  grace ; — would  do  herself  honour,  bv  moving  in 
queenly  sort,  when  "  vera  incessu  patuit  Dea." 

30,  i.  golden  wyre ; — "Her  haire  as  gold-wyre  was  scene." — Bevis  of 
Hampton.     Cp.  Virg.  Aen.  i.  318  : 

"  dederatque  comam  diffundere  ventis, 
Nuda  genu." 

192  NOTES.  [St.  31-46. 

31,  I.  Such  as  Diana,  &c. ; — direct  from  Virg.  Aen.  I.  498  : 

"  Qualis  in  Eurotae  ripis  aut  per  iuga  Cynthi 
Exercet  Diana  chores." 

5.  that  famous  queene  Of  Amazons ; — Penthesileia.     She  came  to  the 
help  of  the  Trojans,  and  was  killed  by  Achilles,  who  bitterly  mourned  over 
the  dying  queen,  by  reason    of  her  sex,  her  youth  and  beauty,  and   her 
bravery.     But  Spenser  follows  Dares  Phrygius,  c.  36  (whose  history,  trans 
lated  by  Lydgate,  he  probably  knew),  who  makes  her  to  be  slain  by  Pyrrhus. 
Achilles'  son. 

32,  5.  botbfeare  and  hope ; — a  delicate  compliment  to  the  awful  benignity 
of  the  Queen's  countenance. 

7.  Hayle,groome; — so  Venus  (Virg.  Aen.  1.321)  addresses  the  Trojans: 

"  Heus,  inquit,  iuvenes." 
The  next  stanza  shews  that  Spenser  had  Virgil  in  his  mind. 

33,  2.  O  goddesse,  Sec.; — Virg.  Aen.  I.  327,  328 

34,  6.  to  marke  the  beast ; — not  the  modern  sporting  term  '  to  mark  a 
bird  down,'  but  to  strike  it. 

35,4.  many  bold  emprize; — Ariosto's  phrase,  Orl.  Fur.  I.  I,  "  1'audaci 

6.  she  staid  ; — sc.  her  hand. 

£36.   An  admirable  simile,  and  well  sustained  throughout. 

38,  8.   above  the  moone  ; — the  same  inflated  style  well  kept  up ;  together 

th  the  low  views  of  life  and  duty  peeping  through. 

40-41.  Admirable  stanzas,  "if  we  consider  it  the  sense  of  the  Princess, 
and  as  a  short  character  of  so  active  and  glorious  a  reign." — Hughes. 
These  stanzas  may  be  well  contrasted  with  the  theory  of  life  put  out  by 
Phaedria  (canto  vi.)  especially  in  her  song  '  Behold  O  man,'  &c.  (st.  15-17). 
It  is  the  praise  of  work  opposed  to  that  of  idleness. 

40,  6.  his  mind  Behaves  with  cares; — occupies  his  mind  with  business  and 

42,  2.  This  is  perhaps  a  picture  of  the  vain  and  craven  world  endeavouring 
to  sully  the  Queen's  fair  fame. 

43,  9.  leave  so  proud  disdayne ; — leave  behind  her  such  a  sense  of  her 
contempt  for  us. 

45-46.  The  braggart  admirably  combines  boasting  with  fear  in  these 

45,  4.  onfoote  ; — i.  e.  '  one  foot,'  not  =  afoot, 

46,  7.  to  tread  in  dew  degree  ;-r-to  move  along  with  equal  paces,  as  befits 
a  knight's  charger. — The  noble  horse  was  wearied  and  fretted  by  the  ignoble 
and  unpractised  rider.     Braggadocchio  now  disappears  from  this  Book.     He 
reappears,  Bk.  III.  viii ;    and   is   finally  detected   and  put  to  utter  shame, 
Book  V.  iii. 

CANTO    IV.  193 


Sir  Guyon  meets  Furor  dragging  a  handsome  youth  by  bis  hair,  and  folloived 
by  Occasion,  his  mother.  The  Knight  overcomes  and  binds  both  mother 
and  son,  and  delivers  Phed^pn^  the  luckless  squire,  who  fells  his  sad  history. 
Meanwhile  comes  a  Varlet^' running  hastily;  he  reviles  Sir  Guyon,  and 
bids  him  give  place  to  his  master  Pyrocles,  who  is  not  far  behind. 

Argument,  3.  Phedon ; — ed.  1 590,  Phaon. 

1,  I.  I.  know  not  what,  &c. ; — a  Latin  construction.     This  is  a  description 
of  the  Platonic  ev<j)VT)s,  the  well-bred,  well-thewed,  and,  it  must  be  confessed, 
the  affected  gentleman.     It  was  the  fashion  of  the  society  in  which  Spenser  \ 
moved  to  be  keenly  sensitive  as  to  the  honour  and  duties  of  the  estate  of  \ 
gentleman.     The  newer  aristocracy  of  the  reign  prided  themselves  on  their    I 
breeding  and  conduct,  and  despised  the  'rascal  rout'  without  stint.     The    I 
feeling  that  can  be  traced  here  runs  through  Sir  W.  Raleigh's  writings  and  / 
acts,  in  a  foppish  strain  :    it  also  gives  the  colour  to  Sir  P.  Sidney's  affected 
Arcadia  throughout. 

2.  by  native  influence; — by  the  star  which  rose  at  their  birth. 

7.  skill  to  ride; — the  art  of  horsemanship  throughout  this  period  be 
longs  specially  to  the  gentleman.  It  was  one  of  the  characteristics  of 
the  true  knight,  that  he  could  gracefully  'menage'  his  steed,  it  being 
an  essential  and  prime  element  of  chivalry.  In  our  day,  however,  this 
•  mark  of  a  gentleman,'  the  good  seat,  must  be  shared  with  circus  riders 
nd  grooms. 

2,  5.  who  suffred  not,  &c. ;— the  Palmer  appears  again  as  the  Knight's 
constant  monitor. 

3,  2.  He  saw,  &c. ; — so  Apoll.Rhodius,  Argon  4.  1480,  ^  iSevf]  eSoKrjfffv 
kira\Kvovaav  iotaQai.    • 

5.  a  mad  man; — Furor,  or  ungoverned  anger :  not  Aristotle's  Rashness,"^ 
but  excess  of  angry  passion.  } 

7.  a  handsome  stripling ; — Phedon,  a  youth  who  has  given  himself  u 
to  ungovernable  anger. 

^,  i.  a  wicked  Hag; — Occasion.  The  idea  which  Spenser  wishes  to  en 
force  by  this  description  of  Occasion,  is  that  involved  in  the  phrases  '  an 
occasion  of  falling,'  '  an  occasion  of  wrath,'  &c.  It  is  not  the  same  with  the 
'Occasio*  (the  nick  of  time,  £vpov  a/f/xij)  of  the  moralists,  who  was 
personified  as  a  deity  by  the  late  Greeks  and  Latins,  and  was  rather  a  good 
than  an  evil  personage.  In  Greek  Occasion  was  masculine,  6  Kaipos 
(sometimes  evKatpia,  indicating  that  the  favourable  moment  was  what  was 
meant  by  it).  We  have  in  Ausonius,  Epigr.  12,  an  account  of  this  deity  and 
her  companion  Poenitentia  (the  penitence  which  follows  after  an  opportunity 
missed,  not  after  occasion  seized).  Phaedrus  also  describes  this  deity  as 

"  Cursu  ille  volucri  pendens  in  novacula, 
Calvus,  comosa  fronte,  nudo  corpore. 

194  NOTES.  [St. 

Quern  si  occuparis,  teneas ;    elapsum  semel 
Nee  ipse  possit  Jupiter  reprendere : 
Occasionem  rerum  significat  brevem." 

Spenser  describes  her  as  lame  of  one  leg  (not  necessarily  lame  of  the  left,  or 
unlucky,  leg,  as  some  annotators  hold,  but,  like  Thersites  in  Homer,  II.  2.  2  '  7, 
XcwXos  5'  lirtpov  iroSa,  lame  of  one  leg,  but  still  swift  as  the  wind).  Her  hair 
hangs  down  before  her  face,  that  no  one  may  know  her,  till  she  is  past ;  at 
the  back  of  her  head  she  is  balcf,  that  when  once  she  is  past,  no  one  may  be 
able  to  grasp  her  from  behind ; — for  opportunity  once  missed  never  returns. 
This  is  expressed  by  the  old  proverb,  "  Fronte  capillata,  post  est  occasio 
calva,"  given  in  Dionvsius  Cato's  Distichs,  No.  17. 

5,  i.  her  toung  did  walke ; — we  now  talk  of  the  'wag'  of  the  ceaseless 

6.  her  one  leg ; — her  staff  was  a  leg  to  her,  serving  instead  of  the  lame 

V     7.  Picture  of  ungovernable  fury ;  reason  blinded  by  passion. 
/       9,  4.  still  cold  upon  ; — the  Hag  kept  on  inciting  Furor  to  kill  Guyon. 

10,  i.  Not  so,  O  Guyon,  &c. ; — the  prudent  Palmer  keeps  his  temper  :  i.  e. 
the  reasonable  part  of  the  tempted  man  cools  the  passionate. 

11,  9.   The  bankes  are  overflowen,  &c. ; — this  is  rather  a  difficult  simile. 
Spenser  means  to  say  that  Fury  is  like  a  dam  which  blocks  back  the  stream 
of  moderation  and  reason  and  so  causes  an  overflow ;  till  it  is  removed  the 
stream  will  not  return  to  its  orderly  course. 

f        14.   The  mastery  of  the  strong  man  over  the  temptations  of  passion  is 
finely  given.     It  may  be  contrasted  with  the  description  of  Pyrocles  (canto 
I   vi.  st.  41-50),  or  of  Phedon  (in  this  canto,  st.  29-33),  who  give  way  to 

15,  I.  chaines; — so  Horace, 

"  Hunc  frenis,  hunc  tu  compesce  catenis," 
speaking  of  Anger. 

17,  i.  This  tale  is  taken  straight  from  the  story  of  Ginevra,  Ariosto,  Orl. 
Fur.  5,  except  that  it  is  much  shorter,  and  ends  with  this  great  and  ungovern 
able  outburst  of  passion,  instead  of  with  chill  death  by  drowning. 
6-9.  In  ed.  1590  the  readings  of  these  lines  were — 
"  So  one  weake  wretch,  of  many  weakest  wretch, 
Unweeting,  and  unware  of  such  mishap, 
She  brought  to  mischief  through  her  guilful  trech, 
Where  this  same  wicked  villein  did  me  wandring  ketch." 
In  ed.  1596  it  was  altered,  evidently  by  Spenser  himself,  in  order  to  keep  it 
closer  to  Occasion. 

20,  I.  Philemon; — so    Spenser   reads    Aerates    and    Philotfme  in    equal 
defiance  of  the  proper  quantities  of  the  words. 

21,  2.  to  my  spouse; — the  older  use  of  this  preposition.     We  still  say  '  took 
to  wife.' 

9.  that  my  falser  friend ; — '  that'  is  here  a  demonstr.  pron. 

22,  8.  the  faith  which  she  tome  did  bynd; — did  plight;  note  the   same 
metaphor  of  obligation  in  Lat.  "  fidem  ligare." 

24,  2.  had  boulted  all  the  floure  ;--'  had  distinguished  the  truth  from  the 
falsehood  ;'  taken  from  the  language  and  usage  of  millers,  who  use  the  word 

5-4i. ]  CANTO    IV.  195 

'to   bolt'    of  the  separation    of  the  bran  from  the  flour.     Cp.    Chaucer, 
Nonnes  Priors  Tale,  415  : 

"  But  yit  I  can  not  bnlt  it  to  the  bren,' 
and  Milton,  Comus,  760: 

"  I  hate  when  Vice  can  bolt  her  arguments." 
See  Glossary. 

25,  9.   That  it  should  not,  &c.; — i.e.  lest  your  beauty  should  outshine  that 
of  your  mistress. 

26,  I.  she; — Fortune. 

28,  4.  7  not  discerned ; — an  Italian  order  of  words,  '  lo  non  vedeva.' 
9.  wound  of  gealous  worme ; — the  sting  of  jealousy. 

29,  I.  7  home  returning 7  slew  her ; — the  nom.  pronoun  is  perhaps 

here  repeated  to  give  emphasis. 

5.   That  after  soon; — '  id  quod  mox  .  .  .' 

7.  Demaunded ; — '  I  was  asked  for.' 

32,  I.  Feare  gave  her  wings; — Virg.  Aen.  8.  224  : 
"Pedibus  timor  addidit  alas,." 

34,  2.  to  affections; — Latin  use  of  the  term  =  passions,  violent  emotions 
of  the  mind  or  the  sensitive  part  of  man. 

5.  Whiles  they  are  weake ; — a  rendering  of  the  old  '  principiis  obsta.' 

8.  Gainst  fort  of  reason ; — they  besiege  the  reasonable  part  of  man; 
a  metaphor  worked  out  into  a  complete  allegory  in  canto  ix. 

9.  wrath,  &c. ; — the  Palmer,  acting  as   Chorus,  here   sums   up 
matter  neatly,  and  points  the  due  moral. 

35.  Notice  the  interwoven  construction  of  this  stanza.     It  is  a  good 
specimen  of  the  euphuistic  style. 

36.  5.  Least  worse,  &c.; — "Sin  no  more  lest  a  worse  thing  come  unto 
thee." — John  5.  14. 

7.  Pbedon ; — ed.  1 590,  Phaon. 

37,  2.  A  varlet; — Atin,  sc.  Strife:  thus  continuing  the  personification  of 
the  Vices  and  their  attendants.     Atin  is  a  name  drawn    either   from   the 
Greek  drrj,  "  the  goddess  of  mischief,  author  of  all  blind,  rash  actions  and 
their  results."   (Liddell  and  Scott.)     As  Mr.  Gladstone  says,  Homeric  Studies, 
vol.  ii.  p.  159,  "Vigorous  and  nimble,  she  ranges  over  the  whole  earth  for 
mischief;" — or  more  probably  from  the  adj.  arcs,  as  in  II.  5.  388,  'Aprjs  aros 
iro\(f*oio,  an  adj.  which  bears  the  sense  of  insatiate,  and  is  used  solely  of 
fighting  ;  for  Atin  is  always  drawn  as  eagerly  exciting  strife. 

39,  I.  in  presence  came ; — Latin  form,  'in  praesentiam.' 

8.  to  purpose ; — either  'in  reply  to  his  conversation'  (see  Gloss.  Pur 
pose},  or  =  apropos,  to  the  point. 

9.  not  to  grow  of  nought,  &c. ; — '  ex  nihilo  fit  nil.' 

\  41,  2.  Pyrocles; — Spenser  takes  the  name,  but  not  the  character,  from 
Sidney's  Arcadia.  The  two  brethren  of  Anger  are  the  anger  of  fire,  and  the 
anger  as  of  the  sea-waves,  irvpoK\6ijs,  compounded  of  irvp,  fire  ;  and  Cymocles, 
lcvfj.oK\er)s,  of  Kvp.a,  a  billow.  The  student  may  compare  the  description 
of  Pyrocles  with  Shakespeare's  Hotspur,  in  King  Henry  IV,  Part  I. 

Ed.  1590,  1596,  '  Pyrrhocles ;'  but  it  is  corrected  in  the  '  Faults  Escaped,' 

id.  1590. 

6.  Acra'es ; — is     intemperate     love     of    pleasure      (a,Kpa.T-f}s),     and 

O   2 

196  NOTES.  [St.  41-45. 

Despight  is  malicious  resentment :  personages  not  found  in  the  classical 
mythologies.  But  Spenser  always  holds  himself  free  to  treat  allegorical 
personages  as  he  likes.  His  meaning  being  that  the  various  forms  of  anger 
spring  from  the  combination  of  ungoverned  desires  with  malicious  and 
'resentful  qualities,  he  expresses  it  by  calling  Pyrocles  and  Cymocles  sons  of 
Aerates  and  Despight. 

41,  7.  Phlegeton  ; — '  the  burning  one/     Virgil  (Aen.  6.  265)  makes  him 
both  a  god  and  an  infernal  river. 

Jarre;— or  quarrel;  the  epis  of  Homer  (II.  II.  3,  73)  a  goddess 
who  rouses  men  to  war,  and  is  the  sister  of  Ares.  She  is  also  the  "  Discordia 
demens"  of  Virgil,  Aen.  6.  280.  She  is  described  by  Hesiod,  Theog.  225,  as 
daughter  of  Night. 

8.  Herebus   and  Night; — these   are    a   classical    pair.     Erebus   and 
Night  (according  to  Hesiod,  Theog.  1 25)  were  brother  and  sister,  children  of 
Chaos,  and  parents  of  Aether,  Day,  and  Strife  (Eris). 

This  line  is  one  foot  too  long:  possibly  the  words  '  is  sonne*  ought  to  be 

9.  Sonne  of  Aeternitie ; — this  is  not  proper  mythological  genealogy. 
Herebus  (see  above)  was  son  of  Chaos.     Eternity  was  not  personified  by  the 

42,  6.  matter  make  for  him ; — give  him  material  for  his  wrath  to  work  on. 
43,9.  in  bis  jeopardie ; — 'his'  here —  of  or  from  him,  a  Latin  usage. 

44,  6.  woe  never  wants,  &c.  ; — '  Misfortune  is  never  lacking,  when  every 
occasion  for  it  is  seized  on  and  employed.'     This  is  also  the  key  to  the  cha 
racter  given  to  Occasion  by  Spenser  ; — '  rash  Occasion '  catches   at   every 
possible  cause  of  quarrel. 

45,  3.  Compare  with  this  scornful  speech  that  of  Juno  to  Venus,  Virg. 
Aen.  4.  93,  &c. 

5.  thus  to  fight; — so  ed.  1596  ;  ed.  1590  'that  did  fight.' 
9.  abolish  so  reprocbful  blot; — so  Tacitus,  Hist.  3.  24,  has  "abolere 
labem  ignominiae." 

CANTO    V. 

Pyrocles  sets  furiously  on  Guy  on,  but  is  quelled.     He  humbly  begs  leave  to 
release  Occasion  and  Furor;  who,  when  set  free,  attack  him  and  work 
-him  great  woe.     Atin,  his  varlet,  flees,  seeking  Cymocles,  whom  be  find? 
sleeping  secure  in  Acrasia's  island. 

Argument. — The  reading  of  ed.  1590  is  here  followed.     In  the  ed.  1596 
it  is  altered  to 

'  Pyrocles  does  with  Guyon  fight, 
And  Furors  chayne  unbinds, 
Of  whom  sore  hurt,  for  bis  revenge 

A/tin  Cymocles  Jinds' 

1.  4.  perturbation; — Upton  notices  that  Spenser  works  out  the  four  forms 
of  perturbation  given  by  Cicero  (De  Fin.  3.  li)  : 

St.  i-io.]  CANTO    V.  197 

(1)  Aegritudo,  or  sorrowful  annoyance  and  distress,  in  the  history  of  the 

bloody-handed  babe. 

(2)  Formido,  or  fearfulness,  in  Braggadocchio. 

(3)  Libido',  in  the  bower  of  Acrasia.     XA>-^* 

(4)  Voluptas,  or  pleasure,  in  the  idle  '  jollity  '  of  Phaedria. 

4,  5.  On  bis  horse  neck ; — notice  this  form  of  the  gen. :  '  horse*  =  ' horses'  or 
'  horse's,'  as  we  now  write  it.  Our  '  horseback'  is  another  instance  of  this  use. 

7.  So  him,  &c. ; — note  the  construction  of  this  passage.  The  comma 
after  '  low'  ought  to  be  omitted,  as  '  him  dismounted  low  '  is  the  object  after 
the  verb  'did  compel.' 

5,  3.  Disleall  knight; — it  was  clean  against  the  laws  of  chivalry  to  strike 
a  horse.     Spenser  makes  Guyon  do  it  by  accident,  and  his  antagonist  pre 
tends  to  think  it  was  done  purposely.     Sidney,  in  the  Arcadia,  has  a  corre 
sponding  passage :  "  Amphialus  . . .  gave  a  mighty  blow  . . .  upon  the  shoulder 
of  the  Forsaken  Knight,  from  whence  sliding,  it  fell  upon  the  neck  of  his 
horse,  so  as  horse  and  man  fell  to  the  ground  .  .  .    But  the  courteous  Am 
phialus  excused  himself  for  having,  against  his  will,  killed  his  horse." 

6,  3.  sevenfolded  shield; — the  OCLKOS  titraftotiov  of  Ajax  in  Homer,  II.  7. 
220,  &c.     So  too  Virgil,  Aen.  12.  925,  describes   the   shield   of  Turnus, 
"  clypei  extremes  septemplicis  orbes."     Sidney,  Arcadia,  Bk.  I,  has  "  seven- 
double  shield,"  a  less  happy  adjective. 

7,  8.  inly  bate; — to  bite,  of  a  sword  or  sharp  weapon,  common  in  the 
Teutonic  languages.     Notice  the  strong  form  of  the  pret.,  like  ale,  pret. 
of '  to  eat';  and  wan  of  '  to  win,'  in  vi.  41. 

8,  7-  hurtle  round,  &c. ; — to  skirmish  round  one's  antagonist,  pressing  him 
first  from  one  side,  then  from  the  other:  a  part  of  the  fencer's  art.  Ed.  1596 
reads  '  hurle,'  but  it  is  only  a  misprint. 

9,  3.  Ne plate,  ne  male; — see  Bk.  I.  vi.  43,  and  Glossary. 

10,  I.  Like  as  a  lyon,  &c.  ;  — this  is  an  early  example  of  'the  lion  an<f\ 
the   unicorn  fighting.'     According  to  mediaeval  belief  and  early  books  on  • 
natural  history,  there  was  a  constant  feud  between  them.     The  unicorn  is  / 
described  by  Cardan  (who  died  1576)  as  a  rare  animal,  of  the  stature  of 

a  horse,  weazel-coloured,  with  a  stag's  head,  out  of  whose  forehead  sprang 
a  single  tapering  central  horn,  some  three  cubits  long.  He  has  a  short  neck, 
sandy  mane,  slight  and  somewhat  shaggy  legs,  and  cloven  hoofs.  This  is 
the  creature  as  he  is  traditionally  depicted  as  a  supporter  of  the  English 
royal  coat  of  arms.  Some  held  that  he  perished  at  the  Deluge ;  others  that 
he  was  still  to  be  found  in  Arabia  Deserta.  It  is  recorded  that  in  the  year 
1588  (only  two  years  before  the  publishing  of  the  Faery  Queene)  a  poor 
woman  found  an  unicorn's  horn  on  the  Suffolk  coast.  This  was  however, 
in  all  probability,  the  horn  of  a  narwhal.  The  unicorn  was  brought  into 
the  English  shield  by  James  I.  The  supporters  of  the  Scottish  coat  of  arms 
were  two  unicorns ;  one  of  these  the  King  imported  with  him,  displacing 
Queen  Elizabeth's  red  dragon.  I  do  not  know  whether  the  hostility  between 
England  and  Scotland  is  represented  under  the  feud  of  "  the  lion  and  the 
unicorn  fighting  for  the  crown."  (See  Ann.  and  Mag.  of  Nat.  Hist.,  Nov.  1 862.) 

imperiall; — king  of  beasts. 

2.  proud  rebellions  unicorn; — so  it  is  in  Job  39.  9,  10,  "Will  the 
unicorn  be  willing  to  serve  thee.  or  abide  by  thy  crib  ?"  &c. 

198  NOTES.  LSt* 

10,  7.  His  precious  home,  &c. ; — the   unicorn's  horn  was  supposed  to 
have  marvellous  medicinal  qualities. 

11,  7.  to  the  saint ; — i.  e.  to  the  image  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  depicted  on 
his  shield. 

12,  5.   on  his  brest,  &c. ; — commentators  confuse  this  action  with  the 
Biblical  putting  the  'foot  upon  the  neck  of  an  enemy.'     They  are  quite 
different  processes.     The  victor's  foot  was  placed  on  the  breast  of  a  van 
quished  foe,  when  he  bid  him  yield  or  die ;    but  the  foot  upon  the  neck 
was  symbolical  of  captivity.     The  defeated  person  prostrated  himself  upon 
his  face,  and  the  victor  then  set  his  foot  on  the  back  of  his  neck.     For 
this  '  foot  on  breast,'  cp.  Horn.  6.  65 ;    Virg.  Aen.  i  o.  495  ;    Tasso,  Gier. 
Lib.  9.  79. 

8.  Ne  deeme,  &c. ; — two  very  difficult  lines.  Possibly  '  deeme '  should 
be  considered  equivalent  to  '  count '  or  '  make  '  :  it  will  then  be  = '  and  do 
not  make  an  unjust  use  of  thy  strength,  under  the  doom  (judgment)  of 
fortune.'  But  this  is  very  unsatisfactory.  The  meaning  is  more  probably 
this,  '  and  do  not  think  it  is  thy  strength  that  has  thus  laid  me  low  in  dust 
through  the  unjust  judgment  of  fortune.'  The  parenthesis  '  maugre  her 
spight'  is  most  probably  explained  (and  so  Upton  and  Jortin  take  it)  by  con 
sidering  '  maugre '  as  = '  a  curse  upon.'  The  ordinary  meaning  of  the  word  = 
'in  spite  of  makes  no  sense. 

13,  4.  th'  equall  dye  of  warre; — the  £vvbs  "Aprjs  of  the  ancients.     Some 
commentators  propose  to  spoil  the  allusion  by  reading  'th'  unequall,'  for 
which  there  is  neither  authority  nor  reason. 

15,  6.  to  be  lesser  then  himselfe ; — this  is  a  classical  construction,  TJTTOW 
fivai  eavrov,  '  minor  seipso,'  i.  e.  to  fall  below  one's  own  proper  moral  level 
in  consequence  of  defeat,  and  to  be  '  demoralised '  or  to  be  too  much  elated 
by  victory,  and  to  lose  self-control. 

fc  9.   Vaine  others  overthrowes  ; — '  vaine  '  is  an  adv.  here,  '  overthrowes ' 

^7!a  verb.     '  [He]  overthrows  others   [in]   vain,  who,'  &c.     The  influence  of 

yhe  Italian  may  be  perhaps  traced  in  Spenser's  frequent  omission  of  the 

^personal  pron. 

16,  8.   Of  curtesie; — we  now  say  'in  courtesy':  'of  was  constantly  so 
used;  '  of  thy  great  mercy '=  out  of,  sign  of  a  partitive  genitive. 

19,  3.  to  her  use; — '  to  her  usual  way  of  life  and  habit.' 
7.  garre; — ed.  1596,  'do.' 

20,  3.   his  redeemer; — this  use  of  the  word  seems  to  shew  that  it  had 
not  in  Spenser's  time  become  specially  theological  and  sacred. 

I  21,  7.  vaine  occasions; — 'with  foolish  causes  as  they  arose.'  Church, 
joffended  at  the  repetition  of  the  word  in  this  stanza,  suggests  'encheasons' 
I  as  an  amendment,  but  without  authority.  Spenser  is  here  ending  the  part 
I  played  by  Occasion,  or  opportunity  of  wrath,  and  naturally  uses  the  term, 
though  at  the  risk  of  being  chargeable  with  ^tautpjfigy,  as  if  he  had  said, 
•  '  Occasion  seeks  to  influence  Guyon  with  vain  occasions.' 

22,  7.  Stygian  lake,  ay  burning  bright; — the   Styx  was   a  river,  not  a 

lake :  nor  did  it  '  burn  bright,'  but,  on  the  contrary,  was  cold  and  dark ;  the 

loathsome  river.     Still  Spenser  has  the  authority  of  Virgil,  Aen.  6.  134  :  "  bis 

^Siygios  innare  lacus' 

£       23.  The  picture  of  the  angry  man  giving  way  to  and  overwhelmed  by  fury. 


CANTO    V.  199 

26,  2.  warlike  prayse ; — Latin  use  of  the  word,  answering  to  Virgil's  'laus.' 
Aen.  i.  465,  '  sunt  hie  etiam  sua  praemia  laudi.' 

8.  And  hong,  8cc. ; — cp.  with  this  Hawes'  Hist,  de  Graunde  Amour 
(quoted  by  Todd)  : 

"  Besides  this  gyaunt,  upon  everie  tree 
I  did  se  hang  many  a  goodly  shilde 
Of  noble  knightes." 

Any  insult  to  the  shield  was  looked  on  as  specially  trying  to  the  knightly 
temper.     See  Sansfoy's  Complaint,  Book  I.  iv.  41  : 

"  Even  stout  Sansfoy  (O,  who  can  then  refrayn  ?) 
Where  shield  he  beares  renversed,  the  more  to  heap  disdayn." 

27,  2.  Acrasia ; — the  personification  of  intemperance,  Guyon's  real  op 
posite  and  opponent.     Her  description  is  partly  drawn  from   Circe,  partly. 
or  chiefly,  from  the  enchantress  Alcina  in  Ariosto.     Ariosto  also  drew  from 
Circe,  Horn.  Od.  IO.  210.    The  student  should  also  compare  Armida's  garden 
aiTd  bower  of  bliss  in  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  c.  16,  and  the  revelry  in   Milton's 
Comus.     Circe's  lovers  are  all  turned  into  swine,  and  have  no  choice  or 
variety ;    Alcina's   victims    are   made    into    plants,  trees,  rivers,  as  well  as 
beasts ;    Spenser's  Acrasia  commutes  hers  into  shapes  of  various  animals, 
following   each   the   bent  of  their  character.     Milton  retains  the   human 
form,  but  gives  an  animal's  head  to  each  reveller ;    as  does  also  Spenser, 
in    describing    the    troops    of    evil    spirits    attacking    Alma's    castle    in 
canto  xi. 

29,  8.  myld  Zepbyrus,  &c.;— Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  c.  16. 

30,  2.  A  gentle  streame,  &c. ; — Niccolo  degli  Agostini,  in  his  continuation 
of  Orlando  Inam.,  4.  9,  has  a  passage  like  this.     Cp.  also  Chaucer's  descrip 
tion  of  the  House  of  Morpheus,  Boke  of  the  Duchesse,  1 60.     Also  Faery 
Queene,  Bk.  I.  i.  41. 

31,  2.  the  stately  tree,  &c. ; — Spenser  means  the  poplar,  which  was  dedi 
cated  to  Alcides,  i.  e.  Heracles.     The  legend  runs  thus: — Leuce,  daughter  of. 
Ocean,  was  loved  by  Pluto,  god  of  the  realms  below.     After  her  death  a  tree 
sprang  up  in  Elysium,  or  on  the  shores  of  Acheron,  called  by  her  name,  with 
leaves  of  two  colours,  dark  above,  white  on  the  under  side;   (the  Greek 
name  for  the  poplar  is  Xei/.v?),  Leuce,  which  means  '  white,'  whence  the  Latin 
'populus  a/6a').     When  Heracles   returned  from   his  visit   to  the   infernal 
regions,  he  came  up  crowned  with  a  wreath  of  this  tree,  signifying  by  its 
two-coloured  leaves  his  conquest  in  the  realms  of  light  and  darkness.     For 
this  cause  whoever    sacrificed  to  him   wore    a    poplar-wreath.      Cp.   Virg. 
Eclogue  7.  6 1  :  "Populus  Alcidae  gratissima." 

The  poplar  was  not  specially  dedicated  to  Jove  :  his  proper  tree  was  the 
oak.  In  this  Spenser  is  somewhat  inaccurate,  as  was  not  uncommonly  the 
case  with  his  mythological  allusions. 

4.  wbenas  bee  Gaynd  in  Nemea ; — here  again  Spenser  is  vague  and 
incorrect.  His  1st  ed.  1590  read  '  Netmus'  in  the  text,  'Nemus'  in  the 
'  Faults  Escaped.'  There  are  no  such  places  :  and  Spenser  obviously  meant 
throughout  'Nemea,'  and  was  trusting  to  his  memory.  Even  in  ed.  1596 
he  accents  the  word  wrongly,  '  Nemea,'  and  to  remedy  this  later  editors 
altered  the  line  to  '  In  Nemea  gayned  goodly  victorie,'  without  authority. 
In  Bk.  I.  vii.  17  (where  he  is  also  speaking  of  great  Alcides')  he  introduces 

ZOO  NOTES.  [St.  36-38. 

a  place  'Stremona,'  which  has  no  existence.  He  is  also  incorrect  in  his 
statement.  Heracles  is  not  said  in  the  legends  to  have  had  the  poplar 
dedicated  to  him  after  the  Nemean  victory,  nor  was  the  poplar  used  as  the 
victor's  crown.  In  fact  there  is  no  connection  between  them.  Heracles  is 
related  to  have  killed  the  lion  there ;  and  the  Nemean  games,  first  instituted 
by  the  '  Seven  against  Thebes,'  were  revived  from  that  time,  and  celebrated 
in  honour  of  Zeus. 

36,  2.  Up,  up,  &c. ; — cp.  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  16.  32  : 

"  Su,  su  :    te  il  campo  e  te  Goffredo  invita 

Te  la  fortuna  e  la  vittoria  aspetta." 

6.  on  senselesse  ground; — a  Greek  construction  =  senseless  on  ground. 
So  also,  vii.  34,  Spenser  has,  '  to  lack  his  greedie  pray,'  = '  the  prey  he  was 
greedy  after.'  See  also  line  9,  '  thy  help,  that  here '  —  the  help  of  thee,  who, 
&c.  This  is  the  figure  called  enallage  in  grammar.  So  Soph.  Antig.  793, 
v( TKOS  dvopwv  £tvai[*ov,  '  the  kindred  strife  of  heroes,'  meaning  '  the  strife  of 
kindred  heroes.' 

37,  3.  But  be ; — sc.  Atin,  who  would  not  waste  time  in  telling  Cymocles 
more  of  his  brother's  mishap. 

38,  9.  And  Atin  aie  him  pricks,  &c. ; — the  part  of  the  attendant  upon 
wrath.     He  is  to  Cymocles  what  the  Palmer  is  to  Guyon.      He  is  his 
monitor,  but  for  evil,  and  is  drawn  true  to  life  as  such.     The  self-indulgent 
mind,  passing  into  anger,  is  constantly  stung  with  this  sense  of  shame  at 
slothfulness,  and  of  wrong  done  to  be  avenged.    He  does  not  stop  to  enquire 
whether  the  wrong  done  is  really  a  wrong  or  not,  but  rushes  on  into  fury. 
He  goads  on  his  courser,  and  Atin  follows  fast  behind,  ceaselessly  urging  him 
on  to  greater  wrath  and  haste. 


Cymocles  is  waylaid  by  idle  Pbaedria,  who  carries  him  to  "her  floating  island, 
where  be  is  lulled  to  sleep  in  sloth.  A  tin  can  no  longer  prick  him  on,  for 
Pbaedria  refused  to  take  him  over  in  her  boat.  Guyon  also  comes  to  the 
Idle  Lake,  and  is  also  carried  to  the  island,  the  Palmer  likewise  being  left 
behind.  He  is  attacked  by  Cymocles,  who  has  awaked  out  of  his  sleep,  and 
they  fight.  Phaedria  separates  them,  and  gladly  carries  Guyon  to  the  other 
shore.  There  he  finds  Atin,  who  reviles  him;  and  afterwards  sees  the  sad 
plight  of  Pyrocles,  who  is  at  last  cured  of  bis  burns  by  Arcbimago. 

1,  I.  A  harder  lesson,  &c. ; — this  is  the  opposite  to  Aristotle's  dictum, 

Eth.  Nic.  3.  9,  2,  ^a\€7ro;Tepoj'  ra  \wnr)pa  virofj.tvfiv  f)  TOJV  -fjoovuv  air^^aOai. 

Kloralists  can  balance  both,  and  divide  either  way.     Hitherto  Guyon  has  had 

/to  face  only  painful   passions,  the  QV^IKOV,  in  his  struggles  against  Furor. 

1    Occasion,   and  Pyrocles.      He  will  now  have  to  resist  the   seductions   of 

y  pleasure — idleness,  wealth,  and  immoral  desire. 

8.  her; — ed.  1596  reads  'their,'  an  obvious  carelessness. 

St.  1-15.]  CANTO     VI.  201 

3,  I.  a  lady,  &c. ; — Phaedria,  representing  unmeasured  mirth  and  wanton 
idleness ;  the  '  insolens  laetitia'  of  Horace,  Odes,  2.  3,  3.  The  name  is  derived 
from  the  Greek  QaiSpus,  bright,  glittering.  The  character  answers  nearly  to 
that  /8a>/*oAc»x<ct,  unseasonable  fnerriment,  which  Aristotle  has  described  in 
his  Ethics,  4.  8 :  "  They  who  exceed  in  fondness  for  what  makes  laughter 
seem  to  be  QcapoXoxot  and  low,  for  they  strive  to  put  everything  in  a 
ridiculous  light ;  and  aim  rather  at  raising  a  laugh,  than  at  speaking  what  is 
seemly,  nor  do  they  spare  the  feelings  of  their  butt ;"  which  answers  closely 
to  the  description  of  Phaedria  in  stanza  6. 

4.  that  nigh  her  breth  was  gone  ; — ed.  1590  reads,  '  as  merry  as  Pope 
Jone  ;'  but  Spenser  probably  thought  the  allusion  too  low,  and  altered  it 
in  1596. 

5,  I.  Eflsoones  her  shallow  ship,  &c. ; — this  enchanted  boat  comes  from 
Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  30.  n: 

"  Per  1'acqua  il  legno  va  con  quella  fretta 

Che  va  per  1'aria  irondine  che  varca." 
Or  perhaps  from  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  15.  3,  6: 

"  Vider  picciola  nave,  e  in  poppa  quella 
Che  guidar  gli  dovea,  fatal  donzella,"  &c. 

6.  cut  away; — so  in  1590,  1596.     But  it  should  be  'cut  a  way' — 
'  viam  secare.'     Cp.  I.  xi.  18,  'He  cutting  way,'  &c. 

8,  3.  of  his  way ; — of  the  path  he  ought  to  have  followed,  the  object  he 
had  set  before  him. 

7.  one  sweete  drop  ; — Lucr.  4.  1052  : 

"  Dulcedinis  in  cor 
Stillavit  gutta" 

10,  7.  Ne  swelling  Neptune,  ne  loud  thundring  Jove ; — i.e.  neither  tempest 
nor  thunder-storm. 

11,  3.  an  island  waste  and  voyd ; — this  floating  island  is  natural  to  ro 
mance.     The  first  island  of  the  kind  is  Delos,  which  wandered  about  the 
/Egean  till  Zeus  chained  it  to  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  that  it  might  be  a  safe 
birth-place  for  Apollo  and  Artemis.     But  it  was  also  a  natural  phenomenon, 
not  altogether  uncommon  on  lakes  whose  shores  are  swampy  and  covered 
with  vegetation.     So  Pliny  (Epist.  8.  20)  describes,  as  an  eye-witness,  floating 
islands  on   Lake  Vadimo,   large  enough  to  carry   cattle  without  sinking. 
They  were  made  of  reeds,  grass,  &c. 

waste  and  voyd ; — not  desolate  in  respect  of  vegetation,  &c.,  but  not  in 
habited  by  men. 

12,  2.  like  a  little  nest;     Upton  quotes  Cicero  de  Or.  I.  44  :  "ut  Ithacam 
illam  in  asperrimis  saxulis,  tanquam  nidulum,  affixam  sapientissimus  vir  im- 
mortalitati  anteponeret." 

13,  Notice  the  harmonious  chain,  giving  in  itself  the  sense  of  music. 
c.  12.  st.  70. 

15.  The  '  love  lay'  sung  to  Cymocles  is  fashioned  upon  that  which  the 
enchanted  voice  sang  to  Rinaldo,  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  14.  62.  See  also  the 
boy  s  song  in  the  poem  called  '  Britain's  Ida,'  printed  in  Spenser's  works,  but 
believed  not  to  be  his. 

4.  nothing  envious  nature;—*  Latin  construction  :  '  nihil  invida 

2O3  NOTES.  [St. 

15,  8.  These  allusions,  taken  from  St.  Matthew,  6.  26-29,  have  been 
found  fault  with,  as  bringing  things  sacred  into  such  a  connection.  But 
Spenser  was  desirous  of  shewing  how  luxury  can  distort  truths  to  an  immoral 

--   16,  I-   The  lilly,  ladie  of  the  fiowring  field ; — so  Queen  Katherine  (Henry 
VIII.  act  3,  sc.  l)  says,  "  Like  the  lily  that  once  was  mistress  of  the  field." 

2.  The  Flowre-deluce ; — the  Fleur-de-lys  or  iris. 

17,  6.   What  bootes  it,  &c. ; — the  same7  argument  is  used  by  Comus  to  the 
lady  in  his  speech  beginning  "  O  foolishness  of  men  !"  1.  706. 

7.  in  the  maine ; — the  commentators  observe  that  this  must  be  under 
stood  of  river  or  lake,  not  of  the  sea,  whose  waters  are  salt ! 

18,  7.  griesly; — so  ed.    1596;  ed.   1590  reads  '  griesy,'  as  if  a  sluggish 
oily  water :  the  '  Idle  wave.'     But  the  reading  of  1596  is  probably  the  best. 

19,  8.  for  price  or  prayers; — '  aut  prece  aut  pretio.' 

20,  3.  obaying  to ; — a  common  construction  at  that  time.     Occurs  thrice 
in  Scripture :  "  his  servants  ye  are  to  whom  ye  obey."     It  answers  to  the 
Latin  usage,  '  obedire,  servire,  alicui.' 

9.  timely  tides  ; — the  tides  in  their  due  seasons. 

sourse ; — except  that  'course'  is  already  appropriated  in  1.  6,  it  would 
have  been  natural  to  consider  this  a  misprint.  But  Spenser  perhaps  wrote 
'  source,'  to  convey  the  impression  that  there  was  neither  tide  nor  stream. 

22,  9.  Mee  litle  needcth ; — for  this  construction  of  the  verb  'to  need,'  see 
note  to  Bk.  I.  x.  38. 

23,  3.  Ne  wind  and  weather,  &c. ; — a  proverbial  expression. 

8.  Better  safe  port  then  he  in  seas  distrejst ; — 'a  safe  port  (is)  better 
than  (to)  be  .  .  .' 

24,  6.   The  fields  did  laugh; — 'Prata  rident.'     Cp.  also  Psalm  65.  13. 

26,  6.  fairly  tempring ; — i.  e.   '  keeping   due   bounds  of  temperance,'   or 
keeping  desire  within  fair  bounds. 

9.  time  the  tide  renewd ; — brought  back  the  right  season,  or  moment. 
There  was  no  tide,  in  our  sense  of  the  word,  in  the  Idle  Lake ;  so  that  the 
word  must  be  used  as  meaning  '  the  right  moment.'   A.  S.  tid.     Is  there  any 
allusion  to  the  proverb  '  Time  and  tide  wait  for  no  man'? 

27,  I.  Cymochles  howre  was  spent; — i.e.  the  time  of  his  drugged  sleep 
was  over. 

5.  to  steme; — to  let  evaporate  his  molten  heart;  let  it  pass  off  in 
steam  ot  idleness. 

9.  their; — edd.  1590,  1596.  But  it  seems  clear  that 'there'  is  the 
right  reading. 

28,  7.  Loe,  /oe  =  look,  look,  used  as  if  it  were  an  imperative.     So  Sir  P. 
Sidney,  in  his  Arcadia,  Bk.  ii.,  has,  "  Then  lo,  if  Cupid  be  a  god."     '  Lo'  is, 
however,  only  another  form  of  the  old  interjection  'la':  'the  modern  lo,' 
says  Mr.  Earle  (Philology  of  the  English  Tongue,  p.  163),  'represents  both 
the  Saxon  interjections  la  and  loc;'  loc  being  our  'Look!' 

29,  2.  importune; — ed.  1596  reads,  '  importance' — a  mere  blunder. 

3.  to  field;— to  battle-field,  i.e.  to  fight.     Notice  the  affected  use  of 
technical  terms  in  this  stanza — '  haberjeons,'  '  dismayld,'  '  spelles,'  '  entayld,' 
'  giambeux ' — worthy  of  the  Rime  of  Sir  Topas,  where  Chaucer,  making  fun 
of  interlarded  speech,  says,  "His  jambeux  were  of  quirboily,"  i.e.  his  boots 

15-51.]  CANTO     VI.  203 

were  of  prepared  leather  (ciiir  bouilli).     Fencers  and  the  like  have  always 
affected  French  terms  for  their  art. 

31,  6.  as  Titan  shone; — shone  like  the  sun. 

32,  5.  Ah  well  away; — probably  a  corruption  of  the  old  cry,  '  wala  wa.' 

7.  Wo  worth  the  man; — simply  =  '  woe  be  to  the  man,' or  possibly 
'woeful  be  the  man.'     'Worth'  is  here  the  A.  S.  weofft,  imper.  of  weorftan, 
to  be.     See  Glossary.     These  two  exclamations,  as  well  as  '  Harrow,'  which 
usually  goes  with  'well  away,'  have  perished  out  of  common  speech. 

34,  3.  the  which  doe  men  in  hale  to  sterve ; — 'to  do  to  sterve'  =  'to  do  to 
die,'  i.  e.  to  cause  their  death.     See  Gloss.  Sterve. 

5.  Such  cruell  game,  &c. ; — if  you  fight  in  your  fashion,  I  cannot  fight 
in  mine. 

35,  7.  Mars  is  Cupidoes  frend; — the  story  is  told  by  Homer,  Od.  8.  266. 

36,  5.  Such  powre  have  pleasing  wordes; — an  allusion  to  Prov.  15.  I,  'A 
soft  answer  turneth  away  wrath.'  . — 

40,  2.  But  sober  Guyon,  &c. ; — the  mastery  of  passion  in  another  form^N 
Guyon  resists  the  irritating  assaults  of  angry  railing  and  abuse.  . * 

41,  4.  wan. ; — old  strong  pret.  of  'to  win.'     We  still  use  another  form 
of  it,  'won.'     It  is  here  =  had  won;  so  in  v.  7  can  =  could. 

43,  7.  lent  this; — ed.  1590  reads  'lent  but. this  his.' 

9.-  What  is  thee  betyde?—'  What  has  befallen  thee?'    '  thee'  is  a  dat. : 
=  '  what  is  come  to  thee?'     See  Gloss.  Betide. 

44,  9.  borne  under  unhappie  starre; — see  notes  on  ii.  2,  and  ix.  52. 

45,  5.  last  death ; — as  opposed  to  the  '  dying  daily,  daily  yet  revive.' 

46,  6.  The  waves  thereof,  &c. ; — a  sort  of  Lacus  Asphaltites,  or  Dead  Sea. 
Cp.  Dante's  'la  morta  gora,'  Inferno,  c.  8.  31.     But  Tasso's  description, 
Gier.  Lib.  IO.  62,  comes  nearer  to  Spenser's : — 

"  Questo  fc  lo  stagno  in  cui  nulla  di  greve 
Si  getta  mai,  che  giunga  insino  al  basso; 
Ma,  in  guisa  pur  d'abete  o  d'orno,  leve 
L'uom  vi  sornuota,  e  '1  duro  ferro  e  '1  sasso." 

47,  9.  a  goodly  arming   sword; — Archimago   had   somehow   purloined 
Morddure,  Prince  Arthur's  enchanted  sword,  for  the  use  of  Braggodocchio : 
it  comes  however  to  other  uses.     Enchanted  weapons,  especially  swords,  are 
common  in  romance. 

48,  5.  weake  hands; — notice  the  ellipse  of  '  are  the.' 

8.  he  needed  more; — in  this  place  the  verb  '  to  need'  follows  the  more 
usual  and  modern  construction  =  to  require.     See  Book  I.  x.  38. 

50,  9.  In  flaming  Phlegethon ; — the  burning   river  of  Hades:     Spenser 
probably  connects  it  with  the  description  of  the  souls  carried  round  in  tor 
ment,  described  in  the  Mythus  at  the  end  of  Plato's  Phaedo ;  to  which  dia 
logue  an  allusion  is  also  made  in  vii.  52.     Cp.  also  Book  I.  v.  33, 

'  The  fiery  flood  of  Phlegeton, 
Where  as  the  damned  ghostes  in  torments  fry.' 

51,  5.  fire  too  ; — ed.  1590  omits  '  too' ;  and  the  line  is  eked  out  by  writing 
'  fier,'  as  a  dissyllable. 

204  NOTES.  [St. 


Guyon  finds  Mammon  sunning  his  treasure,  and  is  led  by  him  through  many 
temptations  of  avarice  and  ambition  :  be  resists  with  a  stedfast  soul ;  and. 
after  three  day  A  underground,  returns  to  daylight,  and  swoons  away. 

Argument  2.  Sunning  his  threasure  bore; — Milton  probably  had  this 
phrase  in  his  mind  when  he  wrote,  Cornus  398,  "th'  unsunned  heaps  of 
miser's  treasure." 

i.  As  pilot,  &c. ; — in  Spenser's  day  the  mariner  seems  to  have  sailed 
chiefly  by  the  stars,  applying  to  his  chart  ('card')  and  compass  when  fog  or 
cloud  blotted  away  the  heavens.  The  fact  was  that  neither  chart  nor  com 
pass  were  fully  understood,  or  very  safe  guides ;  so  that  sailors  found  it  more 
prudent  to  trust  chiefly  to  '  a  stedfast  starre.'  The  earlier  works  on  naviga 
tion  mostly  came  (as  one  would  expect)  from  Spain ;  but  towards  the  end  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  as  English  and  Dutch  adventure  grew,  Englishmen  also 
and  Dutchmen  turned  their  attention  to  the  subject.  The  only  '  card '  in 
existence  was  that  known  as  the  'plane  chart,'  which  was  full  of  inaccura 
cies,  and  a  most  unsafe  guide,  till  Gerard  Mercator  published  an  universal 
map  in  1569.  This  map,  however,  was  not  understood,  and  was  believed 
to  be  still  more  dangerous  than  the  old  plane  chart.  Nor  was  it  till  1592, 
two  years  after  the  publication  of  the  Faery  Queene,  that  its  value  began 
to  be  recognised.  After  that  date  the  principles  of  navigation  improved 
rapidly,  chiefly  through  the  writings  of  an  Englishman,  Edward  Wright.  It 
is  curious  to  notice  how  the  interest  in  seafaring  shewn  by  Spaniards  and 
Portuguese  languished  towards  the  end  of  the  century,  and  how  the  Dutch 
and  English  took  their  place  as  the  chief  advancers  of  navigation. 

8.  to  them,  &c. ; — directs  by  them. 

9.  Winged  vessel; — so  Pindar,  Ol.  9.  36,  vacs  vrroirrcpov,  and  Virg. 
Aen.  3.  520,  '  velorum  pandimus  alas'   Any  one  who  has  ever  seen  a  lateen- 
rigged  vessel,  sees  at  once  that  the  metaphor  is  just. 

/+  2,  4.  himself  with  comfort  feedes,  &c. ; — not  altogether  our  conception  of 
I  the  true  magnanimous  hero,  to  meditate  on,  and  comfort  himself  with,  his 
•  own  '  vertues  and  praiseworthie  deedes.'  But  it  is  quite  after  the  pattern  of 
'>  Aristotle's  magnanimous  man,  whose  character  to  a  certain  extent  enters  into 
Vthat  of  Sir  Guyon.  The  humility  which  runs  through  the  morality  of 
JBunyan's  Pilgrim's  Progress,  and  forms  one  of  the  most  beautiful  elements 
Mil  it,  is  wanting  from  this  part  of  the  Faery  Queene. 

^  3,  4.  An  uncouth,  &c. ; — Mammon,   whose   description   may   be    drawn 
I   from  the  Aristophanic  Plutus,  God  of  Wealth.     See  Aristoph.  Plut.  78.  84, 
123.     He  is  called  filthy,  avxn&v,  in  miserable  plight,  piapuTaros,  aOXiws 
SiaKfifJLfvos,  blind,  timorous,  SftAoraros.     But  probably  Spenser  had  Piers 
Ploughman's  Covetyse  before  his  eyes.     Passus  Quintus  de  Visione. 
"  Thenne  com  Covetyse. 
I  couj>e  him  not  discreve 
So  hungri  and  so  holewe 
Sire  Hervi  him  loked. 


CANTO   F/7.  205 

He  was  bitel  brouwed, 
WiJ>  twei  blered  eijen 
And  lyk  a  lexeme  pors 
Lukede  his  chekes." 
Chaucer,  Rom.  of  the  Rose,  1.  202,  draws  Coveityse, — 

"Ful  croked  were  hir  hondis  two;" 
and  Avarice  (1.  211), — 

"  Ful  sade  and  caytif  was  she  eek 
And  also  greene  as  ony  leek. 
So  yvel  hewed  was  hir  colour, 

And  thereto  she  was  lene  and  megre." 

Milton  also  (Par.  Lost,  I.  678)  has  Mammon  among  his  chiefs  of  Hell, 
though  he  conceives  him  as  a  very  different  personage. 

9.  fire-spitting ; — T.  Warton  makes  a  comical  eighteenth-century  note 
on  this  word,  to  relieve  Spenser  from  the  odium  of  using  the  word  '  spitting' 
in  its  vulgar  sense.  "  Spett  seems  anciently,"  says  he,  "  to  have  more  simply 
signified  disperse,  without  the  low  idea  which  we  at  present  affix  to  it." 
Warton  could  never  have  seen  a  smith's  forge  in  full  blow,  or  he  might 
have  noticed  that  '  fire-spitting,'  with  the  '  low  idea  we  at  present  affix  to  it,' 
is  the  exact  word  to  express  the  jets  of  fire,  and  the  sparks  spirting  out  from 
the  heap  of  coals. 

4,  4.   Well  yet  appeared; — ed.  1596  reads  'it,'  and  puts  a  comma  after 
'  appeared,'  so  as  to  seem  to  make  a  parenthetical  sentence  of  these  three 
words.     The  reading  is  however  in  all  probability  another  instance  of  the 
carelessness  of  that  edition. 

5,  4.  Mulciber's  devouring  element; — the  'elementum  ignis,'  whose  pre 
siding  deity  was  Mulciber  or  Vulcan,  or  Hephaestos.     He  is  called  Mulciber, 
'  the  soother,'  either  as  a  good  omen,  to  avert  or  restrain  the  ravaging  force 
of  fire,  or  because  of  the  power  of  heat  and  fire  in  ripening  or  in  melting. 

7,  3.  beapes; — so  ed.  1596:  ed.  1590  reads  '  hils.' 

8,  I.  God  of  the  world,  &c. ; — bearing  out  the  antithesis  between  "God 
and  Mammon  "  indicated  in  St.  Matthew  6.  24. 

9,  I.   Wherefore  if  me,  &c. ; — an  allusion  to  the  Temptation  on  the  Mount. 
Cp.  Berni's  Orl.  Inam.  I.  25. 19,  where  Orlando  is  made  to  refuse  the  tempt 
ations  of  wealth. 

12 — 13.  The  student  should  notice  the  condensed  description  of  the  evils 
and  crimes  of  wealth  in  thesejtanzas,  especially  in  st.  13.  The  day^dreams^ 
oT  golden  snores,  so  rife  at  the~ time,  the  adventure  and  rapine,  the  cruel 
treatment  of  innocent  natives,  and  the  deterioration  of  character  in  Spain 
and  England,  arising  from  the  greed  of  wealth,  give  point  and  special  mean 
ing  to  these  stanzas.  It  must  be  remembered  that  Spenser  lived  among  the 
brilliant  adventurers  of  the  time. 

3.  First  got,  &c. ; — so  Juv.  Sat.  14.  303,  304, 

"  Tantis  parta  malis  cura  maiore  metuque 

Servantur.     Misera  est  magni  custodia  census." 

14,3.  in  Caspian  sea;  .  .  .  on  Adrian  gulf ; — the  Caspian  and  the  Adri 
atic  Sea  were  famous  among  the  ancients  for  their  storms.  Horace's  "  Dux 
inquieti  turbidus  Hadriae"  (Od.  3.  3,  5)  will  occur  to  every  one.  Milton, 

206  NOTES.  [St. 

Par.  Lost,  2.  714-716,  describes  Satan  and  Death  as  like  two  clouds  on  the 

14,  6.  sayd; — the   verb    has  for  its  direct  subject    '  Mammon,'  not,  as 
Mr.  Todd  says,  an  ellipse  of 'he  ' 

15,  2,  3.  captivd  .  .  .  allowaunce; — note  the  accenting  of  these  words, 
captivd,  allowaunce. 

4.  untroubled; — Nature  left  to  herself,  not  stimulated  by  'conventional 

8.  bis; — notice  this  singular  pron.  after  '  streames.'     The  conception 
is  that  this  is  true  of  each  stream. 

braunching  armes  ; — either  =  the  tributary  rivers,  or  =  the  divisions 
of  a  river  near  its  mouth,  carrying  on  the  forced  analogy  between  the  human 
frame  and  a  river's  course  from  its  'head'  downwards.  Geography  appeals 
wherever  it  can  to  the  human  figure — that  microcosm — for  its  technical 
terms:  bead,  foot  (of  a  mountain),  arm  of  the  sea,  moutb  of  river,  &c. 

16,  6.  like  cornfed  steed; — cp.  Jer.  5.  8,  and  Horn.  II.  6.  506. 

9.  the  measure  of  her  meane; — the  proper  limit  of  her  moderation 
between  two  extremes.    Spenser  holds  closely  to  the  Aristotelian  Moderation. 

17,  2.  bis  great  grandmother  ; — Terra  mater,  the  mighty  grandmother,  or 
first  mother  of  all.     Cp.  Milton,  Par.  Lost,  I.  686, 

"with  impious  hands 
Rifled  the  bowels  of  their  mother  earth 
.  •>  ,.  For  treasures  better  hid." 

6.  the  matter ; — '  materies,'  or  subject-matter.     One  of  the  chief  cha- 

/""  racteristics  of  the  golden  age  is  its  entire  freedom  from  gold  and  its  attendant 

I      evils.     This  is  an  interesting  discussion  of  the  two  sides  of  the  question  as 

to  the  happiness  of  uncivilized  man,  long  before  the    days  of  Rousseau's 

>    'savage.' 

18,  I.  let  be; — so  the  Germans  say  '  lass  sein,'  'leave  alone.' 

4.   Thou  that,  &c. ; — Mammon's  political  economy  of  '  work  and  pay,' 
contrasted  with  the  chivalrous  notions  of '  work  and  duty.' 

19,  2.  I  know  it  well  be  got; — this  form  of  the  conditional  sentence  is 
peculiar;  the  use  of  the  subj.  gives  much  force  and  character  to  the  sentence, 
which  is  perhaps  heightened  by  the  order  of  words  '  well  be  got'  for  '  be  well, 
fairly,  got.' 

4.  unrighteous  lot; — 'iniqua  sorte,'  by  unfair  trickery  or  by  violence 
and  deceit. 

21,  4.  Plutoes  grtesly  rayne ; — '  the  infernal  regions.'     This  usage  of  the 
word  'reign'  (regnum)  is  followed  by  Gray,  Elegy  in  a  Churchyard, — 

C"  Molests  her  ancient  solitary  reign" 
5.  Payne;— jiot  suffering,  but  Poena.  the  avenging,  punishing  deity. 
This  passage  is  modelled  upon  the  fine  lines  in  Virg.  Aen.  6.  2 73^ We  have 
,       herejjlrife,  answering  to  Virgil's  '  discordia  dsmens';  Feare,  to  Virgil's  Metus; 
^   /and  Celeno  to  his  Harpies.     Virgil  has  nothing  so  fine  as  Spenser's  Horror ; 
*   ft  and  in  point  of  terse  description,  this  passage  is  unrivalled.     Jealousy  gnaw- 
{    ing  his  lips,  Fear  flying  to  and  fro  in  vain  search  of  a  safe  refuge,  Horror 
\  beating  his  iron  wings,  are  splendid  conceptions. 

\  23,  6.  sac?  Celeno; — the  Harpy  mentioned  in  Virg.  Aen.  3.  245,  which 
passage  Spenser  had  in  mind, 


CANTO    VII.  207 

"Una  in  praecelsa  consedit  rupe  Celaeno, 

Infelix  vates,  rumpitque  hanc  pectore  vocem." 

The  Harpies  are  placed  by  Dante  in  his  Inferno,  c.  13.  1.  10.  They  had 
faces  and  breasts  of  women,  but  wings  and  crooked  birds'  talons  ;  they  are 
described  as  foul,  ill-omened  monsters. 

24,  6.  gaped  wide; — was  ever  open;  so  Virg.  Aen.  6.  127;  Milton,  Par. 
Lost,  2.  884. 

7.  be  them  parted  ought ; — the  door  of  the  House  of  Riches  adjoins 
Hell-gate  without  any  division  between,  and  Sleep  has  his  house  on  the  other 
side.  The  forms  of  Care,  and  Force,  and  Fraud  are  round  the  door  of  Riches, 
just  as  Payne,  Strife,  &c.,  were  before  that  of  Pluto's  realm.  Hell  is  drawn 
as  a  sort  of  unholy  mean  between  the  cares  and  toils  of  wealth  on  the  one 
side,  and  sloth  and  idleness  upon  the  other. 

25,  7.  next  to  death,  &c. ; — cp.  Horn.  II.  14.  231.  ZvO'  "Tirvcp  gvp&\ijTO 
KaatyvrjTO}  Oavdroio,  Virg.  Aen.  6.  278,  "  Consanguineus  Leti  Sopor." 

26,  7.  An  uglyfeend; — the  allegorical  form  of  the  penalty  which  awaits\ 
the  man  who  gives  way  to  cdvetousness.     This  is  expressed  in  various  ways  \ 
in  old  legends,  as,  for  example,  in  that  of  the  shooting  figure  in  the  tale  of  I 
Pope  Sylvester  and  the  Enchanted  Chamber,  quoted  by  T.  Warton  in  his/ 
notes  on  this  canto. 

27,  3.  likt  him  best; — notice  this  neuter  usage,  very  common  in  sixteenth- 
century  English.     '  To  like,'  as  an  impers.,  is  now  obsolete ;  a  real  loss  to 
the  language. 

28,  7.  Arachne; — the  spider;    alluding  to  the  cobwebs  so  common  in 

29,  6.  a  faint  shadow  of  uncertain  light ; — a  fine  conception,  drawn  from 
Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  13.  2, 

"Luce  incerta  e  scolorita  e  mesta;" 
or  14.  37, 

"Debile  e  incerta  luce  ivi  si  scerne, 

Qual,  tra'  boschi,  di  Cintia  ancor  non  piena." 
Cp.  also  Virg.  Aen.  6.  268. 

31,  3.  to  them  opened  of  bis  oivn  accord; — Acts  12.  20;    Milton,  Par. 
Lost,  5.  254. 

33,  8.  These  reflections  on  the  superiority  of  the  knight  to  wealth  (also 
of  the  '  gentleman'  to  the  merchant  and  trader)  are  quite  in  the  highest  style 
of  the  time.     It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  these  were  the  days  in  which, 
through  their  mines  &c.,  the  Spaniards  were  essentially  the  'purse-proud' 
race,  and  duly  hated  by  the  English.     Possibly,  too,  a  little  scorn  for  the 
burghers  of  Holland,  who  had  but  lately  shewn  so  little  sense  of  Lord  Leices 
ter's  splendour  and  blood,  may  have  been  working  in  Spenser's  mind.   Upton 
quotes  the  saying  of  Cyrus  to  Croesus.     See  Plut.  Apophthegmata. 

34,  6.  More  light,  &c. ; — so  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  2.  50, — 

"  Come  casca  dal  ciel  falcon  maniero 
Che  levar  veggia  1'anitra  o  '1  Colombo." 

35,  4.  These  forges  are  possibly  taken  from  the  Cvclopean  furnaces  in 
Virg.  Aen.  8.  4i8. 

36,  I.  great  bellows ; — Horn.  II.  18.  468;  Virg.  Aen.  8.  449. 

208  NOTES.  [St. 

37,  8.  be  would  retire  ;  —  Spenser  often  uses  the  imperf.  '  would  do  '  for  the 
pluperf.  '  would  have  done.' 

39,  3.  /  need,  .  .  .  needeth  me  ;  —  note  the  two  uses  of  the  verb  '  to  need,' 
and  see  note  on  Bk.  I.  x.  38. 

',  I.  Disdayne;  —  it  is  not  clear  what  this  personified  quality  does  here, 
unless  Spenser  means  to  indicate  the  pride  which  accompanied  the  acquisition 
>f  wealth.  Disdain  is  far  better  introduced  in  Bk.  VI.  vii. 

6.  the  Titans  race;  —  the  Titans  were  mythological  giants,  sons  and 
daughters  of  Uranus  and  Gaia  (Heaven  and  Earth)  who  usurped  their  father's 
dominion,  and  were  afterwards  quelled  and  banished  to  Tartarus  by  Zeus. 

44,  2.  A  route,  &c.  ;  —  this  is  from  the  Apocalypse,  17.  3. 

46,  2.  a  great  gold  chaine  ;  —  this  is  from  the  aeiprj  xpvffeirj,  the  golden 

chain  let  down  from  heaven  to  earth,  at  which  the  gods  were  to  pull  in  order 

to  see  whether  they  were  strong  enough  to  drag  Zeus  out  of  heaven.     Horn. 

„  II.  8.  19.     Applied  however  in  a  different  sense,  as,.the  chain_bjf_  which,  men 

,  I.  Some  /bought  ;—  Spenser's  reminiscences  of  court  life,  at  least  of 
e  courtiers  round  the  queen,  were  not  altogether  pleasing,  as  we  see  from 
his  lines  in  'Mother  Hubberds  Tale,'  877  sqq.,  where  he  describes  the  shifts 
and  tricks  of  Renard  (Reynold),  and  the  way  in  which  poor  honest  suitors 
are  cozened  and  left  to  wait:  — 

'  So  pitifull  a  thing  is  suters  state, 
Most  miserable  man,  whom  wicked  fate 
Hath  brought  to  court,  to  sue  for  had  ywist, 
That  few  have  found,  and  manie  one  hath  mist. 
Full  little  knowest  thou  that  hast  not  tride 
What  hell  it  is,  in  suing  long  to  bide  : 
To  loose  good  days,  that  might  be  better  spent,'  &c. 
The  whole  passage  is  worth  study,  but  too  long  for  quotation. 
/xX"^49.  Philotime;  —  $iA.oTt/*T),  love  of  honour.     Spenser  here  again  takes  no 
V^heed  to  the  quantjty  of  the  penult.,  making  it  Philotime.        ftv>J..ifo  '«v> 

6.  From  whence  the  gods;  —  this   envy  of  the   gods,  which    thrust 
Ambition  out  of  heaven,  is  not  found  in  classical  mythologies. 

50,  9.  causelesse;  —  here  an  adv.  =  '  without  good  cause.' 
-^"51,4.  a  gardin;  —  the  garden  of  Proserpine,  decked  with  flowers  of 
/  Spenser's  own  just  fancy.  The  grove  of  Persephone  is  mentioned  in  the 
/  Odyssey,  10.  509,  as  being  on  the  outer  borders  of  the  earth,  at  the  entrance 
I  to  the  lower  world.  Claudian,  Rapt.  Proserp.  2,  285,  describes  this  garden 
\a$  beautiful,  Elysian. 

8.  direfull  deadly  blacke  ;  —  see  Dante,  Ipf^c-j^.  - 

52,  i.  cypresse  ;  —  dedicated  to  death  and  funeral.     See  note  on  Book  I 
I.  8.        ..>-  -  • 

2.  trees  of  bitter  gall  ;  —  Gerard's  Herbal,  iii.  ch.  37,  enumerates  many 
gall-trees,  i.  e.  trees  that  (like  the  oak,  &c.)  bear  galls,  astringent,  bitter. 

beben  sad;  —  the  ebony-tree.  This  is  the  Ethiopian  variety,  which 
was  black.  Its  juice  was  thought  to  be  poisonous. 

black  hellebore;  —  described  in  Gerard's  Herbal,  ii.  ch.  377  ;  a  herb 
used  for  the  curing  of  madness  by-  the  ancients.  It  had  white  and  black 

37-54:]  CANTO     VII.  209 

4.  Cold  coloquintida ; — the   colocynth,   KO\OKVV$IS,  or  bitter  gourd. 
Gerard's  Herbal,  ii.  343.  The  epithet '  cold'  has  puzzled  commentators,  as  the 
plant  grows  in  a  hot  climate.     They  have,  however,  discovered  a  German 
gourd,  which  seems  to  satisfy  them.     '  Cold '  probably  refers  simply  to  the 
coldness  of  the  fruit  itself.     A  pumpkin  always  feels  cold  to  the  touch. 

tetra  mad; — this  seems  to  be  '  tetrum  solanum'  or  deadly  night 
shade  :  '  mad'  because  supposed  to  cause  madness. 

5.  Mortall  samnitis ; — no  such  plant  can  be  found,  says  Upton,  in  any 
old  Herbal.     Nor  have  I  found  any  such  in  the  old  books  I  have  looked 
through.     Upton  suggests  with  probability  that  Spenser,  who  was  not  very 
accurate  on  such  points,  confused  samnite  with  sabine,  and  meant  the  'arbor 
sabina,'  or  savine,  which  is  said  in  the  Great  Herball  to  be  "  a  herbe  in 
maner  of  a  tre,  and  is  comyrily  had  in  religious  cloysters,  and  hath  leves  like 
ewe,"  a  dark  gloomy  plant,  with  sundry  deadly  qualities. 

cicuta  bad ; — hemlock,  the  poison  with  which  Athens  '  made  to  dy 
wise  Socrates,'  after  his  trial  for  '  corrupting  youth,  and  dishonouring  the 
gods.'  During  thd  night  in  which  he  drank  the  poison,  he  conversed 
on  the  immortality  of  the  soul  with  his  friends,  as  is  set  forth  at  length  in 
Plato's  Phaedo.  But  Spenser  falls  into  error  when  he  tells  of  his  pouring 
out  his  '  last  philosophy  to  the  fair  Critias.'  Critias  was  one  of  the  thirty 
tyrants,  and  so  far  from  being  at  that  time  a  disciple  of  Socrates,  had  been 
instrumental  in  setting  public  opinion  against  the  philosopher,  had  been 
amongst  the  most  violent  of  the  Thirty,  and  had  perished  in  battle  full  five 
years  before  the  death  of  Socrates.  The  truth  is  that  Spenser  has  mixed  up 
Socrates  with  Theramenes,  who  perished  in  B.  c.  404  in  the  same  way.  He 
owed  his  death  entirely  to  Critias  (who  is  said  to  have  been  formerly  his 
friend),  and  when  he  drank  off  his  hemlock-cup,  he  dashed  the  last  drops  on 
the  ground,  as  though  he  were  playing  the  game  of  cottabus,*  saying,  "  I 
drink  this  to  the  health  of  lovely  Critias."  See  Xen.  Hell.  II.  3.  §  56.  But 
neither  do  the  last  minutes  of  Socrates  nor  those  of  Theramenes  correspond 
in  reality  with  Spenser's  lines.  \. 

54,  I.  golden  apples; — the  garden  of  the  Hesperides,  the  westernmost 
nymphs,  could  not  have  been  far  (in  the  mythological  geography)  from  the 
district  in  which  Homer  places  Proserpine's  gardens  ;  see  above,  note  on  st.    /• 
51.     Spenser  makes  the  golden  apple-tree  of  the  Hesperides  an  off-shoot/7 
from  this  of  Proserpine. 

Hercules  .  .  .  Got  from  great  Atlas  daughters ; — the  eleventh  of 
the  labours  of  Heracles.  Mythology  shifted  the  golden  apples  from  place  to 
place  :  Heracles  found  them  on  mount  Atlas ;  they  were  also  placed  near 
Gyrene,  or  in  the  islands  off  the  western  coast  of  Africa  ;  they  were  also  put 
in  the  northern  land  of  the  Hyperboreans,  guarded  by  the  maidens,  who, 
according  to  one  account,  were  the  daughters  (as  Spenser  has  it)  of  Atlas  and 

8.  And  those,  with  which  th'  Euboean  young  man  wan  Swift  Atalanta; — 
Atalante,  daughter  of  Jasus  of  Arcadia,  was  swiftest  of  mortals ;  she,  desiring 

*  The  Athenian  gallants  used  to  throw  out  the  last  drops  of  their  beakers 
of  wine,  and  drew  auguries  in  love  from  the  plash  with  which  they  fell. 


210  NOTES.  [51.55-64. 

to  be  ever  virgin,  made  it  the  sole  condition  of  marriage  that  her  suitor 
should  run  a  race  with  her ;  if  he  was  beaten,  he  must  die  ;  if  he  outstripped 
her,  he  should  have  her  to  wife.  Meilanion,  one  of  her  suitors  (who  is  no 
where  else  described  as  '  th'  Euboean  young  man '),  had  received  from  Aphro 
dite  three  golden  apples  ;  as  he  ran,  and  she  began  to  distance  him,  he  threw 
the  apples  one  by  one  in  front  of  her.  She  could  not  resist  the  temptation, 
but  stayed  thrice  to  pick  them  up;  meanwhile  Meilanion  outran  her,  and 
won  the  race  and  a  wife.  The  tale  is  told  at  length  in  Ovid,  Metam.  10. 
560  sqq.,  where  the  names  are  different.  The  fortunate  suitor  is  there  Hip- 
pomenes.  Bacon  is  very  fond  of  this  tale,  and  alludes  frequently  to  it : 
Advancement  of  Learning,  I.  II ;  Nov.  Org.  I.  70;  Interpretation  of 
Nature,  cap.  I ;  Filum  Lab.  §  5.  He  works  it  out  as  an  allegory  in  the 
Wisdom  of  the  Ancients,  25. 

55,  2.  Acontius ; — this  is  the  tale  of  Acontius  and  Cydippe,  told  by  Ari- 
staenetus,  I.  IO,  and  by  Ovid,  Heroides,  20,  21.     Acontius  gathered  a  KVOW- 
viov  fj.TJ\ov  (a  citron  or  orange)  in  the  garden  of  Venus,  and  having  written 
on  the  rind  the  words  vf}  rr)v  "ApTepiv  'A.Kovriw,  '  By  Artemis,  I 
will  marry  Acontius,'*  threw  it  in  her  way.     She  took  it  in  her  hand,  read 
out  the  inscription,  and  threw  it  from  her.     But  Artemis  heard  the  vow,  and 
brought  about  the  marriage. 

4.  that  famous  golden  apple ; — th?  ^pple  of  djsrord.  The  story  runs 
that  Eris  (strife  or  discord),  (not  '  false  Ate,' — Spenser  is  again  incorrect), 
being  excluded  from  the  nuptials  of  Peleus  and  Thetis,  appeared,  unasked,  and 
threw  in  the  midst  a  golden  apple  inscribed  rfj  KaXXiarri,  k  To  the  fairest.' 
Forthwith  Here,  Aphrodite,  and  Athena  began  to  strive  for  the  palm  of 
beauty :  and  to  quiet  them,  and  get  them  out  of  the  way  of  the  nuptials, 
Zeus  ordered  Hermes  to  take  them  to  the  shepherd  Paris  on  mount  Ida. 
Hence  Spenser  calls  them  'the  Idaean  ladies.'  Imperious  Here,  to  win  his 
vote,  promised  him  sovereignty  and  wealth ;  Athena,  glory  arid  renown  of 
war ;  fairest  Aphrodite  (Venus)  offered  him  Helen  as  his  wife.  He  adjudged 
the  prize  to  Aphrodite,  got  Helen,  whence  sprang  the  Trojan  war,  '  which 
many  noble  Greekes  and  Trojans  made  to  bleed.' 

56,  8.  river  of  Cocytus ; — Spenser  somewhat  enlarges   upon   this   river. 
The  old  writers  do  not  describe  the  souls  as  wallowing  and  wailing  in  it,  as  a 
penalty.     Cp.  Milton,  Par.  Lost,  2;  579. 

57>  8.  One  cursed  creature ; — Tantalus,  whose  punishment  has  become 
a  proverb  with  us,  as  is  seen  by  our  verb  'to  tantalize.'  According  to 
one  account,  he  cut  up  his  son  Pelops,  boiled  him,  and  set  him  before  the 
gods  as  a  banquet  (probably  a  traditional  account  of  human  sacrifice).  Zeus, 
enraged  at  this,  condemned  him  to  stand  up  to  his  neck  in  a  lake,  whose 
waters  he  could  never  drink,  with  goodly  fruit-branches  just  beyond  his 
reach,  for  ever.  Spenser  puts  it  too  strongly  when  he  writes,  '  Of  whom  high 
Jove  wont  whylome  feasted  bee.'  One  account  makrs  h"^  n  gnf"it  nt -thf* 
table  of  Zeus:  where  h  is  high  ho^nr  (fic  bas  oT'irrH  at  other  tables  of  the 
great)  turned  his~head^d\A.A  yap  /earairtyai  peyav  oXftov  OVK 

*  An  ambiguous  oath — it  might  mean,  '  By  the  hunter-goddess,  I  will 
only  marry  my  dart,'  i.  e.  I  will  continue  unmarried. 

St.  1-5.]  CANTO     VIII. 


Find.  Ol.  I.  87—  j^Kl  heprated  of  the  secrets  of  the  other  world:  whereupon 
Zeus  punished  him?  HiFpunisnment  is  finely  described  by  Homer,  Od.  1  1  . 

8.  sterved  with  hunger;  —  note  the  limitation,  shewing  the  passage  of 
the  word  from  its  sense  in  Chaucer's  time  to  the  modern  use.     See  Glossary, 

Sterve.  Hr*-*""  *    °i>  *"*  "^  *^  **""  JF~~~~t 

61,  2.  another  wretch  ;  —  -Pontius  Pflate.^One  legend  has  condemned  him 
to  dwell  for  ever  on  Mont  Pilate,  near  Lucerne,  in  Switzerland,  in  a  gloomy 
lake  called  the  "  Infernal  Lake,"  whence  "  a  form  is  often  seen  to  emerge 
from  the  gloomy  waters,  and  to  go  through  the  action  of  one  washing  his 

62,  8,  9.  The  whiles  .  .  .  the  whiles  ;  —  shews  the  original  use  of  '  whilst,' 
'  whiles,'  '  while  ;'  i.  e.  '  at  one  time,'  '  at  another  time.' 

64,  9.  did  beguile  the  guyler  of  his  prey;  —  'cheated  the  tempter  of  his 



The  Palmer  finds  Guyon,  lying  in  a  swoon,  and  guarded  by  an  Angel. 
While  be  tries  to  restore  him,  Pyrocles  and  Cymocles  come  up,  guided  by 
Archimago.  Shamelessly  they  begin  to  spoil  the  helpless  Knight;  but 
Prince  Arthur  comes,  and,  after  a  stiff"  combat,  slays  them  both.  Guyon 
awakes,  and  does  homage  to  the  Prince  ;  but  Archimago  and  Alin  flee 
away  dismayed. 

1,  2.  This  is  perhaps  the  best-known  and  most  beautiful  passage  in  the 
Faery  Queene.  Mr.  Keble  quotes  the  second  stanza  in  his  ed.  of  Hooker's 
Works,  E.  P.  I.  4.  I,  on  the  passage,  "Desire  to  resemble  him  in  goodness 
maketh  them  unweariable  and  even  unsatiable  in  their  longing  to  do  by  all 
means  all  manner  good  unto  all  the  creatures  of  God,  but  especially  unto  the 
children  of  men." 

1,  9.  to  serve  to  wicked  men;  —  Latinism,  '  servire  alicui.' 

2,  5.  to  ayd  us  militant;  —  'militant'  here  probably  is  an  epithet  of  the 
angels,  who  '  for  us  fight.' 

3,  7.  He  heard  a  voyce  ;  —  that  of  the  ministering  spirit  watching  over  Sir 

5,  4.  above  his  equall  peares  ;  —  beyond  the  beauty  of  his  equals  in  rank 
and  age. 

6.  Like  Phoebus  face,  &c.  ;  —  so  Tasso's  account  of  the  angel  Gabriel, 
Gier.  Lib.  I.  13  : 

"  Tra  giovane  e  fanciullo  eta  confine 
Prese  ;    ed  orno  di  raggi  il  biondo  crine. 
Ali  bianche  vesti,  ch'han  d'or  le  cime, 
Infaticabilimente  agili  e  preste  : 
Fende  i  venti  e  le  nubi"  .... 
See  also  Milton,  Par.  Lost,  5.  276-285. 

P  2 

212  NOTES.  [St. 

6,  i.  Like  as  Cupido  on  Idaean  bill; — The  Idaeus  Mons  was  a  range  in 
Phrygia,  of  very  considerable  extent.  The  only  connection  between  it  and 
Cupid  is  the  tale  of  Paris,  and  the  award  of  the  apple  of  discord  to  Aphro 

6.  bis  goodly  sisters,  Graces  three; — fault  is  here  again  found  with 
Spenser  for  inventing  mythological  genealogies  at  will.  But  it  is  evident  that 
if  the  Graces  were  not  Cupid's  sisters,  they  ought  to  have  been  so:  and, 
besides,  while,  according  to  the  Odyssey,  Hephaestos  was  the  husband  of 
)  Aphrodite,  according  to  the  Iliad  he  was  the  husband  of  Charis  (or  of  Aglaia, 
one  of  the  Charites).  So  that  the  relation  was  regarded  as  close,  though  the 
,  critics  are  right  in  saying  that  the  Graces  were  not,  classically  speaking,  the 
sisters  of  Cupid.  Their  names  were  Euphrosyne,  Aglaia,  Thalia,  and  they 
were  counted  to  be  the  daughters  of  Zeus. 

3,  6.  Against  bis  foe  and  mine; — violence  and  excess  are  foes  to  the 
Angels  as  well  as  to  men ;  the  Angel  fulfils  this  promise  by  sending  Prince 
Arthur  at  the  last  moment  to  succour  the  Palmer  and  save  the  Knight  from 
Dliation.     Thus  the  tale  moves  equably  on. 

'9,  2.  bis  slow  eyes  ; — the  Palmer  is  always  drawn  as  a  slow-moving  pru- 
_  snce. 

5.  bis  charge  behight; — 'behight'  is  a  part,  agreeing  with  'his  charge.' 
10,  9.  them  combatled; — the  verb  'to  combat'  with  an  objective  case  is 
now  usually  confined  to  arguments,  &c. — '  to  combat  a  proposition,  a  con 
clusion,  a  statement;'  not  a  person.     We  prefer  'to  combat  with  a  person.' 

12,  2.  foule  bespoke; — spake  foully  to  him :  this  form  of  the  adv.  'foul,'  for 
'foully,'  is  much  less  common  now  than  it  was  in  Spenser's  day.    We  retain  it 
in  'right'  as  well  as  'rightly,'  'bright'  and  'brightly';  but  there  is  a  tendency 
(wrongly)  to  think  it  a  vulgarism. 

6,  7.  it  selfe  .  .  .  bis; — note  the  absence  still  of  the  mongrel  genitive 
'its.'    '  Its'  or  '  it's*  seems  first  to  have  appeared'in  print  in  1598,  in  Florio's 
'A  Worlde  of  Wordes,' — "for  its  owne  sake."     Shakespeare  shews  well  the 
state  of  transition;  he  uses  'it'  (  =  our  present  'its')  thirteen  times,  and  'it's  ' 
ten  times.     See  article  on  It  in  Wright's  Bible  Word  Book. 

7.  crest  with  knightly  stile ; — put  upon  his  cowardly  helmet's  crest  the 
stile  or  cognisance  of  a  knight. 

13,  7.  sleeping  fame ; — i.e.  fame  of  one  that  sleeps:  a  Greek  construction. 
See  above,  note  on  v.  36,  on  the  words  '  on  senselesse  ground.' 

14,  7.   The  worth  of  all  men,  &c. ; — this  is  a  travesty  on  Solon's  famous 
dictum  about  '  seeing  the  end'  before  you  decide  as  to  a  man's  happiness. 

G*16,  2.  For  knighthoods  love; — for  the  love  you  have  to  your  condition  as 
:nights.     It  was  clean  contrary  to  the  laws  of  chivalry  to  despoil  the  body  of 
dead  knight,  though  you  might  take  his  shield  as  sign  of  victory. 
17,  5-  An  armed  knight ; — Prince  Arthur,  who  appears  in  each  Book  to 
rtffshew  his  perfect  knighthood  by  succouring  the  good  and  crushing  the  evil. 
i  His  entry  here  is  very  skilfully  managed.     He  conies  in  for  a  very  critical 
/^adventure,  and  one  worthy  of  his  dignity,  while  he  still  leaves  to  Sir  Guyon 
e|the  real  completion  of  the  task  round  which  the  book  centres,  the  taming  of 
1 1  Acrasia.     Similarly,  in  Bk.  I.,  he  delivers  St.  George  from  prison,  and  slays 
1 1  the  giant  Pride ;  but  he  leaves  the  Red  Cross  Knight  to  fight  the  dragon,  and 
['  in  his  turn  to  fulfil  the  main  purpose  of  the  book,  the  triumph  of  truth. 


CA-NTO     VIII.  213 

7.  coverd  shield; — the  shield  which,  uncovered,  could  dazzle  and  con 
found  all  foes  by  its  own  virtue.  See  Bk.  I.  vii.  33.  The  'heben  spear' 
is  also  mentioned  in  st.  37. 

19,3.  that  afford; — to   give_JWr^jhait^worclj ,J;jBi__Mprddurer_  Prince    j 
Arthur's  enchantedsword.'whose  other  name,  in  the  legends,  is  Excalibur  or 
Caliburn.  """See  Tennyson's  Morte  d'Arthur.   Enchanted  swords  are  common 
in  romance.     Even  in  classical  times  we  have  the  Styx-dipped  sword  of 
Turnus,  and  that  of  Hannibal  (Sil.  Ital.  I.  429-432),  which  old  Temisus  had 
made  in  an  enchanted  fire.    Such  were  '  Crocea  Mors,'  Caesar's  fabled  sword, 
and  Belisarda,  Ruggiero's  weapon  (Berni,  Orl.  Innam.  2.  17.  13).    Orlando's 
is  called  Durenda  (Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  41.  83).    Chaucer  tells  us  of  the  sword 
sent  to  Cambuscan.     Cervantes  hits  the  same  point  when  he  makes  Don 
Quixote  tell  Sancho  that  he  must  get  himself  such  a  weapon.    Such  swords'"^ 
would  wound  even  enchantgrs,  and  would  refuse  to  harm  their  own  master^,  jx 
""  2$T  2.  Merlin;— in  the   history"  cTTnnce  Arthur  Merlin  watches  ovef\ 
the  Prince,  and,  by  means  of  his  enchantments,  arms  him  with  miraculou^ 

5.  The  metall,  &c. ; — this  recipe  for  the  forging  of  an  enchanted 
sword  is  chiefly  classical.  Medaewart  is  not  the  mongrel  medica  (sainfoin), 
and  wart,  but  mede  wart,  meadow-plant.  This  mixing  of  the  metal  with 
Medaewart  is  the  first  step ;  the  second  is  that  it  was  wrought  in  Aetna's 
flames,  i.  e.  at  Vulcan's  forge,  under  the  roots  of  Aetna,  at  which  Aeneas' 
arms  are  forged  at  his  mother's  request.  The  last  step  is  the  dipping  seven 
times  in  Styx,  even  as  the  sword  of  Turnus  was  dipped  (Virg.  Aen.,  12.  91). 

21,  6.  Morddure; — '  the  hard-biter.'     Fr.  mordre,  dur.~*} 

24,  3.  fatall  date; — see  note  on  Bk.  I.  ix.  45. 

3,  4.  Or  ...  Or; — now  more  usually  'whether  .  .  .  or,'  or  omitting 
whether,  '  did  he,  or  did  he  not.' 

25,  5.  whose  honourable  sight; — either  '  whose  honourable  appearance,'  or 
a  classical  construction  =  '  the  sight  of  whom,  an  honourable  man,'  as  opposed 
to  the  two  caitiffs. 

26,  5.  oddes,  &c. ; — when  in  one's  favour,  of  course. 

27,  7.  Not  to  debate; — some  such  ellipsis  as  '  [I  do]  not  [come,  or  intend] 
to  fight.'     I  do  not  intend  to  make  a  fighting  ground  of  a  challenge  of  your 
right  to  do  this.     We  will  waive  that  point,  and  not  consider  what  your 
'just  wrongs'  are. 

28,  4.  from  to  wreake ; — the  infin.  with  prep.  '  from,'  corresponding  to  the 
phrase  '/or  to  do.'     See  note  on  xii.  26. 

29,  3.  nephewes  sonne; — i.e.  great-grandson.     A  rendering  of  the  phrase 
in  the  second  commandment,  "  visiting  the  iniquity  of  the  fathers  upon  the 
children,  unto  the  third  and  fourth  generation  of  them  that  hate  me."   Exod. 
20.  5. 

30,  2.  These  villain  phrases  of  Pyrocles  contrast  strongly  with  and  heighten  J 
the  effect  of  Prince  Arthur's  gentle  breeding.  •**—*' 

4.  Termagaunt ; — this  oath  occurs  again  in  Bk.  VI.  vii.  47,  '  Often 
times  by  Termagant  and  Mahound  swore.'     In  the  thirty-third  stanza  we 
find  Cymocles  swearing  by  Mahoune.     It  is  said  that  the  Christians  in  the 
Middle  Ages  thought  (among  endless  misconceptions)  that  Termagaunt  was 
a  Saracenic  deity.     The  origin  of  the  term  is  unknown.     '  Ter  magnus,'  a 

214  NOTES.  [St.  31-56. 

Latin  Trismegistus,  is  suggested,  but  is  mere  conjecture.  Others  propose  the 
A.  S.  tyr,  used  as  a  prefix,  denoting  '  very,'  '  exceedingly,'  and  magan,  main 
strength,  and  so  make  it  =  the  very  powerful  one.  The  name  Trivigant 
seems  the  most  probable  origin  of  the  word.  It  is  possible  that  the  latter 
part  of  the  word,  -magaunt,  may  conceal  the  name  of  Mahound,  or 
Mahomet ;  if  so,  it  is  simply  the  invocation  of  the  Prophet.  The  word 
has  now  come  to  mean  only  a  scolding  woman.  Curmudgeon  is  probably 
the  same  word  ;  the  male  grumbler,  answering  to  the  female  shrew.  The 
subject  is  discussed  at  greater  length  in  the  Glossary,  Termagaunt. 
/  31,  7.  The  law  of  armes; — another  of  the  many  examples  of  the  language 
/  of  chivalry  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

35,  3.  bis  ground  to  traverse  wide ; — i.  e.  to  shift  his  ground  repeatedly, 
so  as  to  escape  their  onslaughts,  which  he  was  not  sufficiently  armed  to 

9.  Them ; — i.  e.  the  '  double  battry,'  here  taken  as  though  it  were  a 
plural,  and  = '  two  battering  rams.' 

her  bulwarke; — note  how  many  substantives  still  have  genders — so 
'  tower'  here  is  feminine,  influenced  by  Lat.  turris  or  Fr.  tour,  both  of  which 
are  feminine. 

37,  9.  Loe  where  the  dreadfull  Death,  &c. ; — possibly  suggested,  as  some 
have  thought,  by  the  pictures  in  the  Dances  of  Death,  in  which  the  figure  of 
Death  sometimes  is  drawn  standing  behind  his  victim. 

39,  9.  bimforst  his  foot  revoke; — Latin  phrase,  'revocare  pedem.' 

40,  4.  so  wisely  as  he  ought; — 'he'  is  the  right  hand.     Ed.  1590  reads 
4  so  well  as  he  it  ought,'  but  Spenser  seems  to  have  thought  the  phrase 

41,  5.  twise  so  many  fold; — simply  =  twice  so  many  (as  to  Pyrocles). 

42,  I.  As  salvage  bull ; — this  illustration  is  drawn  from  the  national  bull- 
baitings.    The  opening  of  it  is  like  the  opening  of  a  passage  in  Ariosto,  Orl. 
Fur.  ii.  42,  "  Come  toro  selvatico,  ch'al  corno,"  &c. 

44,  8.  bit  no  more; — ed.  1590  reads  '  bit  not  thore,'  where  '  thore'  must 
be  =  thorow,  through. 

46,  9.  lenger  day ; — we  say  '  a  day  longer.' 

47,  9.   Tho  when  this  breatblesse  woxe,  that,  &c. ; — 'this'  is  Pyrocles, 
'  that,'  Prince  Arthur. 

48,  8.  prince  Arthur; — edd.  1590,  1596  read  'Sir  Guyon,'  which  is  an 
obvious  oversight.     A  cotemporary  marginal  MS.  note  in  ed.  1590  corrects 
to  '  Prince  Arthur,'  and  all  the  later  editions  have  accepted  the  correction. 

49,  3.  the  dint  deceived; — i.  e.  the  blow  deceived  him,  by  failing  to  make 
the  cut  it  ought  to  have  made. 

51,  i.  great  mind; — magnanimity — the  special  quality  of  heroes,  and, 
above  all,  of  Spenser's  Arthur  the  '  magnificent.' 

5.  thy  dismall  day; — thy  day  of  evil  fate.  So  Shakespeare,  Macbeth, 
3.  5,  couples  dismal  with  fatal : 

"  This  night  I  '11  spend 
Unto  a  dismall  and  a  fatal  end." 
See  Gloss.  Dismall. 

53,  2.  her  sencelessfoe ;— '  her  senseless-making  foe,'  the  swoon. 

54,  6.  to  discourse  the  whole  debate; — '  to  tell  him  the  whole  battle.' 

St.   I,  2.] 

CANTO    IX.  215 

55,  4.  patrone  of  Us  life;— the  Latin  'vitae  patronus." 

56,  I.  the  Infant; — Prince  Arthur  is  again  so  called  in  Bk.  VI.  viii.  25. 
"  In  our  early  poetry  applied  to  the  son  of  a  king." — Richardson.     But  he 
gives  no  instance  of  this  except  from  Spenser.      It  is  most  probable  that 
Spenser  adopted  the  term  from  the^  Infant  of  Spain' — a  title  which  must 
have  been  familiar  in  his  day. 

what  need ; — note  the  ellipsis  here. 

6.  /  have  done  my  dew  in  place ; — '  have  done  what  was  my  duty  in 
this  place,'  or, '  as  I  found  it  to  my  hand/  The  English  conception  of  Duty 
as  the  ruling  principle  of  a  man's  acts.  ^  So  end  the  violent  passions.  They 
have  made  a  long  struggle  for  mastery,  but  are  now  finally  brought  under. 
To  \vtrrjpbv  is  conquered ;  Temperance  has  still  to  achieve  the  harder 
victory — over  TO  f)8i>,  the  seductions  of  pleasure. 


Prince  Arthur  and  Sir  Guyon  go  on  their  way  till  nightfall,  when  they  espy 
the  ifouse  of  Temperance,  abode  of  Alma,  sore  bested  by  many  villains, 
who  also  fall  on  the  Knights,  but  are  scattered.  Alma  opens  her  gates  to 
them,  and  shews  them  all  the  marvels  of  the  place. 

Argument  1,  4.  flight; — ed.  1596  reads '  fight.' 

This  Canto  contains  a  special  allegory  within  the  main  one.  It  shadows 
out,  with  many  quaint  fancies,  the  soul  (Alma,  anima)  dwelling  in  the  body 
(the  House  of  Temperance).  Body  and  soul  are  assaulted  by  many  foes, 
who  strive  to  occupy  the  senses,  and  so  to  get  footing  within,  and  to  lead 
captive  the  soul.  •JThe  subject  became  a  favourite  one  with  religious  writers, 
and  others.  Fletcher's  Purple  Island  is  an  allegorical  poem  on  man ; 
Bunyan's  Mansoul  is  a  spiritualised,  or  perhaps  rather  a  Puritanised,  form  of 
the  struggle  here  pourtrayed/)  The  enemies  here  drawn  are  moral  (according 
to  Spenser's  general  conception  of  this  Book)  :  in  Bunyan  they  are  spiritual. 
The  soul  displays  her  dwelling-place  to  her  visitors.  The  frame  of  it, 
described  in  stanzas  21-32,  gives  us  the  'dwelling  of  clay'  (st.  21),  the 
mystical  harmonies  of  body  and  soul  (st.  22),  the  mouth  (st.  23),  the  lips 
(st.  24),  the  tongue  (st.  25),  the  teeth  (st.  26),  then  eating  and  appetite 
(st.  27,  28),  then  the  stomach,  lungs,  digestion,  &c.  (st.  29-32).  After  that 
come  various  moral  qualities,  seated  in  the  breast  (st.  33-43),  especially 
Prays-desire,  or  love  of  approbation  (st.  36-39),  and  Modesty  (st.  40-43). 
Then  the  mental  qualities.  The  head,  their  seat,  is  first  described,  with  the 
hair  and  eyes  (st.  45,  46).  Lastly  are  pourtrayed  the  three  dwellers  in  the 
\p»ir\,  Imagination  (st.  49-52),  Judgment  (st.  53),  and  Memory  (st.  54-58). 
Cj..  The  subject  is  formally  introduced  in  the  first  stanza. 

1,  9.  in  this  place; — i.e.  in  Book  II,  and  especially  in  Canto  viii,  we  have 
'  both  one  and  other '  in  the  dignity  and  chivalric  purity  of  Arthur  and 
Guyon,  and  in  the  ungoverned  baseness  of  Pyrocles  and  Cymocles. 


2l6  NOTES.  [St. 

2,  9.  the  substance  dead ; — i.  e.  it  is  only  a  picture  of  the  living  lady. 

3-5.  The  praises  of  Queen  Elizabeth ;  they  run  through  the  usual  scale, 
but  none  the  less  express  the  genuine  feeling  of  the  time.  Men  were  willing 
to  make  of  her  a  kind  of  Protestant  Madonna,  and  to  dedicate  themselves 
to  her  service;  that  service  being  also  felt  to  be  the  service  of  truth  and 

6,  6.  mongst  knights  of  Maydenhed ; — the  Order  of  the  Garter  may  here 
be  signified  :    but  Spenser  probably  only  meant  that  all  who  entered  the 
Queen's  service  became  champions  of  her  purity. 

9.  Arthegall; — the  hero  of  Book  V,  'the  legend  of  Artegall  or  of 
Justice.'  Under  his  person  is  probably  intended  Arthur,  Lord  Grey  of 
Wilton,  Lord  Deputy  of  Ireland,  Spenser's  honoured  patron.  «. 

Sophy; — would  doubtless  have  been  the  hero  of  one  of  the  later 
unwrittenbooks.  We  may  conjecture  from  the  name  that  the  book  would 
have  treated  of  the  struggle  between  Wisdom  (ao^ta)  and  Folly. 

7,  I.  Certes,  &c. ;  —  there  are   two   movements   throughout  the  Faery 
Queene :  ( I )  that  of  the  several  knights,  the  servants  of  the  Queen,  fulfilling 
each  his  own  task  of  resisting  some  force  of  malignant  evil ;  and  (2)  that  of 
Prince  Arthur,  who  is  gradually  and  very  skilfully  displayed  before  us,  as  the 
Briton  Prince  in  search  for  Gloriana,  whom  he  had  seen  in  a  vision  only. 
This  latter  movement  forms  the  under-current,  but  was  doubtless  designed  to 
become  more  and  more  clear  as  the  action  of  the  poem  proceeded. 

5.  Now  hath  the  sunne  with  bis  lamp-burning  light 

Walkt  round  about  the  world; — 
Ed.  1590  reads 

'  Seven  times  the  sunne  with  his  lamp-burning  light 

Hath  walkte  about  the  world;' 

shewing  that  Spenser  at  first  meant  to  describe  Prince  Arthur  as  having 
already  spent  seven  years  in  his  quest  of  the  Faery  Queene  ;  but  that  on 
second  thoughts  he  considered  that  too  long  a  space,  and  altered  it  to-  one 

8,  I.  Fortune,  the  foe,  &c. ; — cp.  Seneca,  Here.  Fur.  523  :  "O  Fortuna, 
viris  invida  fortibus." — Upton.     There  is  probably  an  allusion  to  the  popular 
old  ballad  of  "  Fortune,  my  foe,"  of  which  the  first  verse  has  been  preserved 
by  Malone,  beginning 

"  Fortune,  my  foe,  why  dost  thou  frown  on  me, 
And  will  my  fortune  never  better  be?" 

9,  I.  weete ; — edd.  1590,  1596  read  '  wote,'  but  the  cotemporary  marginal 
corrector  of  ed.  1590  writes  '  weete/  which  is  required  by  the  rhyme. 

13,  2 \_-_A  thousand  villeins ; — these  are  the  evil  desires,  vices,  temptations, 
which  beset  man's  rrio~ral  nature.  There  is  also  a  bye  allusion  to  the  out 
breaks  of  the  '  villenage,'  jacquerie,  &c.,  who  with  rude  assault,  and  weapons 
of  the  field,  attacked  the  feudal  castles ;  possibly  also  a  slight  allusion  to  the 
wild  Irish,  of  whom  Spenser  was  presently  to  have  such  sad  experiences. 
As,  in  Spenser's  mind,  the  castle  and  its  lord  represented  knowledge,  virtue, 
civilisation,  the  part  of  the  gentleman ;  so  the  rude  clown  and  serfs  repre 
sented  ignorance,  brutality,  the  ungentle  character.  We  must  not  forget  that 
Spenser  despised  the  '  raskall  rout,'  and  had  no  sympathy  for  any  but  the 


CANTO    IX.  21 7 

7.  staves  infier  warmed; — cp.  Stat.  Theb.  4.  64: 

"pars  robora  flammis 
Indurata  diu." 

15,  3.  their  cruell  capitaine; — Maleger,   afterwards    described   in   c.  xi. 
20-22.     He  is  the  incarnation  of  evil  and  malignant  passions,  lord  of 

5.  overrun  to  tread  them,  &c. ; — a  Latin  use,  "  superatos  ad  terram 

6.  bright-burning  blade ; — the  metaphor  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
substantive  '  brand,'  because  a  sword  flashes  like  a  blazing  torch. 

16,  I.  a  swarm  of  gnats; — cp.  Horn.  II.  2.  469  : 

rjvre  fjiviacav  adivdow  ZOvea  iro\\ci, 
ai  Tf  Kara  araQ^bv  iroip-vrjiov  rjXaOKovai 
&pr)  \v  eiapivrj  .  .  . 
'and  'their  clustring  army'  from  II.  2.  89: 

/I  ^  >         «-V  f 

pOTpVOOV    0€    irfTOVTCLt. 

2.  thefennes  of  Allan; — an  Irish  experience  of  the  poet.  The  "Bog 
of  Allen"  is  the  general  name  for  a  set  of  turbaries,  spread  over  a  wide  sur 
face,  across  the  centre  of  the  country,  from  Wicklow  Head  to  Galway,  and 
from  Howth  Head  to  Sligo,  all  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Shannon. 

17,  9.  as  befell; — '  as  was  proper  and  seemly,'  answering  to  the  German 
phrase^'  Wie  befohlen  ist."   ex-uu   O^L   >-*^Lj&~&  ~U    ftfu*. 

19,  fji  twofaire  damsels; — the  commentators  suggest  Plato's  kitiOvp.rjriKT) 
an^lnPtf/zTjTt/o),  under  proper  governance.  But  this  is  doubtful. 

21,  5.  of  thing  like,  &c. ; — the  'clay*  of  which  man  is  made.     Gen.  2.  *]> 
"  The  Lord  God  formed  man  of  the  dust  of  the  ground." 

that  Aegyptian  slime; — here  Spenser  wrote  Aegyptian  for  Assyrian. v°' 
Herodotus  speaks  of  the  bitumen  or  '  slime '  found  in  the  Cissian  territory,     q** 
and  of  that  used  for  the  walls  of  Babylon  (Hdt.  I.  179). 

6.  Whereof  King  Nine,  &c. ; — Ninus,  the  eponymic  and  mythical 
founder  of  Nineveh,  is  nowhere  spoken  of  as  being  the  builder  of '  Babell 
towre,'  unless  he  be  regarded  as  the  same  with  Nimrod,  the  Scriptural  founder 
of  Babylon. 

22,  I.  The  frame  thereof,  &c. ; — this  quasi-Platonic  passage  has  much 
exercised  the  ingenuity  of  expounders.      Sir  Kenelm  Digby  made  it  the  sub 
ject  of  a  long  letter  addressed — it  is  a  curious  illustration  of  the  age — to  a 
sea-captain,  "  To  Sir  E.  Esterling  (or  Stradling),  aboard  his  ship." 

He  holds  that  the  circle  is  man's  soul ;  the  triangle,  his  body;  the  quadrate, 
the  four  principal  'humours'  of  man's  body,  viz.  choler,  blood,  phlegm, 
melancholy ;  the  seven,  the  seven  planets ;  the  nine,  the  nine  orders  of 
angels,  which  have  to  do  with  man's  soul. 

There  are  those  who  less  eruditely  imagine  the  circle  to  be  man's  head  ; 
the  triangle,  to  be  formed  by  his  legs  and  the  ground  :  the  square,  "  'twixt 
them  both,"  to  be  the  trunk  of  the  body,  of  a  rough  oblong  form.  But  this 
gives  no  explanation  of  the  three  last  lines  of  the  stanza. 

The  true  explanation  seems  to  be  that  (i)  the  circle  is  (as  Sir  Kenelm 
says)  the  soul,  the  most  perfect  figure,  and,  according  to  Pythagorean 
language,  of  the  masculine  gender ;  (2)  the  triangle,  also,  is  the  body,  the 
least  perfect  figure,  as  including  least  amount  of  space,  and  so  fulfilling  worst 

2l8  NOTES.  [St. 

the  special  function  of  a  figure ;  and  also  feminine  by  reason  of  its  feeble 
ness  and  inferiority.  (3)  But  the  quadrate,  betwixt  them  both,  is  the 
ancient  TfrpaKrvs  or  fountain  of  perpetual  nature :  a  sacred  quaternion,  em 
bracing  all  the  members,  elements,  powers,  and  energies  of  man,  as  Hierocles 
says,  airXSjs  TO.  OTTO,  -navra  f]  Tfrpas  avcdrjaaTO.  (Hierocl.  p.  169.  Cp.  also 
Cic.  de  Nat.  Deor.  2.  33.)  In  the  proportion  by  '  seven  and  nine'  (4) '  seven' 
relates  to  the  seven  planets,  whose  influences  on  man's  life  and  nature  are 
mysteriously  great :  see  the  treatment  of  the  subject  in  the  first  book  of  the 
Astronomica  of  Manilius.  The  subject  is  also  handled  in  the  same  way  in 
Cicero's  Somnium  Scipionis  (from  the  sixth  book  of  his  De  Republica.  Ma- 
crob.  1 .  6.)  It  forms  a  usual  part  of  the  speculations  of  the  Neo-Platonists 
as  to  the  relations  between  mind  and  matter.  (5)  '  Nine,'  '  the  circle  set 
in  heaven's  place,'  is  obviously  the  ninth  orb  of  the  heavenly  sphere,  en 
folding  all  things,  the  "  Summus  ipse  Deus."  And  (6)  the  whole  '  compacted 
made  a  goodly  Dyapase,'  i.  e.  the  Sid  -naawv,  the  harmony  of  all  the  mem 
bers  and  elements  together  was  goodly.  In  other  words,  Man,  the  microcosm, 
like  the  great  world,  and  acted  on  by  that  great  world,  is,  according  to  this 
philosophy,  that  "  noblest  work  of  God,"  as  we  have  it  in  Dryden's  Ode  on 
.  St.  Cecilia's  Day : 

"  The  Diapason  closing  full  in  man." 

Cp.  also  Pliny,  Nat.  Hist.  2.22,  where,  speaking  of  the  Pythagorean  system, 
he  sums  it  up  thus:  "Ita  septem  tonos  effici,  quam  diapason  harmoniam 
vocant,  hoc  est  universitatem  concentus." 

23,  2.   The  one; — sc.  the  mouth.     With  this  fanciful  description  of  the 
parts  of  man's  body  cp.  Eccles.  12.  4.     Upton  also  quotes  Plato,  Timaeus, 
I.  4,  and  Cic.  de  Nat.  Deor.  2.  54,  &c. 

24,  I.  the  porch; — the  lips. 

3.  Marble  far  from  Ireland  brought; — Todd  says,  "Near  Kilcolman 
(the  poet's  seat)  there  was,  it  seems,  a  red  and  grey  marble  quarry:  see 
Smith's  Hist,  of  Cork,  I.  343." 

4.  a  wandring  vine  ; — probably  the  beard  and  moustache. 

6.  afayre  portcullis ; — the  nose. 

25,  I.  a  porter ; — the  tongue,  kept  in  due  restraint. 

26,  2.  Twise  sixteen  warders; — the  teeth  on  the  upper  and  lower  jaw. 

C27,  8.  bight  Diet; — the  proper  requirement  of  man's  diet,  &c.,  and  the 
connection  of  health  with  moral  life,  were  much  pondered  in  Spenser's  time. 
We  see  this  in  Bacon,  who,  a  few  years  later,  busied  himself  much  with 
speculations  and  experiments  on  different  kinds  of  food,  &c. 
/"      28,  2.  a  jolly  yeoman; — appetite,  vigorous  and  healthy,  like  a  yeoman 
(^   fresh  from  his  fields. 

29,  I.  It  was  a  vaut,  &c. ; — the  kitchens  of  the  time  were  often  large 
vaulted  rooms,  built  for  a  great  consumption  of  provender. 

3.  one  great   chimney; — as  may  still   be   seen   in   the  Glastonbury 

5.  a  caudron  ; — the  digestive  process.     The  Hindus  hold  that  one  of 
the  functions  of  fire  is  digestion.     One  Hindu  writer  bids  the  reader  press  his 
hand  on  his  ears,  and  he  will  then  hear  the  inward  roaring  of  this  fire ! 

7.  flaming  Mongiball; — Upton  quotes  L'Adone  del  Marino,  "  Fumar 
Etna  si  vede  e  Mongibello,"  adding  that  'or'  here  is  not  a  disjunctive  particle, 


CANTO    IX.  219 

but  that  Etna  and  Montgibel  are  two  names  for  the  same  mountain.     Mont- 
gibel  is  the  Arabic  name  for  Etna ;  jebel  being  Arabic  for  a  mountain. 
30,  4.  a  huge  great  paire  of  bellowes ; — the  lungs. 

33,  6.  a  goodly  parlour ; — the  heart,  abode  of  the  affections  and  moral 

34,  2.  A   lovely   bevy  of  fair e  ladies; — the  feelings,  tastes,  &c.,  of  the 
heart — music,  laughter  and  joy,  flattery,  envy,  &c. 

35,  8.  another  in  her  teeth  did  gnaw  a  rush ; — a  curious  picture  of  man 
ners,  intended  to  express  anger  or  moroseness.      In   a   letter  to  Thomas 
a  Becket  (Giles,  Patres  Eccl.  Angl.  vol.  39,  p.  260)  we  find  a  curious  de 
scription  of  the  passion  of  Henry  II.     "  Rex  itaque  solito  furore  succensus 
pileum  de  capite  projecit,  .  .  .  stratum  sericum  quod  erat  supra  lectum  manu 
propria  removit,  et,  quasi  in  sterquilinio  sedens,  coepit  straminis  masticare 
festucas" — began  to  gnaw  the  rushes  of  the  floor. 

36,  5.  themselves  to  court; — to  act  in  courteous  style,  according  to  the 
proper  and  polite  ways  of  knights  at  court. 

8.  sad  and  solemne ; — Prays-desire,  or  love  of  the  approbation  of  the 
good,  is  dressed  in  purple  and  gold,  imperially,  and  is  staid  and  solemn,  as 
one  who  has  noble  aims  and  high  desires. 

37,  3-  a  poplar  branch ; — Spenser  is  still  thinking  of  the  tree  sacred  ^td 
Hercules,  and  therefore  symbolical  of  high  adventure.      Possibly  he  also 
thought  that  victors  in  the  games  were  crowned  with  it. 

38,  9.  sought  one; — i.e.  the  Faery  Queene,  in  whose  presence  he  desired 
to  be  honoured.     See  also  stanza  7  of  this  canto. 

40,  i.   The  whiles,  &c. ; — Sir  Guyon's  characteristic  is  moderation  and 
jnodesty.     The  strong  and  true  knight  is  also  bashful  and  shy." 

7.  the  bird,  &c. ; — the  owl ;  symbolical  here  of  a  retiring  disposition. 
It  does  not  appear  from  mythology  how  Pan  maltreated  her.     There  is  a 
story  that  Pan  had  a  daughter  named  lynx,  who  was  afterwards  changed  by 
Juno  into  a  bird.     But  I  know  of  no  tale  of  Pan  and  the  owl. 

41,  7.  castory; — edd.  1590,  1596  read  'lastery';    but  it  is  corrected  to 
'  castory'  in  'Faults  Escaped'  at  end  of  ed.  1590. 

44,  7.  other  wondrous  frame ; — the  head. 

8.  a  stately  turret; — so  Cicero,  Tusc.  Quaest.  I.  10,  says,  "  in  capite, 
sicut  in  arce,  posuit." 

9.  ten  steps  of  alablaster; — the  neck;   though  why  'ten  steps'  does 
not  appear. 

45,  6.  antique  Cadmus  whylome  built; — the  acropolis  of  Thebes,  called 
Cadmeia,  named  after  Cadmus  the  Phoenician  (or  Egyptian). 

7.  which  Alexander  did  confound; — in  the  year  335  B.C.  Alexander 
marched  upon  Thebes,  which  had  a  second  time  revolted  since  Philip's  death, 
took  the  city  by  assault,  and  then  razed  it  to  the  ground,  with  the  exception 
of  the  house  of  Pindar. 

8.  though  richly  guilt ; — these  words  have  been  pointed  out  as  an  in 
stance  of  an  unnecessary  filling  up  of  a  line.     But  they  are  quite  defensible 
when  we  recollect  that  Oriental  cities  sometimes  had  coloured  walls,  and  even 
gilded  ones.     So  Herodotus,  I.  98,  describes  the  seven  walls  of  Ecbatana  as 
all  having  coloured  battlements ;  the  sixth  silvered,  the  seventh  gilt. 

9.  From  which  young  Hectors  bloud,  &c. ; — referring  probably  to  the 

220  NOTES.  [St. 

fate  of  young  Astyanax,  Hector's  son,  whom  the  Greeks  hurled  headlong 
from  the  battlements  of  Ilium  (Ov.  Met.  13.  415). 

46,  I.  The  roofe; — the  upper  part  of  the  skull. 

2.  decltt  with  flowres  and  berbars; — hair  and  eyebrows. 

3.  set -in  watches  stead; — '  in  the  place  of  watchmen:'  so  Cic.  de  Nat. 
Deor.  2.  56,  has  "Oculi,  tanquam  speculatores." 

47,  4.  likest  is,  &c. ; — allusion  to  Gen.  i.  27. 
£*,  three  honorable  sages ; — these  are : 

yT       (i)  Imagination,  looking  on  to  the  future;  youthful,  poetical. 

(2)  Judgment,  deciding  calmly  on  the  present ;    manly,  philo 
V        (3)  Memory,  looking  back  to  the  past ;  aged,  historical. 

48,  r.  Not  he,  whom,  &c. ; — Socrates,  whom  the  Delphic  Oracle  declared 
to  be  the  wisest  man  alive  (Plat.  Apol.  pp.  21,  25).     This,  he  says,  was  be- 

,  cause  he  knew  how  ignorant  he  was. 

4.  that  sage  Pylian  syre;  —  Pylian  Nestor,  rpiyepcav;    he  had  ruled 
over  three  generations  of  men,  and  was  appealed  to  throughout  the  siege  of 
Troy  as  an  oracle.     His  opinion  was  equal  to  that  of  the  gods.     His  medi 
ation  reconciled  Agamemnon  and  Achilles,  and  his  advice  helped  greatly 
towards  the  fall  of  Ilium. 

49,  7.  quiche  prejudize ; — the  Imagination  does  not  really  judge,  it  pre 
judges  ;  moving  too  fast  for  the  Reason. 

50,  3.  Infinite  shapes,  &c. ; — the  creations  of  the  imagination. 

51,  i.  flyes  Which  buzzed ; — the  idle  thoughts  and  fantasies  of  imagina 

8.  visions; — note  that  this  word  is  a  trisyllable,  just  as  in  the  line 
before  it  opinions  is  a  four-syllabled  word  ;  the  Latin  or  French  pronunciation 
still  prevailing.     So  also  in  the  next  stanza  we  have  melancholy,  which 
shews  the  same  influence. 

52,  2.  Phantasies; — (pavraffrr^s,  from  <pa.VTa.o~ia.,  the  'fantastic*  or  imagi- 
(     native-faculty.     Note  the  melancholy  side  of  the  quality  :  what  we  call  the 

v_^_$adness\>f  youth.' 

\  %:with  ill  disposed  skyes ; — with  the  stars  arranged  unluckily :  so  = 

'  borne  under  evill  starre.' 

9.  When  oblique  Saturn  sate  in  th'  house  of  agony es ; — 'oblique  Sa- 
turne*  was  of  all  planets  the  most  malign;  Propertius,  El.  4.  I.  86: 

"  Est  grave  Saturni  sidus  in  omne  caput." 
He  was  considered  cold  and  blighting:  Virg.  Geor.  i.  336  : 

"  Frigida  Saturni Stella  ;" 

and  Lucan  I.  651  : 

"  summo  si  frigida  caelo 

Stella  nocens  nigros  Saturni  accenderet  ignes." 

So  Chaucer,  Knightes  Tale,  1.  1585,  has  "  pale  Saturnes  the  colde."     Saturn 
goes  on  to  say, 

"  Myn  is  the  drenchyng  in  the  see  so  wan ; 
Myn  is  the  prisoun  in  the  derke  cote ; 
Myn  is  the  stranglyng  and  hangyng  by  the  throte ; 
The  murmur,  and  the  cherles  rebellyng ; 
The  groynyng,  and  the  pryve  enpoysonyng, 


CANTO    IX.  221 

I  do  vengance  and  pleyn  correctioun, 

Whyles  I  dwelle  in  the  signe  of  the  lyoun. 

Myn  is  the  men  of  the  hihe  halles, 

The  fallyng  of  the  toures  and  the  walles 

Upon  the  mynour  or  the  carpenter. 

I  slowh  Sampsoun  in  schakyng  the  piler. 

And  myne  ben  the  maladies  colde, 

The  derke  tresoun,  and  the  castes  olde; 

Myn  lokyng  is  the  fadir  of  pestilens." 

(Knightes  Tale,  1598-1611.) 

the  house  of  agonyes; — in  astrology  '  house'  is  the  re^fvos  ovpavov, 
the  district  of  the  heavens  in  which  a  planet  rises.  '  Agonyes '  refers  to  the 
belief  (alluded  to  in  the  Knightes  Tale,  1592,  1593)  that  under  Saturn  strife 
and  contention  (cfyoh/es)  largely  prevail.  So  the  almanack  called  "the 
Compost  of  Ptholomeus"  tells  us  that  "the  children  of  the  sayd  Saturne 
shall  be  great  jangeleres  and  chyders  .  .  .  they  will  never  forgyve  tyll  they  be 
revenged  of  theyr  quarell ;"  and  agayn,  "  When  he  doth  reygne,  there  is 
moche  debate."  (Quoted  by  Dr.  Morris,  on  Chaucer's  Knightes  Tale, 

1-  1593-) 

53,  2.  second  roome; — the  seat  of  the  Judgment  (or  Reason);  all  civil,  J 
political,  or  philosophical  learning. 

7.  decretals; — Spenser  probably  only   means  'decrees;'    he  would 
hardly  allude  to  the  Papal  decretals;   unless  he  means  by  'lawes,'  'judge 
ments,'  '  decretals'  to  signify  all  law  civil  or  canon. 

54,  9.  hindmost  roome ; — seat  of  memory. 

56,  8.  The  warres  .  .  .  of  King  Nine ; — these  wars  exist  only  in  imagi 

9.  old  Assaracus; — mythical  king  of  Troy,  son  of  Tros,  father  of 
Capys,  great-grandfather  of  Aeneas. 

Inachus  divine; — a  river  god,  and  also  king  of  Argos.  He  is 
called  son  of  Oceanus  and  Tethys,  and  gives  his  name  to  the  river 

58,  3.  .B«//or='but  for  that,'  'but  inasmuch  as.' 

8.  Anamnestes; — the  Reminder,  dvafJiv^ffTrjs,  from  dvafJLvrjffis,  the   N 
faculty  by  which  the  lost  links  of  memory  are  recovered.     Ingenious  critics 
suggest  that  Memory  ought  to  need  no  helper,  and  propose  to  read  Anagno- 
stes,  or  the  '  Reader';  alleging  that  ancient  libraries  used  to  have  a  '  Lector' 
or  dvayvajffTrjs  appointed  as  an  official  in  them.    But  Spenser  knew  well  that 
aged  Memory  always  does  need  a  'reminder,'  to  bring  out  hidden  stores  of 

9.  Enmnestes; — of  good  memory,   evpvriaTTjs,   of  'infinite   remem-  ,- 

59,  6.  Briton  Moniments ; — the  "  Monumenta  Britannica,"  or  a  fabulous 
chronicle  of  the  earliest  times.      Spenser  made  large  use  of  Holinshed's 
Chronicle,  as  well  as  of  Hardyng's. 

9.  one  mans  governments; — this  does  not  relate,  as  might  seem  at 
first  sight,  to  the  so-called  Heptarchy,  and  its  end ;  but  to  the  legendary 
reduction  of  all  the  petty  kingdoms  of  Britain  under  the  rule  of  King 

222  NOTES.  [St. 

60,  2.  Antiquitie  of  Faerie  lond; — an  imaginary  chronicle,  whose  aim 
is  to  glorify  the  parentage  and  character  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

4.  Tb'  off-spring ; — i.  e.  the  origin,  not  the  descendants.  So  confirming 
the  view  taken  in  note  on  Bk.  I.  vii.  30. 

CANTO    X. 

Prince  Arthur  reads  'Briton's  Moniments,' from  the  beginning  to  the  days 
of  Uther :  and  Sir  Guyon  the  '  Anliquitie  of  Faerie  Lond,'  down  to  tb^ 
days  of  Gloriana. 

1,  I.   Who  now,  &c. ; — straight  from  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  3.  I : 
"  Chi  mi  dark  la  voce  e  le  parole 
Convenienti  a  si  nobil  soggetto  ? 
Chi  1'ale  al  verso  presterk,  che  vole 
Tanto,  ch'  arrivi  all'  alto  mio  concetto  ? 
Molto  maggior  di  quel  furor  che  suole 
Ben  or  convien  che  mi  riscaldi  il  petto 
Chfe  questa  parte  al  mio  signor  si  debbe, 
Che  canta  gli  Avi,  onde  1'origin  ebbe." 

This  Canto,  by  far  the  dullest  of  all,  has  for  its  real  aim  the  praises  of 
Elizabeth.  It  is,  however,  interesting  as  shewing  the  attention  given  at  that 
time  in  literary  circles  to  archaeological  questions ;  an  attention  altogether 
uncritical,  but  giving  evidence  of  the  newly-aroused  national  life  and  feeling. 
Men  were  moved  to  study  the  origines  of  their  race.  Holinshed's  Chronicle 
had  not  long  been  published  (first  ed.  is  dated  1587):  Camden's  Britannia 
was  also  new  (first  ed.  1586),  and  Stowe  had  appeared  in  1574. 

3,  I.  Maeonian  quill; — the  pen  of  Homer,  who  was  called  Maeonian,  or 
Maeonides,  from  the  ancient  name  of  Lydia,  to  which  country  he  was  sup 
posed  by  some  to  belong. 

2.  great  Phoebus  rote ; — Apollo's  lyre ;   the  god  of  music  and  poetry. 
He  was  supposed  to  be  the  inspirer  of  poets.     So  Odysseus  (Od.  8.  488) 
tells  Demodocus  the  bard,  that  either  the  Muse  has  taught  him,  or  Apollo. 

3.  the  mines  of  great  Ossa  hill,  &c. ; — the  assault  of  the  giants  upon 
heaven,  and  their  defeat  by  Zeus,  Virg.  Georg.  I.  281  : 

"  Ter  sunt  conati  imponere  Pelio  Ossam 
Scilicet,  atque  Ossae  frondosum  involvere  Olympum : 
Ter  pater  exstructos  disiecit  fulmine  montes." 

4    Phlegraean  Jove; — rightly  so  styled  in  this  place,  as  the  conflict  be 
tween  him  and  the  giants  was  said  to  have  taken  place  at  Phlegra  (Pallene). 

he  wrote; — a  bold  usage  =  ' he  described'  or  sung. 
7.  His  learned  daughters ; — the  Muses.  They  are  attributed  to  many 
parents :  (l)  Uranus  and  Gaia  (Heaven  and  Earth) ;  (2)  Aether  and  Gaia 
(Air  and  Earth) ;  (3)  Zeus  and  Mnemosyne  (Memory) ;  (4)  Zeus  and 
Plusia;  (5)  Zeus  and  Moneta;  (6)  Zeus  and  Athene;  (7)  Pierus  and  a 
Nymph ;  (8)  Apollo. 

i-io.]  CANTO    X.  223 

4,  2.   This  renowmed  prince ; — that  is,  Prince  Arthur. 

x"5,  5.  Ne  was  it  island  then; — a  curious  forecast  of  a  geological  truth. 
Sammes  (Britannia,  c.  4)  says,  "  That  this  Island  hath  been  joyned  to  the 
opposite  continent,  by  a  narrow  isthmus  between  Dover  and  Bullen,  or 
thereabouts,  hath  been  the  opinion  of  many  :  As  of  Antonius  Volsius,  Dom. 
Marius  Niger,  Servius  Honoratus,  our  countryman  John  Twine,  and  the 
French  poet  Du  Bartas."  And  Camden,  Brit.  (publ.  1586)  writes,  "  Inter 
Cantium  enim  et  Caletum,  Galliae  ita  in  ahum  se  evehit,  et  adeo  in  arctum 
mare  agitur,  ut  perfossas  ibi  terras  antea  exclusa  admisisse  maria  opinentur 
nonnulli."  The  same  was  thought  to  have  been  the  case  with  Sicily,  as 
Virgil  notes,  "  Hesperium  Siculo  latus  abscidit." 

9.  the  Celticke  mayn-land ; — properly  so  called,  '  Gallia  Celtica.' 

6,  3.  those  white  rocks; — there  are  cretaceous  cliffs,  (i)  on  the  coast  of 
Yorkshire  (Flamborough  Head) ;  (2)  on  the  Norfolk  coast  (Hunstanton  Cliff 
to  Cromer) ;  (3)  at  the  North  Foreland  in  Kent ;  (4)  at  the  South  Foreland, 
from  Deal  to  Hythe  (to  which  district  Spenser  probably  alludes  more  par 
ticularly)  ;    (5)  in  Sussex  (Beachy  Head  to  Brighton)  ;    (6)  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight  (at  St.  Helen's  on  the  east  and  at  the  west  to  the  Needles) ;  (7)  along 
a  portion  of  the  Dorset  coast  (ending  at  Weymouth)  ;  and  (8)  on  the  Devon 
shire  shore  (about  Sidmouth). 

6.  safeties  sake ; — ed.  1590,  '  safety'  (as  a  trisyllable). 

7.  nam'd  it  Albion ; — the  chroniclers  hold  that  this  name  comes  from 
the  giant  Albion  (cp.  st.  n).     Or  from  alb,  white,  or  from  alp,  a  pasture,  or 
from  Albine,  daughter  of  the  mythical  Dioclesian. 

7,  2.  hideous  giants ; — so  Geoffry  of  Monmouth  has  it,  c.  9 :  "  Erat  tune 
nomen   insulae   Albion,    quae   nemine    exceptis   paucis    gigantibus    inhabi- 

7.  lived  then; — ed.  1590  reads  'liveden,'an  old  pret.  inflexion  which 
Spenser  seems  to  have  thought  too  archaKf: 

8,  3.  That  monstrous  error,  Sccj-rt-all  this  is  direct  from  Hardyng's  Chron 
icle,  c.  I  and  5.     He  gives  the  ta^describing  the  daughters  of  '  Dioclesian, 
King  of  Greece,'  as  thirty,  not  Jljty} ;    and  adds  also  that  he  considers  it 
to  be  false  and  without  foundation.     In  the  legend  these  '  thirty  daughters ' 
are   described   as  performing  the  feat   of  Danaides,  with  whom  they  are 
evidently  confounded.      Holinshed  (Hist,  of  Engl.  i.  3)  explains  how  the 
name  of  'Dioclesian'  got  into  the  legend.     He  rebukes  the  ignorance  of 
the  chroniclers  in  supposing  '  Danaus '  was  a  short  way  of  writing  '  Diocle- 

9,  3.  their  owne  mother; — i.e.  Albion.     Spenser  hints  that,  like  the  clas 
sical  Gigantes,  these  British  giants  were  earth-born  (yrjjfvfis). 

6.  Brutus ; — this  legendary  Brutus  is  always  described  as  descended 
from   Aeneas.      His  coming  to  Albion   is   described   by  Hardyng,    c.   II. 
Robert  of  Gloucester  fixes  the  date  of  his  arrival  at  1132  B.C.     Holinshed 
puts  it  at  1116,  Stow  at  1108.     He  is  said  to  have  landed  at  Totnes  in 
Devon,  with  his  comrade  Corineus. 

7.  old  Assaracs  line; — cp.  Virg.  Georg.  3.  35,  "Assaraci  proles."     See 
note  on  ix.  56,  9. 

10,  3.  He  fought  great  battels; — Hardyng  says  : 

"  The  giauntes  als  he  sleugh  doune  beelive 

224  NOTES. 

Through  all  the  lande  in  battaile  mannely: 
And  lefte  no  moo  but  Gogmagog  onely." 

7.  Ths  westerne  Hogh; — Camden  calls  it  "  the  Haw"  in  his  Britannia 
(Devonshire).     It  is  now  "  the  Hoe,"  near  Plymouth. 

8.  mighty    Goemot ;  —  otherwise    called   Goemagot,    or   Gogmagog. 
Geoffry  of  Monmouth  (c.  9)  says,  "  ille  (Goemagot)  per  abrupta  saxa  cadens 
in  multa  frustra  dilaceratus  est,  et  fluctus  sanguine  maculavit."     Cp.  also 
Hardyng,  c.  12,  for  this  conquest  of  Corineus.     Holinshed  says  Gogmagog 
was  thrown  over  the  cliffs  near  Dover.     (Hist,  of  Eng.  2.  4.) 

11,  6.  hideous  Albion;  —  a   legendary  giant,  whose  history  is   given  in 
Holinshed,  I.  3. 

7.  Hercules  in  Frannce  did  quell ; — a  curious  mixture  of  classical  with 
mediaeval  legend.  Robert  of  Gloucester  says  that  Hercules  was  in  France 
with  Brutus.  Holinshed  tells  us  that  Hercules  fought  a  terrific  battle  with 
Albion  on  the  Rhone,  and  eventually  defeated  him  by  showers  of  stones, 
which  still  lie  there,  in  the  district  called  the  Crau.  .(Hist,  of  Eng.  I.  3.) 

9.  Canutus ; — another  of  the  legendary  companions  of  Brutus,  epo 
nymous  of  Cantium  or  Kent. 

12,  5.  He  called  Cornewaille ; — so  stated  in  Geoffry  of  Monmouth,  c.  9. 

6.  that  is  Devonshyre ; — I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  the  legends  of 
Godmer,  Debon.  and  Canutus. 

13,  fj.faire  Inogene  of  Italy ; — Robert  of  Gloucester  (who  spells  the  name 
'Innogen'),  describes  her  as  the  wife  of  Brute,  daughter  of  Pandras,  king  of 
Greece,  not  Italy. 

7.  Locrine  .  .  .  chief e  lord  of  Britany ; — Hardyng,  c.  15  and  17: 

"  On  Locryne  it  should  ever  be  homage." 
'  Britany'  here  means  Britain. 

14,  2,  3.  Albanact  .  .  .  Albania; — Hardyng,  c.  15  : 

"  Fro  Humber  north  unto  the  Northwest  sea 
Of  all  Britaine,  which  he  called  Albanye 
For  Albanacte  the  kyng  ikerof  to  be." 

5.  Logris; — all  to  the  east  of  Severn,  and  "from  the  south  sea  unto 
the  river  of  Humber."     (Holinshed,  Hist,  of  Eng.  2.  5.) 

6.  each  his  portion  peaceably  enjoyd ; — so  Hardyng,  c.  1 7  :  , 

"  And  reyned  so  bylyfe  in  one  assente,"  &c. 

15,  I.   Untill,  &c. ; — this  incursion  of  Huns  or  Scythians  is  described  in 
full  in  Hardyng,  c.  1 8. 

9.  munifience ; — ed.  1596  has  '  munificence.' 

16,  3.  Abus ; — the  Humber.    Abus  is  probably  a  form  of  the  British  aber, 
a  river  mouth. 

17,  6,  8.  fairs  . . .  Estrild . . .  Guendolene; — see  Hardyng,  c.  1 8.     Estrild 
is  described  as  a  '  young  damsel  of  excellent  beauty,'  daughter  of  a  certain 
king  of  Scythia,  taken  captive  in  the  battle  on  the  Humber. — Holinshed, 
Hist,  of  Engl.  2.  5. 

18,4.  battell   -well   ordaind ;  —  Latin    phrase,   "  praelio    bene    ordinato." 

19,  3.  Sabrina; — daughter  of  Estrild,  drowned  in  the  Severn;  narrated  by 
Hardyng,  c.  18. 

5.  in  that  impatient  stoure ; — ed.  1590  reads  '  upon  the  present  stoure.1 

io— 26.] 

CANTO    X.  325 

20,  I.  Then  for  her  son  . . .; — '  for'  here  =  '  seeing  that,'  '  forasmuch  as.' 
2.  Madan; — Hardyng,  c.  20,  who  says  she  governed  for  him  fifteen 


rule  of  sway ; — ed.  1590  reads  '  rule  to  sway.'  The  '  rule  of  sway' 
«=' active  government.'  The  '  rule  to  sway' would  =' to  sway  (hold)  the 

21,  3.  Memprise; — Hardyng,  c.   20;    Holinshed,  Hist,  of  Engl.    2.    5. 
Manild,   his   brother,   is   called   '  Manlius '  by   Holinshed,    *  Maulyne '  by 

6.  Ebranclt; — the  legendary  founder  of  Eber-wik  (or  Caer-Ebrank), 
Everwyk  (Eber's  town),  i.e.  York.  See  Hardyng,  c.  21.  He  had  twenty 
wives,  twenty  sons  and  thirty  daughters  ;  so  that  '  as  many  weekes,'  &c.,  is 
not  quite  right,  unless  we  take  the  fifty  lunar  weeks  in  the  solar  year. 
According  to  Hardyng,  he  "  warred  in  Gaule,"  which  would  do,  perhaps,  for 
Renault,  Hainault.  His  sons,  according  to  this  same  authority,  conquered 
Germany.  There  is  no  trace  of  his  warring  on  Brunchild. 

22,  7.  germans  . . .  Germany ; — the  derivation  is  as  correct  as  the  rest  of 
the  history. 

23,  2.  The  second  Brute ; — this  was  Brutus  Greneschilde.     See  Hardyng, 
c.  22.     It  is  this  prince  who  is  said  by  Holinshed  to  have  gone  over  into 
'Henaud/  and  to  have  warred  with  '  king  Brinchild,'  who  gave  him  a  sore 
repulse.     (Hist,  of  Engl.  2.  5.)     Milton,  Hist,  of  Britain,  Bk.  I,  says  that 
Jacobus  Bergomas  and  Lassabeus,  in  their  account  of  Hainault,  give  these 

6.  first  opened  The  bowels  of  wide  Fraunce ; — he  is  said  to  have 
passed  into  Armorica,  and  to  have  given  to  that  district  a  name  derived  from 
his  own,  i.  e.  Brittany. 

24,  The  quaint  proper  names  heaped  together  in  this  stanza  remind  us  of 
Milton's  delight  in  such  displays ;  e.  g.  Par.  Lost,  4.  268-283. 

1.  Scaldis; — the  river  Scheldt. 

Hania ; — the  country  of  Hainault  in  Belgium.  Milton  says  it  is  a 
river.  The  Henalois  below  are  the  men  of  Hainault. 

2.  Estham  brnges  ; — Bruges,  in  Belgium. 

8.  scuiib  guiridh ; — Welsh  for  a  '  green  shield ;'  y  scuitb  gogh,  '  the 
red  shield.'  It  had  been  green,  but  was  dyed  red  in  the  blood  of  the  men 
of  Hainault. 

25,  I.  Leill; — see  Hardyng,  c.  23  :  founder  of  Caerleill  (Carlisle)  and  Caer- 
leon  (Chester,  otherwise  called  Leon-cester,  Leicester,  'Legionum  castra'). 
Caer,  British  for  '  city.' 

4.  Huddibras; — called  '  Ludhurdibras '  by  Holinshed,  '  Rudhudebras ; 
by  Hardyng,  c.  24. 

6.  Bladud  following,  &c. ; — famed  for  his  learning,  as  Hardyng  says, 
c.  25: 

"  When  at  Athenes  he  had  studied  clere, 
He  brought  with  hym  iiii  philosophiers  wise 
Schole  to  holde  in  Brytayne  and  exercyse. 

Stamforde  he  made  that  Stamforde  night  this  daye 
In  whiche  he  made  an  universitee,"  &c. 

26,  2.  the  boyling  baths  at  Cairbadon ; — Spenser  follows  Geoffry  of  Mon- 


226  NOTES.  [St. 

mouth,  c.  14,  "-ffidificavit  urbem  Kaer-badum,  quae  nunc  Badus  nuncupatur." 
See  Hardy ng : 

"  Cair  Bladud,  so  that  nowe  is  Bath,  I  rede." 

Holinshed  (Descr.  of  Engl.  2.  23)  gives  a  long  account  of  the  Bath  waters, 
under  the  name  of  Caer-bledud. 

26,  9.  through  flight,  &c. ; — "  And  to  shew  his  cunning  in  other  points, 
upon  a  presumptuous  pleasure  which  he  had  therein,  he  tooke  upon  him  to 
flie  in  the  aire,  but  he  fell  upon  the  temple  of  Apollo,  which  stood  in  the 
citie  of  Troynovant,  and  there  was  tome  in  peeces."    Holinshed,  2.  5.     And 
Hardyng : 

"And  afterward  a  Featherham  he  dight 
To  flye  with  wynges  as  he  could  best  descerne, 
He  flyed  on  high  to  the  temple  Apolyne, 
And  ther  brake  his  necke,  for  all  his  great  doctrine." 

27,  I.  king  Leyr; — this  legend,  so  familiar  to  us  through  Shakespeare,  is 
best  given  by  Robert  of  Gloucester;   also  by  Holinshed  (Hist.  Engl.  2.  5), 
and  by  Hardyng  more  briefly,  c.  26. 

29,  T.  Maglan ; — '  Duke  of  Albania,'  or '  Albanie'  (N.  England),  according 
to  Holinshed  and  Hardyng. 

2.  the  king  of  Cambria;  —  'Henninus'   in   Holinshed;    '  Evin '    in 

5.  Aganip  ofCeltica; — Holinshed  says:  "one  of  the  princes  of  Gallia 
(which  now  is  called  France),  whose  name  was  Aganippus,  hearing  of  the 
beautie,  womanhood,  and  good  condition  of  the  said  Cordeilla,  desired  to. 
have  hir  in  manage,"  &c.  "  This  Aganippus  was  one  of  the  twelve  kings 
that  ruled  Gallia  in  those  daies." 

32,  3.  after  wild,  &c. ; — i.  e.  left  the  kingdom  by  will  to  Cordelia. 
9.  her  selfe  she  hong; — Hardyng,  c.  28,  says  : 

"  For  sorow  then,  she  sleugh  hir  selfe  for  tene." 

We  may  notice  that  the  legend,  as  treated  by  Shakespeare,  differs  very  much 
from  that  of  the  chroniclers,  who  restore  Lear  to  his  throne  and  honours,  nor 
do  they  say  he  was  blind. 

33,  2.  Cundah ; — 'Condage'  in  Hardyng,  30;  'Cunedag'  in  Holinshed, 
2.  6. 

8.  bight  of  him  Glamorgan;  —  Holinshed  says  (Hist.  Engl.  2.  8}: 
"  that  countrie  tooke  name  of  him,  being  there  slaine,  and  so  is  called  to 
this  daie  Glan  Morgan,  which  is  to  meane  in  our  English  tong,  Margans 
land."  / 

34,  2.  bloud  did  from  heaven  raine  ; — Hardyng,  30  : 

"  And  rayned  bloodde  thesame,   iii  dayes  also, 

Greate  people  dyed,  the  land  to  mykell  woo." 
So  too  Holinshed,  2.  7. 

3.  great  Gurgustus; — why  'great'?     Hardyng,  30,  says  of  him  that 
he  reigned 

"  In  mykill  ioye  and  worldly  selynesse, 
Kepyng  his  landes  from  enemyes  as  a  manne, 
But  drunken  he  was  eche  daye  expresse, 
Unaccordynge  to  a  prince  of  worthynesse." 

4.  In  constant  peace  ; — not  so  Hardyng,  30  : — 


CANTO    X.  22  7 

"  In  whose  tyme  eche  man  did  other  oppresse 
The  lawe  and  peace  was  exiled  so  indede 
That  ciuill  warres  and  slaughter  of  men  expresse, 
And  murderers  foule  throgh  all  his  lande,  dayly, 
Without  redres  or  any  remedy." 

8.  Arraugbt  the  rule ; — not  according  to  Holinshed  and  Hardyng. 

35,  3.  Stird  Porrex  up,  Sec.;—  there  is  a  very  pardonable  confusion  in 
this  history ;  the  chroniclers  being  uncertain  whether  Ferrex  killed  Porrex, 
or  Porrex  Ferrex.    Spenser  follows  Geoffry  of  Monmouth,  c.  16.    But  Holin 
shed  and  Hardyng  make  Ferrex  the   slayer.      Geoffry  also  gives  us  their 
mother's  name,  '  Wyden.' 

9.  him  murdred,  &c. ; — so  Hardyng,  c.  30  : 

"  Ther  mother  that  Indon  hight, 
To  Ferrex  came,  with  her  maydens  all  in  ire 
Slepyng  in  bed  slew  hym  upon  the  night, 
And  smote  hym  all  on  peces  sett  on  fyre, 
With  suche  rancor  that  she  could  not  ceas, 
Which,  for  passyng  yre,  was  mercyles." 
So  Spenser  calls  her  "  his  mother  mercilesse." 

36,  6.  into  factions  rent; — so  Hardyng,  c.  31. 

37,  I.  Then  up  arose; — finely  introduced.     We  do  not  learn  the  name 
of  this  matchless  hero  till  st.  40,  ' Donwallo  dyed.'     He  is  called  in  Holin 
shed  "  Mulmucius  Dunwallo"  (Hist.  Engl.  3.  i),  and  by  Hardyng  (c.  31) 
'  Moluncius.' 

Sammes,  Brit.  p.  172,  gives  his  laws,  seven  in  number,  dealing,  as  Spenser 
gives  them  (st.  39),  with  temples  of  the  gods,  highways,  and  plough-lands, 
and  restraint  of  robbery. 

39,  6.  The  gracious  Numa ; — the  legendary  lawgiver  and  second  King  of 
Rome,  to  whom  Donwallo  may  well  be  likened. 

9.  first  wore  crowne  of  gold; — so  Holinshed  says  :  "  He  ordained  him 
...  a  crowne  of  gold  ;  and  because  he  was  the  first  that  bare  a  crowne  here 
in  Britaine,  he  is  named  the  first  King  of  Britaine."     And  Hardyng  : 
"  The  first  he  was,  as  chroniclers  expresse, 
That  in  this  isle  of  Brytein  had  croune  of  golde, 
For  all  afore  copre  and  gilt  was  to  beholde." 

40,  2.  two  sonnes ; — Belinus  and  Brennus. 

3.  That  sacked  Rome ; — Holinshed  (Hist.  Engl.  3.  2,  3)  tells  us  that 
after  many  adventures,  Brennus,  who  had  married  the  daughter  of  the  "  Duke 
of  Allobrog,"  came  into  Britain  to  overthrow  his  brother.  But  being  recon 
ciled  by  their  mother,  they  both  set  forth  against  Gallia  and  Rome.  They 
reached  Clusium,  besieged  it,  made  treaty  with  the  Romans,  broke  it — 
"  their  perjured  oth " — and  took  and  sacked  Rome.  The  date  assigned  is 
B.  c.  365.  (Hardyng,  c.  32.) 

41,  I.  Gurgunt ; — Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  3.  5. 

3.  Easterland  subdewd,  and  Denmarke  wonne ; — i.  e.  the  Danes  and 
dwellers  in  North-eastern  Europe.  Holinshed  and  Hardyng  only  record  his 
triumphs  over  the  Danes. 

6.  fugitives  of  Spayne ; — Holinshed  (Hist.  Engl.  3.  5)  says :  "  he  en- 
countred  with  a  navie  of  30  ships,  besides  the  lies  of  Orkenies.  These  ships 

0  2 

228  NOTES.  [St. 

were  fraught  with  men  and  women,  and  had  for  their  capteine  one  Bartholin, 
who,  being  brought  into  the  presence  of  King  Gurguint,  declared  that  he 
with  his  people  were  banished  out  of  Spaine,  and  were  named  Balenses,  or 
Baselenses,  and  had  sailed  long  on  the  sea,  to  the  end  to  find  some  prince 
that  would  assigne  them  a  place  to  inhabit,  to  whom  they  would  become 
subjects,  and  bold  of  him  as  of  their  sovereigne  governor."  Spenser,  1.  9, 
reproduces  this  phrase  almost  literally : 

"  Which  they  should  bold  of  him  as  subject  to  Britayne." 
See  also  Robert  of  Gloucester,  who  is  eloquent  on  the  praises  of  Ireland. 
This  is  a  manifesto,  to  shew  the  right  of  England  over  Ireland  in  the  days  of 
Queen  Elizabeth,  and  to  justify  her  severe  measures,  in  which  Spenser  had 
necessarily  taken  some  part. 

42,  I.  Guitheline,  &c. ; — so  Hardyng,  c.  35,  whom  Spenser  here  follows 
almost  literally : 

"  Guytelyn  his  sonne  gave  reigne  as  beyre 

Of  all  Brytayn,  aboute  unto  the  sea, 

Who  wedded  was  to  Marcyan  full  fayre 

That  was  so  wyse  in  her  femynites, 

That  lawes  made  of  her  syngularytes, 

That  called  were  the  lawes  Marcyane 

In  Britayne  tongue,  of  her  owne  witte  alone." 

"  These  lawes,"  says  Holinshed,  "  Alfred  .  .  .  translated  also  out  of  the 
British  tong  into  the  English  Saxon  speech,  and  then  they  were  called  after 
that  translation,  Marchen  a  lagh,  that  is  to  meane,  the  lawes  of  Marcia." 
(They  were  really  Border-laws). 

43,  8.  theforreine  Morands ; — Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  3.  6:  "  In  his  daies, 
a  certaine  king  of  the  people  called  Moriani  .  .  .  landed  in  Northumber 
land  .  .  ."     "  These  people  I  take  to  be  either  those  that  inhabited  about 
Terrouane  and  Calice,  called  Morini,  or  some  other  people  of  the  Galles  or 

44,  6.  pitteous  Elidure ; — so  called  because  he  had  pity  on,  and  abdicated 
in  favour  of,  his  deposed  brother  Arthegal,  or  Archigald.     (Hardyng,  c.  37.) 
Holinshed  (Hist.  Engl.  3.  7)  says :  "  For  this  great  good-will  and  brotherly 
love  by  him  shewed  thus  towards  his  brother,  he  was  surnamed  The  Godly 
and  Vertuous."     And  Hardyng,  c.  38  : 

"  He  was  so  full  of  all  pytee 

That  in  all  thynge  mercy  he  dyd  preserve." 
9.   Vigent ; — '  Vigenius,'  Holinshed  ;  '  lugen,'  Hardyng. 

45,  I.  In  wretched  prison,  &c. ; — Hardyng,  c.  38  : 

"  And  prisoner  hym  full  sore  and  wrongfullye 
All  in  the  towre  of  Troynovante  for  thy." 
3.  then  therein  reseized  was  againe  ; — Hardyng,  c.  39  : 
"  Eledour  was  kyng  all  newe  made  againe, 

Thrise  crowned." 

6.  Then  all  the  sonnes; — Spenser  closely  follows  Holinshed,  who  merely 
mentions  these  thirty-three  kings,  saying  that  182  years  must  be  apportioned 
among  them,  and  adding  that  there  is  no  certainty  among  authors  on  the 
subject.     But  Hardyng  goes  through  them  diligently  by  name. 
9.  aged  Hely; — eponymous  of  the  'Isle  of  Ely.' 


CANTO    X. 

46,  i.  Lud ; — Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  3.  9;  Hardyng,  c.  40,  41. 

4.  The  ruin'd  wals ; — Hardyng  says  : 

"  With  walles  faire,  and  towres  fresh  about 
His  citie  great  of  Troynovaunt,  full  fayre, 
Full  well  he  made,  and  batelled  throughout ; 
And  palays  fayre,  for  [royalles  to  appeare] 
Amendyng  other  defectyfe  and  unfayre, 
From  London  stone  to  his  palays  royall 
That  now  Ludgate  is  knowen  over  all." 

He  says  he  built  hard  by  Ludgate  his  palace  and  a  temple,  and  then 
"  He  died  so,  and  in  his  temple  fayre 
Entombed  was." 

5.  Troynovant ; — that  is,  London,  the  city  of  the  Trinobanfe&j  there 
is   of  course   no   ground   for  the  old  derivation  from  '  Troia  nova;1  -new 
Troy,  the   city  founded   by  Brutus,  and   named   after   the   home   of  his 

8.  too  young  to  rule  aright ; — so  Hardyng  : 

"  Which  were  to  young  to  rule  the  heritage." 

47,  5-  Till  the  prowd  Romanes,  &c. ; — 55  B.C.     Hardyng,  c.  42,  says: 

"  In  which  tyme  so  came  Caesar  lulius 

Into  the  lande  of  Fraunce  that  nowe  so  hight ; 

[And  on  a  daye  walkyng  up  and  downe  full  right] 

On  the  sea  syde,  wher  he  this  lande  did  see, 

Desyryng  sore  [of  it]  the  soverayntee, 

His  nauye  greate,  with  many  soudyoures 

To  sayle  anone  into  this  Britayn  made, 

In  Thamis  aroue,  wher  he  had  ful  sharpe  shores  (stowres  ?) 

.  .  .  wher,  after  battayle,  smythen  and  forfought 

lulius  fled,  and  there  preuayled  nought." 

Caesar's  true  reason  was  not  a  mere  '  hideous  hunger  of  dominion,'  but  a 
clear  opinion  that  unless  the  Druid  power  in  Britain,  its  stronghold,  were 
quelled,  he  could  never  hold  Gaul  securely. 

48,  I.  Yet  twise,  &c. ; — Hardyng  gives  it  thus,  c.  43: 

"  came  to  Brytayn  again 
Into  Thamis,  where  Cassibelayn  tho 
Great  pyle  of  tree  and  yron  sette  hym  again, 
His  shippes  to  peryshe,  and  so  he  did  certain 
Through  which  greate  parte  of  his  nauy  was  drowned 
And   [some  other]   in  batayl  wer  confounded. 
Then  fled  he  eft  with  shippes  that  he  had 
Into  the  lande  of  Fraunce,"  &c. 

Caesar,  Comment.  Bk.  4.  5,  only  makes  two  descents,  in  55  and  54  B.C.,  and 
neither  of  these  into  the  Thames  at  all.  He  landed  both  times  somewhere 
near  the  South  Foreland.  Jfcjor  was  he  ever  repulsed  hy  the-.BritQjnjj,  though 
his  successes  were  of  but  small  value.  For  it  is  very  clear,  after  all,  that  he 
got  very  little  hold  on  Britain.  After  his  second  incursion  he  withdrew 
on  receiving  the  nominal  submission  of  Cassibelan,  some  slaves,  and  a 
quantity  of  pearls.  But  Britain  remained  as  she  was,  and  the  tribute  was 
never  paid. 

230  NOTES.  [St. 

48,  6.  Androgeus; — Hardyng  (whom  Spenser  follows  here)  describes  this 
in  c.  44. 

49,  4.  Nennius,  whom  he  yet  did  slay,  But  lost  bis  sword ; — Hardyng, 

"  But  Neminus,  brother  of  Cassybalayne, 
Full  manly  fought  on  lulius  tymes  tweyne. 
With  strokes  sore  ayther  on  other  bette, 
But  [at  the  laste  this  prynce  syr]  lulius 
Crosea  mors  his  swerde  in  shelde  sette 
Of t the  manly  worthy  sir  Neminus; 
(Which  of  manly  force  and  myght  vigorous) 
The  swearde  he  brought  away  out  of  the  felde, 
As  lulius  it  [set  faste]  in  his  shelde. 
Through  which  stroke  sir  Neminus  then  died. 
....  Crosea  mors  his  swearde  layde  by  his  syde 
Which  he  [brought  from]  lulius  that  tyde." 

So  also  the  story  is  told  by  Geoffry  of  Monmouth.  This  tale  is  doubtless 
connected  with  that  sword  which  Caesar  is  said  to  have  lost  in  the  Gallic 

8.  Till  Arthur,  &c. ; — Spenser  means  that  Britain  continued  subject  to 
Rome  till  Arthur  delivered  her.     As  to  this  subjection,  even  Holinshed,  Hist. 
Engl.  3.  16,  says,  "  Cesar  might  seem  rather  to  have  shewed  Britaine  to  the 
Romans  than  to  have  delivered  possession  of  the  same." 

50,  2.   What  time ; — so  Holinshed  and  Hardyng. 

9.  For  that  their  tribute,  &c. ; — this  is  told,  not  of  Kimbeline,  but  of 
his  son  and  successor  Guyder. 

51,  I.  Good  Claudius; — Emperor,  A.D.  41,  was  of  Sabine  origin,  born  at 
Lyons.     He  spoke  but  a  barbarous  Latin,  and  preferred  Greek;    he  was 
proud  of  his  Gallic  birthplace,  and  hated  Rome.     A  fragment  of  his  speech 
in  the  Senate,  advocating  the  claims  of  the  Gaelic  chiefs  to  a  seat  in  that 
assembly,  is  still  preserved  in  the  museum  at  Lyons.     This  friendliness  for 
the  Gael  is  doubtless  the  origin  of  the  title  '  good,'  which  scarcely  bears  its 
proper  moral  significance  in  this  case.     This  is  probably  the  answer  to  Mr. 
Church's  question:   "But  why  does  he  call  him  good?"     Claudius  came 
into  Britain  A.D.  43. 

3.  In  which  the  king,  &c. : — so  Hardyng,  c.  45  : 

"  One  Hamon  rode  faste  into  the  route 
Havyng  on  him  the  Britains  sygne  of  warre 
Who,  in  the  prees,  slewe  the  Kyng  Guyder." 

6.  Arvirage ; — Hardyng,  c.  46 : 

"  His  brothers  armis  upon  hymself  he  cast ; 
And  Kyng  was  then  of  all  Great  Britain." 

52,  4.  His  daughter  Gemiiss' ; — so  says  Geoffry  of  Monmouth,  Holinshed 
(Hist.  Engl.),  Hardyng,  c.  46. 

All  these  details  are  wanting  in  the  Roman  histories,  and  are  in  fact  inci 
dents  of  romance.  As  we  have  now  reached  a  time  of  historic  names,  it 
becomes  needful  to  separate  what  is  mythical  from  what  is  historical. 


CANTO    X.  231 

5.  Yet  shortly,  &c. ; — So  Hardyng  : 

"  After  agayne,  the  Kyng  truage  denyed, 
And  none  wolde  paye;    wherefore  Vespasian 
Hyther  was  sent." 

6.  who  hither,  &c. ; — '  who '  =  Rome  in  the  person  of  her  Emperor 
Claudius.     Vespasian  came  into  Britain,  43  A.  D.,  as  'legatus  legionis;'  the 
same  year  in  which  Claudius  himself  was  there. 

53,  3.  good  Lucius,  That  first  received  Christianity; — "The  early  Welsh 
notices,  and  the  Silurian  Catalogues  of  Saints  state  that  Lleurwg,  called  also 
Lleufer  Maur,  'the  great  light '  =  Lucius  (lux),  applied  to  Rome  for  spiritual 
instruction,  and  that  in  consequence  four  teachers,  Dyfan,  Ffagan,  Medwy, 
and  Elfan  were  sent  to  him  by  Pope  Eleutherius."     (Smith's  Diet,  of  Biogr., 
Lucius.)    Bede  gives  in  substance  the  same  account,  giving  the  date  A.D.  156. 
The  tale  is  possible ;  but  King  Lucius  is  a  very  shadowy  personage  of  no 
historical  certainty.  :  %>  •. •.?. 

So  in  Geoffry  of  Monmouth,  2.  i.  This  King  Lucius  is  said  by  Hardyng 
to  have  received  two  "  holye  menne,  Faggan  and  Dunyen,"  from  Pope  Eleu 
therius.  Another  account  describes  him  as  going  a  pilgrimage  and  suffering 
martyrdom  at  Chur  (Coire)  in  the  Grisons,  where  the  cathedral  is  dedicated 
to  him.- 

5.  The  sacred  pledge ; — sc.  Baptism. 

6.  Yet  true  it  is; — the  very  dubious  legend  of  Joseph  of  Arimathea 
who,  according  to  Hardyng,  c.  47,  and  Holinshed  (Hist.  Engl.  4.  5),  came 
into  England,  and  made  many  converts.    The  tale  runs  that  Joseph,  carrying 
the  Holy  Grayle  with  him,  set  forth  in  a  boat,  which  guided  itself  through 
the  Pillars  of  Hercules,  across  the  main  sea,  into  the  Bristol  Channel.     She 
went  steadily  on,  till  she  grounded  in  a  marshy  spot,  since  called  Glaston- 
bury.     There  Joseph  landed,  and  in  sign  of  possession,  planted  his  staff, 
which  took  root,  and  became  the  famous  Glastonbury  thorn. 

8.  the  holy  grayle; — either  (i)  the  dish  off  which  our  Lord  ate  the 
Passover ;  or  (2)  the  '  sanguis  realis,'  or  actual  blood  of  our  Saviour.  But 
see  Gloss.  Grayle.  The  quest  of  the  Sangreal  forms  a  large  element  in  the 
Mort  d'Arthur. 

54,  6.  Bujiduca; — better  known  as  Boadicea.     Her  story  is  handed  down 
to  us  by  Tacitus,  14.  31-37.     She  was  aroused  in  A.D.  62  by  the  infinite 
wrongs  the  Romans  had  done  her  family ;  and  raising  the  Iceni  and  Trino- 
bantes,  she  stormed  and  took  the  Roman  position  of  Camalodunum.     After 
wards  she  defeated  Petilius  Cerealis.     The  Britons  next  seized  London,  even 
then  a  great  emporium,  and  also  Verulamium.     In  these  places  the  Britons 
are  said  to  have  taken  and  slain  ruthlessly  nearly  70,000  Romans  or  their 
allies.     Boadicea    was    afterwards    utterly    defeated    by  Suetonius   Paulinus. 
Robert  of  Gloucester,  Geoffry  of  Monmouth,  Hardyng,  give  no  account  of 
her;  but  Holinshed  gives  her  history,  and  describes  her  at  length,  Hist. Engl. 
4.  10,  II : 

"  Hir  mightie  tall  personage,  comelie  shape,  severe  countenance,  and 
sharpe  voice,  with  hir  long  and  yellow  tresses  of  haire  reaching  downe  to  hir 
thighes,  hir  brave  and  gorgeous  apparelle  also  caused  the  people  to  have  hir 
in  great  reverence.  She  wore  a  chaine  of  gold,  great  and  verie  massie,  and 
was  clad  in  a  lose  kirtle  of  sundrie  colours,  and  aloft  thereupon  she  had  a 

NOTES.  [St. 

thicke  Irish  mantell  ;  hereto  in  hir  hand  she  bare  a  speare,  to  shew  hirselfe 
the  more  dreadfull." 

54,  9.  besides  the  Severne  ;  —  we  do  not  know  where  the  battle  was  fought; 
but  it  could  not  have  been  in  West  England.     Boadicea  was  an  eastern 
queen  ;  her  successes  were  at  Camalodunum  (Colchester),  London,  and  Veru- 
lamium  (St.  Alban's),  all  in  the  East  of  England.     Her  followers  were  Iceni 
and  Trinobantes,  eastern  tribes. 

Spenser's  account  differs  from  that  given  by  Holinshed.  He  says  that 
after  her  defeat  by  Suetonius,  "  those  that  escaped  would  have  fought  a  new 
battell,  but  in  the  meane  time  Voadicea  deceased  of  a  naturall  infirmitie,  as 
Dion  Cassius  writeth,  but  other  say  that  she  poisoned  hir  selfe,  and  so  died, 
because  she  would  not  come  into  the  hands  of  hir  bloodthirsty  enimies." 

55,  2.  Not  with  so  good  success,  &c.  ;  —  in  this  great  battle  the  Romans 
had  but  10,000  men,  while  Boadicea  commanded  (it  is  said)  230,000.     The 
Romans  took  up  a  strong  position,  and  utterly  defeated  the  barbarians  with 
immense  slaughter  :  80,000  are  said  to  have  perished.    It  is  obvious  that  the 
figures  cannot  be  trusted. 

56,  2.  Semiramis;  —  the  mythical  founder  of  Nineveh,   wife   of  Ninus. 
Her  beauty  and  bravery  placed  her  among  memorable  women. 

4.  HypsiphiV  ;  —  was,  in  the  legends,  Queen  of  Lemnos.    Her  one  feat 
(Apollod.  3.  6.  4)  was  that  of  saving  her  father  when  the  Lemnian  women 
slew  all  the  men  on  the  island.     It  is  hard  to  see  why  she  has  been  selected 
by  Spenser  among  the  heroic  parallels  to  Boadicea. 

Thomiris;  —  Tomyris  is  described  by  Herodotus  (i.  205)  as  a  heroic 
queen  of  the  Massagetae,  who  resisted  and  defeated  Cyrus. 

57,  1.  Fulgent;  —  Hardyng,  c.  52: 

"the  northern  Brittons, 

.With  Fulgen  stode,  was  Kyng  of  Scotlande  bore." 
2.  Fought  with  Severus;  —  Julius  Se'verus  is  described  by  Dion  Cassius 
(69.  13)  as  a  legate  of  Hadrian,  and  for  a  time  governor  of  Britain.     He 
built  the  wall  (Murus  Britannicus)  between  the  Tyne  and  the  Solway.     The 
chroniclers  confound  the  Picts*  Wall  with  this.     Hardyng  (c.  53)  says  : 

"From  Tynmouth  to  Alclud  his  fayre  citee," 

Alcluid  being  on  the  Clyde  (Dumbarton)  where  the  Picts'  Wall,  running 
from  the  Frith  of  Forth,  ended. 

5.  Then  gan  Carausius  ;  —  M.  Aurelius  Valerius  Carausius,  a  native 
of  the  district  of  the  Menapi,  a  poor  pilot,  being  set  by  Maximian  over  the 
cruisers  who  watched  the  pirates  swarming  in  and  out  of  the  mouths  ol 
the  Rhine  and  Scheldt,  fled  with  his  fleet  to  Britain,  gained  over  the  legions 
there  stationed,  and  assumed  the  title  of  Augustus.     He  was  eventually 
recognised  as  colleague  by  Diocletian  and  Maximian.     Spenser  refers  to  his 
resistance  to  Maximian  when  he  writes  that  he 

'  Gainst  the  Romanes  bent  their  proper  powre,' 

though  he  is  not  very  exact  in  saying  so.     He  was  murdered  by  Allectus,  his 
chief  officer  (as  Spenser  says,  1.  7)  in  the  year  A.D.  293. 

8.  And  fooke  on  -htm,  &c.  ;—  Allectus  did  assume  the  purple,  and  wore 
it  for  three  years  —  that  was  his  '  short  happy  howre.'  In  296  Constantius 
sent  against  him  Asclepiodotus  with  army  and  fleet,  and  subdued  him. 

54-6i.  J 

CANTO    X.  333 

58,  2.  on  the  vanquisbt  plaine ; — either  =  '  vanquished  on  the  plaine,'  or  = 
4  on  the  plain  of  his  defeat.' 

4.  Then   afterwards; — it   does   not  appear  that  this  was  the  case. 
There  is  no  proof  that  Asclepiodotus  was  ever  Emperor.     Hardyng  calls  him 
"Duke  of  Cornwayle"  (c.  56).     In  c.  57  he  says  he  "was  crowned  Kyng 

5.  Coy II ; — Hardyng  (c.  58)  gives  us  this  prince: 

"  For  whiche  duke  Coyle  agayne  him  rose  ful  hote, 
The  duke  Caire  Colun  (that  hight)  Coylus, 
Whiche  cytee  [now]  this  daye  Colchester  hight, 
Then  crowned  was." 

9.  Coylchester; — Colchester  is  so  called  either  from  its  older  name 
Camulodunum,  Camalo-chester,  or  more  probably  from  the  Latin  Colonia, 
Coln-chester.  It  was  the  first  of  the  Roman  colonies  in  Britain,  and  is  men 
tioned  by  the  name  of  Caer  Colun,  in  Nennius.  By  the  time  of  Boadicea 
there  were  three  important  Roman  cities  in  Britain,  Camulodunum,  London, 
and'Verulamium.  So  that  '  Coylchester'  existed  long  before  Spenser's  King 
Coyll  the  Second. 

59,  2.  Constantius; — Constantius   Chlorus   established    his   authority   in 
Britain  A.D.  296,  at  the  time  of  the  overthrow  of  Allectus,  but  did  not  come 
into  the  island  till  rather  later.     He  died  at  Eboracum  (Everwyk,  York)  in 
306,  while  on  an  expedition  against  the  Picts. 

4.  bis  daughter  bright,  Faire  Helena,  the  fairest  living  wight ; — 
Spenser  attributes  to  her  some  of  the  qualities  of  the  original  Helena,  the 
bane  of  Troy.  Her  origin  seems  to  have  been  humble ;  nor  is  there  any 
foundation  for  the  legend  adopted  by  Spenser  from  Hardyng,  c.  59,  60,  and 
Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  4.  28  :  "  His  first  wife  Helen,  the  daughter  (as  some 
affirme)  of  Coell  late  king  of  the  Britains." 

She  was  repudiated  by  Constantius  when  he  was  raised  to  the  dignity  of 
Caesar,  because  he  wanted,  for  state  reasons,  to  marry  Theodora,  stepchild 
of  Maximian. 

60,  i.  great   Constantine ; — surnamed   Magnus,   son  of  Constantius  and 
Helena,  born  A.D.  272.     He  was  emperor  from  A.D.  306  to  337. 

4.  Octavius; — not  a  historic  personage,  nor  is  Traherne.    The  legend 
is  given  by  Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  4.  29,  and  by  Hardyng,  c.  63,  who  calls 
Octavius  "  Duke  of  Westesax." 

61,  I.  wanting  issew  male; — Constantine,  on  the  contrary,  had  four  sons: 
Crispus;    Constantinus  II,  'the  younger;'   Constantius  II;    and  Constans. 
None  of  his  daughters  married  Maximian :  one  of  them  was  named  Helena 
Flavia  Maximiana,  whence  the  error  may  have  sprung. 

2.  to  Maximian; — there  were  two  Maximians  emperors:  (l)  Maxi- 
mianus  I,  surnamed  Herculius,  whose  stepdaughter  Constantius  Chlorus 
married.  He  formed  a  close  alliance  with  Constantine,  and  gave  him  his 
daughter  Fausta ;  but  afterwards,  intriguing  against  him  in  the  south  of 
France,  he  was  ordered  to  choose  the  manner  of  his  death,  and  strangled 
himself,  A.D.  310.  (2)  Maximianus  II,  who  is  also  called  Galerius.  He  was 
never  on  friendly  relations  with  Constantine. 

5.  Gratian; — was  not  born  till  A.D.  359.     Nor  is  there  any  founda- 

234  NOTES.  [St. 

tion  in  history  for  this  murder  '  by  the  freends  of  Gratian : '  Maximian  stran 
gled  himself  forty-nine  years  before  Gratian  was  born. 

61,  6.  Then  gan,  &c. ; — the  chroniclers  are  fond  of  these  Huns.     Geoffry 
of  Monmouth,  i.  u,  tells  us  of  their  entry  into  Britain  under  Humber  their 
chief.     The  Scots  and  Picts  were  probably  natives  of  Ireland. 

7.  Maximinian; — ;t  is  not  quite  clear  who  this  is;  but  Spenser  pro 
bably  meant  Maximus,  who,  in  the  time  of  Gratian,  was  in  Britain,  A.D.  368, 
and  remained  there  as  general  for  several  years.     Fuller,  Ch.  Hist.  I.  cent.  iv. 
§  22,  says  he  "  for  a  time  valiantly  resisted  the  Scots  and  Picts,  which  cruelly 
invaded  and  infested  the  south  of  Britain." 

62,  8.  by  consent  of  Commons  and  of  Peares  ; — a  curious  anachronism. 

9.  the  second  Constantine; — Spenser  must  here  mean  Constantine  the 
'  tyrant,'  who  was  raised  to  the  purple  by  the  British  legions  (scarcely  by 
•Commons  and  Peares')  A.D.  407.  See  Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  5.  I ;  Har- 
dyng,  c.  65 : 

"The  Scottes  and  Peightes  he  venged  and  overcam." 
Robert  of  Gloucester  says : 

"  be  Brytones  nome  bo  Costantyn,  and  glade  boru  all  pyng       • 
In  be  toun  of  Cicestre  crouned  hym  to  here  kyng." 

63,  2.  Picts,  and  swarming  Easterlings ; — the  Picts  and  Northmen.     For 
Easterling  see  Gloss. 

g.from  Alcluid  to  Panwelt ; — this  is  the  '  Picts'  wall'  from  the  Forth 
to  the  Clyde.  This  wall  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  Carausius,  A.D.  285. 
There  is  not  the  slightest  reason  for  thinking  that  Constantine  had  any  hand 
in  it.  '  Panwelt '  or  Panvahel  on  the  Firth  of  Forth  is  Falkirk ;  Alcluid, 
often  mentioned  by  old  chroniclers,  is  at  or  near  Dumbarton,  on  the  Clyde. 
This  great  wall  can  still  be  traced  over  a  large  part  of  its  course.  The 
chroniclers  seem  to  confuse  this  wall  with  that  from  the  Tyne  to  the  Solway; 
which  was  the  Murus  Britannicus,  called  sometimes  Severus',  sometimes 
Hadrian's  wall. 

64,  I.  Three  sonnes ; — Constantius,  who  was  dull  of  wit,  and  therefore 
made   a   monk;    Aurelius   Ambrose;    and  Uther  (afterwards)  Pendragon. 
Hardyng,  c.  65. 

2.  Vortigere; — Vortigern  is  a  British  king  who  is  said  by  the  chroni 
clers  to  have  been  the  first  to  call  in  the  Saxons,  through  fear  of  the  Picts. 

5.  Them  closely  into  Armorick  did  beare ; — Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl. 
5.  I :  "  With  all  speed  got  them  to  the  sea,  and  fled  into  little  Britaine,"  i.e. 
Brittany  or  Armorica. 

8.  three  hoyes  Of  Saxons; — so  Hardyng,  c.  67  : 

"  In  shyppes  thre  arryued  so  there  in  Kent." 

Gildas,  c.  23,  says :    "  Tribus  ut  lingua  ejus  exprimitur  Cyulis,  ut  nostra, 
longis  navibus,"  i.  e.  "  three  keels" 

65,  2.  Hengist  and  Horsus; — Saxon  chiefs,  according  to  the  early  histo 
rians.     It  is   noticeable  that  their  names  both  signify  'horse'   (cp.   mod. 
Danish  and  Germ.  Hengst,  and  Engl.  Horse,  Germ.  Ross.)     Historians  are 
divided  as  to  the  fact  of  their  existence.     Hengist  is  said  to  have  established 
himself  in  Kent  A.D.  454.     Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  5.  2,  3  ;  Hardyng,  C.-67. 

9.  enforst; — ed.  1590  reads  'have  forst.' 

66,  I.  Vortimere  his  sonne; — a  brave  British  prince  who  steadily  and  sue- 


CANTO    X.  335 

cessfully  stemmed  the  Saxon  incursions.  This  semi-legendary  period  is  found 
at  large  in  Nennius,  c.  45-52 ;  also  in  Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  5.  3  ;  Hardyng, 
c.  67  ;  Bede's  Gesta  Anglorum ;  Gildas  ;  and  William  of  Malmesbuny. 

5.  Through  his  faire  daughters  face,  &c. ; — Rowan,  or  Rowena,  for 
love  of  whom  Vortiger  abandoned  his  own  wife ;  so  restoring  Hengist  to 
favour.     The  chroniclers  tell  us  she  saluted  Vortiger  with  the  word  '  Wassal,' 
to  which  he  made  reply  (through  the  interpreter)  '  Drink  hail ; '    whence 
came  those  words  into  English  speech  as  salutations. 

6.  Soone  after  which ; — "  They  invited  the  British  to  a  parley  and 
banquet  on  Salisbury  plain ;  where,  suddenly  drawing  out  their  seaxas,  con 
cealed  under  their  long  coats,  they  made  their  innocent  guests  with  their 
blood  pay  the  shots  of  their  entertainment.     Here  Aurelius  Ambrosius  is  re 
ported  to  have  erected  that  monument  of  Stonehenge  to  their  memory." — 
Fuller,  Ch.  Hist.' I.  cent.  v.  §  25.     This  close  commentary  on  this  stanza  is, 
of  course,   of  no  historical  value.     The  Druid  circles  of  Stonehenge  were 
standing  centuries  before  the  period  of  this  doubtful  banquet  and  massacre. 
See  also  Holinshed,  Hist.  Engl.  5.  5  and  8 ;  Hardyng,  c.  68  and  70. 

67»  I.  the  sonnes  of  Constantine  ....  Ambrose  and  Uther ; — Ambrose,  or 
Aurelius  Ambrosius,  a  semi-mythical  character,  "  is  said  to  be  extracted  of 
the  Roman  race"  (Fuller,  Ch.  Hist.  I.  cent.  v.  §  28),  and  is  described  as  at 
tacking  Vortigern  in  Wales  at  his  castle  of  Generen,  where  he  set  fire  to  his 
castle,  and  burnt  him  with  it.  He  is  also  reported  to  have  been  a  great 
champion  of  the  British  race. 

68,  I.  Uther; — the  great  Pendragon  (a  title  borne  by  British  chiefs  as  de 
fenders  of  their  race),  is  said  to  have  kept  up  the  strife  against  the  Saxons, 
and  to  have  been  the  father  of  Arthur.    Cp.  F.  Q^Bk.  I.  vii.  31.     Hardyng, 
c.  71: 

"  His  brother  Uter  at  Caergwent  was  crouned 

In  trone  royall  then  fully  was  admit: 

Twoo  dragons  made  of  gold  royall  that  stound, 

(That  one)  offred  of  his  devout  wit, 

In  the  mynster  there,  as  he  [had]  promit : 

That  other  before  hym  euer  in  battaile  bare 

Of  gold  in  goulis,  wher  so  he  gan  to  fare. 

And  for  he  bare  the  dragon  so  in  warre 

The  people  all  hym  called  then  Pendragon 

For  his  surname,  in  landes  nere  and  farre, 

Whiche  is  to  say  in  Britayn  region 

In  theyr  langage,  the  head  of  the  dragon." 

2.  There  abruptly ; — the  plan  which  Spenser  is  working  out  does  not     N 
allow  him  to  go  on  any  farther.     Otherwise  Prince  Arthur  would  learn  his 
own  parentage  and  dignities  long  before  his  time  ;    for  Uther  is  Arthur^s^^ 
father.     So  he  rends  the  MS.  at  this  point  abruptly. 

69,  2.  royall  of  spring ;— the  pedigree  or  descent  of  kings.     This  use  of 
'ofspring'  proves  that  'ofspring  auncient,'  Bk.  I.  vi.  30,  means  'ancient 
descent'  or  origin. 

70,  I.  Guyon  .  .  .  his  booke  did  read ; — this  was  the  '  Antiquitee  of  Faerie 
lond ; '  the  imaginative  and  poetical  account  of  the  parentage  and  descent  of 
Queen  Elizabeth. 

NOTES.  [St.  71-76. 

70,  5.  Prometheus; — the  myth  relates  how  Prometheus  (forethought)  and 
Epimetheus  (afterthought)  were  sons  of  the  Titan  lapetus ;  and  .how  (accord 
ing  to  one  account)  Prometheus  saved  mankind  from  ruin  at  the  hands  of 
Zeus,  and  bestowed  on  them  many  useful  gifts,  fire,  the  practical  arts,  &c. ; 
(according  to  another  account)  how  he  first  fashioned  man  out  of  earth  and 
water,  and  afterwards  stole  fire  from  heaven  to  animate  his  work.     The  first 
story  is  to  be  found  in  Aeschylus'  Prometheus,  the  latter  (which  Spenser  fol 
lows)  in  Ovid,  Met.  I.  81. 

8.  for  which,  &c. ; — so  in  Aeschylus,  Prom.  1015.  But  Spenser  de 
viates  from  the  established  tale  in  saying  that  Jove  deprived  him  of  life  ;  the 
essence  of  his  punishment  was  the  constant  renewal  of  his  '  hart-strings,'  i.  e. 
his  liver,  and  the  continuance  of  his  life. 

71,  i.  Elfe,   to   weet   Quick; — this    name    of  the   first    man    is    purely 
imaginary,  nor  does  Elfe  mean  '  quick,'  i.  e.  living.     See  Gloss.  Elf. 

4.  in   the  gardins   of  Adonis ; — Adonis   being   wounded,  Aphrodite 
sprinkled  nectar  on  his  blood,  and  flowers  immediately  sprang  up.     This  is 
one  side  of  it.     The  other  legend  makes  Adonis  the  Sun-god,  and  his  garden 
the  garden  of  the  Sun.     In  this  garden  the  first  man  might  well  walk  and 
meet  with  the  'goodly  creature,'  mother  of  all  Fairies,  and  eventually  of 
Queen  Elizabeth. 

72,  6.  all  that  now  America  men  call; — which  Spenser  still  attaches  on  to 
India,  as  we  have  before  noticed. 

8.  Cleopolis ; — Spenser's  name  for  London.  See  Bk.  I.  vii.  46,  and 
x.  58. 

73,  4.  Pantbea; — supposed  by  some  to  be  Windsor.     See  Bk.  I.  x.  58. 

75,  I.  Elficleos; — coming  after  the  seven  hundred  princes  who  reigned 
in  order,  was  Henry  VII  of  England,  who  reigned  from  A.  D.  1485  to  1509. 

2.  Elficleos ; — in  line  I  this  word  is  four-syllabled  ;  here  only  three- 

6.  He  left  two  sonnes ; — scarcely  correct,  as  he  outlived  the  elder. 

Elferon  The  eldest  brother; — Prince  Arthur,  firstborn  son  of  Henry  VII, 
born  A.D.  1486,  married  to  Katharine  of  Aragon  in  1501,  'untimely  died' 
in  1502. 

8.  the  mightie  Oberon; — Prince  Henry,  afterwards  Henry  VIII,  born 
A.D.  1491.  Spenser  is  right  in  saying  he  supplied  Prince  Arthur's  place  in 
*  spousall,'  for  he  married  Katharine  of  Aragon,  his  brother's  widow,  in  1509. 
But  it  can  hardly  be  said  that  he  supplied  his  place  '  in  dominion,'  as  Arthur 
never  came  to  the  throne. 

76,  4.  (he  fairest  Tanaquill ; — Queen  Elizabeth,  to  whom  Spenser  gives 
this  name,  that  of  a  British  Princess.     Cp.  Bk.  I.  Introd.  ii. 

5.  Him  to  succeede  therein; — Spenser  says  nothing  about  Edward  VI 
and  Mary,  artistically  (and  courtier- like)  conceiving  that  the  force  of  the 
passage  would  be  broken  if  anything  were  interposed  between  the  great 
Harry  and  his  lordly  daughter. 

by  his  last  -will; — the  will  of  King  Henry  VIII,  dated  30  Dec.  1546, 
bequeaths  the  Crown  of  England  to  Prince  Edward  and  his  heirs :  in  default 
of  such  heirs,  then  to  any  other  offspring  of  himself  and  "  Queen  Katherine 
that  now  is,  or  of  any  other  our  lawfull  wife  that  we  shall  hereafter  marie." 
[Indicating  that  this  part  of  the  will  was  drawn  up  at  a  much  earlier  date 

St.  i-8.]  CANTO    XI.  237 

than  the  signature.]  In  default  of  such  male  heirs,  then  the  Crown  was  to 
go  to  Mary  and  her  heirs :  "  and  if  it  fortune  that  our  said  daughter  do  die 
without  issue ...  we  will  that . . .  the  said  imperyall  crowne  . . .  shall  wholely 
remaine  and  come  to  our  said  daughter  Elizabeth"  upon  certain  stringent 
conditions  as  to  the  marriages  of  Mary  and  Elizabeth.  The  will  goes  on  to 
leave  the  Crown  conditionally,  after  Elizabeth,  to  the  '  Lady  Frances '  and 
the  '  Lady  Eleanor,'  the  two  daughters  of  Mary  his  sister,  widow  of  Louis 
XII,  and  afterwards  wife  of  Charles  Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk.  He  passes 
over  her  sister  Margaret,  who  in  1501  had  married  James  IV,  King  of  Scot 
land,  and  had  afterwards  been  Regent  during  the  minority  of  James  V, 
1513-1516;  and  consequently  passes  over  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  who  had 
been  reigning  in  Scotland  since  the  sixth  day  of  her  life  in  1542  (King  James 
her  father  died  14  Dec.  1542  ;  she  had  been  born  on  the  8th). 


Sir  Guyon  and  the  Palmer  set  forth  by  sea  to  reach  Acrasia's  Island.  Mean 
while  the  foul  spirits  assault  the  castle  of  Alma,  under  their  captain,  Male- 
ger.  Prince  Arthur  sallies  forth  upon  them,  and  after  infinite  pains,  drowns 
Maleger,  and  puts  the  whole  rout  to  flight. 

1.  This  stanza  sets  forth  the  aim  of  the  Canto — which  is,  to  describe  the 
Soul  attacked  by  the  temptations  of  the  five  Senses.    This  idea  is  worked  out 
in  Banyan's  allegory  of  Mansoul.     There  the  powers  of  evil  beleaguer  man, 
who  is  rescued  by  the  divine  aid  of  "  the  Captain  of  our  Salvation."     While, 
however,  Bunyan's  aim  was  religious  edification,  Spenser's  was  the  expression 
of  moral  conflict.     He  as  carefully  excludes  the  religious  side  from  this  alle 
gory  as  he  had  introduced  and  enforced  it  in  that  of  the  Red  Cross  Knight.   J 

2.  A  beautiful  picture  of  the  soul  ruling  over  a  pure  and  well-ordered  body.  } 
This  is  a  reminiscence  of  Spenser's  Platonic  studies. 

3,  2.   The  windowes  of  bright  heaven; — so  Gen.  7.  II. 

4,  7.  let  them  pas ; — they  are  resumed  in  Canto  xii. 

6,  I.  in  twelve  troupes; — i. e.  seven  deadly  sins;    and  five  vices  which   J 
attack  the  five  senses. 

3.  offend  his  proper  part,  &c. ; — i.  e.  do  most  damage  to  that  part  of 
man  (that  sense,  &c.)  to  which  he  was  most  akin,  or  to  which  he  was  most 
properly  opposed. 

7,  I.  The  other  five,  &c. ; — against  the  "five  senses." 

1.  Against  the  sight,  the  lust  of  the  eyes. 

2.  Against  the  hearing,  the  spirit  of  falsehood. 

3.  Against  the  smell,  the  delights  of  odours,  &c. 

4.  Against  the  taste,  greediness  and  gluttony. 

5.  Against  the  touch,  all  manner  of  carnal  delights. 

8,  I.   The  first  troupe; — such,  Upton  remarks,  is  Alcina's  crew,  Ariosto, 
Orl.  Fur.  6.  61.     So  also  Cormis: — "  Rout  of  monsters,  headed  like  sundry 
sorts  of  wild  beasts." 

338  NOTES.  [St. 

9,  9.  they  that  bulwarke  sorely  rent; — ed.  1590  reads,  'they  against  that 
bulwarke  lent.' 

10,  i.  dessignment ; — ed.  1590,  'assignment.' 

11,  4.  Some  like  to  houndes,  some  like  to  apes,  dismayd; — the  old  concep 
tion  of  vice  taking  form  of  different  animals.     Mediaeval  symbolism  used 
animals  on  both  sides — as  signs  of  virtue  or  of  vice ;  the  lion,  the  dog  (he 
however  was  both  good  and  bad),  the  leopard,  the  eagle,  &c.  were  symbolical 
of  noble  qualities ;  the  fox,  the  ape,  the  swine,  &c.  of  evil  passions.     This 
symbolism  culminates  in  the  old  satire  of  Reynard  the  Fox. 

For  '  dismayd,'  see  Glossary. 

14,  3.  ordinance ; — the  commentators  here  hold  learned  controversy  as  to 
whether  Spenser  is  justified  in  firing  off  guns  in  a  faery  tale,  or  whether  'ordi 
nance'  may  not  signify  'battering  engines.' 

15,  6.  those  two  brethren  giantes  ; — Prince  Arthur  and  Tirnias  his  squire — 
unless  indeed  it  is  a  slip,  and  Spenser  was  thinking  of  Sir  Guyon  as  still  in  the 

16,  9.  the  patrone  of  her  life; — Latinism,  her  patronus,  defender. 

17,  5.  Fayre  mote  he  thee ; — 'well  might  he  prosper.'     See  Gloss.  Thee. 

18,  i.  thicke  as  flakes,  of  snow; — so  Horn.  II.  12.  156,  278;  Virg.  Aen. 

12.  6lO. 

4.  Fine  simile  of  the  mountain  torrent.  Cp.  Horn.  II.  4.  452  ;  Virg. 
Aen.  2.  305  ;  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  39.  14;  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  19.46. 

8.  vowes  make  vaine ; — so  Pliny  has  "  preces  irritae.'     With  this  pas 
sage  cp.  Ovid,  Met.  I.  272  : 

"Sternuntur  segetes,  et  deplorata  coloni 
Vota  iacent,  longique  perit  labor  irritus  anni." 

9.  headlong  ruine ; — Latinism,  'praeceps  ruina.'     So  'caeli  ruina,'  of 
the  downfall  "of  a  thunderstorm. 

19,  7.   The  fierce  Spumador ; — Prince  Arthur's  steed.    The  horses  of  great 
knights,  down  to  Rosinante,  have  always  had  high-sounding  names.     '  Spu 
mador,'  the  foaming,  bit-champing  steed. 

9.  Such  as  Laomedon  of  Phoebus  race  did  breed; — the  '  horses  of  Lao- 
medon,'  mentioned  by  Homer  (II.  5.  265  sqq.),  had  been  originally  given  by 
Zeus  to  Laomedon's  grandfather  Tros,  in  return  for  his  son  Ganymede.  From 
Tros  they  descended  to  Ilus,  from  lius  to  Laomedon,  Priam's  father.  So  that 
Laomedon  cannot  be  said  to  have  bred  them,  though  Homer  tells  us  that 
Anchises  did  succeed  in  secretly  obtaining  some  half-divine  foals  from  them 
for  his  son  Aeneas.  Nor  are  they  said  to  be  related  to  the  horses  of  Phoebus, 
the  Sun. 

20,  2.  their  capteine  ; — Maleger.    Very  finely  conceived  is  this  incarnation 
of  Passions ;  worn  out  with  evil  desires,  as  the  name  implies  (malus,  aeger), 
terrible  to  others,  and  miserable  in  himself,  dried  up  with  the  heat  of  immoral 
life,  followed  by  two  hags,  Impotence,  the  curse  of  powerlessness,  the  conse 
quence  of  that  life,  and  feverish  Impatience.     His  terrible  tenacity  of  life,, 
and  activity  in  mischief,  his  recovery  of  strength  by  every  contact  with  earth, 
his  final  defeat  and  death,  drowned  in  a  '  standing  lake,'  are  all  remarkably 

21,  5.  Such  as    the   Indians,   &c. ; — this  refers   doubtless  to  the   North 


CANTO    XI.  239 

American   Indians,  whose   bows  and  arrows  may  have  been  brought  ovei 
among  the  curiosities  collected  by  Raleigh  in  Virginia. 

23,  8,  9.  Impotence  .  .  .  Impatience; — Passion  followed  by  weakness,  a 
weakness  that  leads  on  to  new  excesses ;  and  by  Impatience  of  all  co'ntrolj 
'  armed  with  raging  flame.' 

25,  I,  2,  speare  Soone  to  him  raitght ; — either  took  it  from  the  hand  of 
his  squire,  or  drew  it  close  in  to  himself,  and  laid  it  in  the  rest. 

9.  to  weene  approch ; — we  '  think  of  approaching,'  and  rarely  use  the 
infin.  without  its  sign  « to ' ;  except  in  the  case  of  auxiliary  verbs,  '  I  must 
go,'  '  I  shall  live,'  and  a  few  others,  as  '  to  let  be,'  '  to  hear  tell,'  '  I  saw  him 
come,'  '  I  bid  them  wait.' 

26,  7.  As  wonts  the  Tartar,  &c. ; — the  Tartar  is  here  the  lineal  descendant 
of  the  Parthian,  whose  method  of  flying  and  fighting  was  proverbial.     The 
reference  to  the  Russian  is  less  curious  than  it  might  seem ;  for  in  the  reign 
of  Ivan  the  Terrible,  the  Cossacks  and  Tartars  ravaged  the  banks  of  the 
Wolga  and  the  shores  of  the  Caspian  Sea,  and  in  A. D.  1577  the  Czar  sent 
troops  against  them,  whose  work  in  clearing  those  districts  may  well  have 
been  reported  to  the  English  by  the  merchants.     They  had  been  the  chief 
sufferers,  and  would  doubtless  have  communications  with  England. 

27,  5-   Who;— ed.  1590,  'but.' 

28,  29.  The  struggle  of  the  virtuous  man  with  weakness  and  impatience.  ^ 

29,  5.  lode  upon  him  layd; — a  proverbial  expression:   cp.  the  comm'on 
English  phrase,  'to  come  down  heavily'  on  a  person. 

30,  4.  Thai  in  assurance; — perhaps  an  anti-Calvinistic  reflection.     Man 
can  have  no  absolute  assurance  till  the  end.     Even  a  Prince  Arthur  may  be 
nearly  overcome. 

9.  grace  thee  blest; — had  not  God's  favour  defended  him.  So  in  Bk. 
I.  ix.  28,  '  God  from  him  me  blesse.' 

survive; — edd.  1590,  1596  'revive,'  but  corrected  in  the  'Faults 
Escaped'  of  1590. 

32,  6.  strives  to  mount,  &c. ; — the  notion  of  the  older  physicists  that  the 
element  of  Fire  was  confined  here  below,  and  was  ever  striving  to  rise  to  its 
natural  sphere,  the  outermost  of  the  four  concentric  circles. 

33,  2.  Out  of  his  holde; — must  here  mean  '  out  of  the  bonds  in  which  he 
was  holden.' 

3.  And  as  a  beare ; — an  allusion  to  the  then  popular  sport  of  bear- 
baiting.  '  As '  must  here  be  taken  as  =  '  like,'  and  thus  the  object  to  '  becomes 
more  fell,  &c.'  will  be  Prince  Arthur.  Or  'as'  =  'is  as,'  and  then  'becomes, 
&c.'  will  be  referred  to  the  bear.  The  parallel  of  the  simile,  in  that  case,  is 
not  drawn  out  at  all,  but  left  to  the  reader's  imagination. 

34,  2.  nor  other  harme ; — 'nor  do  harm  to  any  other  person'  (or  'to  the 
other,'  Arthur). 

9.  fild  his  place ; — '  lay  along  covering  his  allotted  amount  of  ground,' 
his  "  six-feet  of  land." 

35,9.  signe  of  sundry  ivaye; — a  stone   set  to   indicate  that  two  roads 
separated  from  that  point.     Cp.  Virg.  Aen.  12.  896: 

"  Saxum  circumspicit  ingens, 

Saxum  antiquum,  ingens,  campo  quod  forte  iacebat, 
Limes  agro  positus.  litem  ut  discerneret  arvis  " 

240  *  NOTES.  [81.36-48. 

36,  6.  as  a  faulcon,  &c. ; — simile  drawn  from  the  craft  of  falconry. 
Spenser  delights  to  take  his  illustrations  from  the  amusements  of  the  gentle 
men  of  his  age. 

39,  7.  wandring  ghost  that  -wanted  funer all ; — a  classical  allusion  mixed 
up  with  the  thoroughly  romantic  characteristics  of  this  conflict.    The  Greeks 
and  Latins  believed  that  if  a  man's  body  lay  unburied,  his  spirit  wandered 
about,  refused  admission  to  Charon's  boat,  and.  unable  to  appear  before  the 
Judges  below. 

40,  4.  a  -person  without  spright; — ' a  body  without  a  spirit,'  like  a  mask 
without  a  face  behind  it ;  Lat.  persona,  a  mask. 

43,  l.  Joves  harnesse-bearing  bird; — the  eagle  bears  Jove's  'harness,'  his 
thunder-bolts,  in  his  claws.     Cp.  Virg.  Aen.  I.  394. 

4.  That  it  rebownds ; — a  bird  falling  dead  would  scarcely  rebound  in 
fact,  however  heavy  its  fall,  as  all  its  elasticity  would  be  lost. 

44,  7.  dead-living1   swaine ; — alive  while   dead,   having   no  'spirit,'   yet 
having  '  soul,'  motion,  passion,  breath. 

9.  and  from  her  wombe,  &c. ; — like  the  fabled  Antaeus  whom  Hera 
cles  slew.     See  Lucan.  Phars.  4.  615  sqq. 

46,  I.  Tho  up  he  caught  him; — Cp.  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  19.  17: 
"Ne  con  piu  forza  da  1'adusta  arena 
Sospese  Alcide  il  gran  gigante,  e  strinse."     (Upton.) 

5.  taking   his.  full   course; — probably  equivalent  to  'reckoning  the 
whole  distance  traversed.' 

48,  6.  That  he  began  to  faint,  &c. ; — the  deadly  faintness  which  ensues 
after  a  terrible  wrestling  with  temptations.  The  human  soul  comes  out 
victorious,  but  with  suffering.  We  are  reminded'  of  Him,  to  whom  after  the 
great  victory  over  the  tempter,  angels  came  and  ministered. 


Sir  Guyon  comes  at  last  to  the  Bower  of  Bliss,  in  which  Acrasia  dwells. 
Here  he  lands,  and  enters  her  gardens,  passing,  by  the  help  of  his  monitor 
the  Palmer,  throvgh  another  subtle  series  of  temptations.  At  last  he  finds 
the  enchantress  lying  asleep  :  he  seizes  and  binds  her  fast.  Then  he  breaks 
down  the  Bower,  and  releases,  through  the  virtue  of  the  Palmer's  staff,  all 
her  wretched  victims,  save  only  Grille  the  hog,  who  chooses  to  continue  in 
that  estate. 

1,  I.  Now  gins  that  goodly  frame  of  Temperance,  &c. ; — the  poet  feels 
that  he  draws  towards  the  end  of  his  long  task,  and  he  rises  to  the  occasion. 
This  last  Canto  is  full  of  passages  of  very  great  beauty,  and  is  perhaps  the 
most  striking  part  of  all  the  Faery  Qneene.  The  influence  of  Spenser's 
imagination  and  rich  colouring  is  seen  as  clearly  in  Keats  as  in  any  later 
poet,  though  there  are  others  who  (like  Fletcher,  in  his  Purple  Island)  have 
copied  him  more  closely. 

St.  1-19.]  CANTO    XII.  241 

that; — edd.   1590,  1596  'this,'  but  corrected  in  'Faults  Escaped,' 

8.  Pleasure; — that    is,   Acrasia.      Spenser,  putting  this   trial  last   and 
counting  it  as  worst,  accepts  the  old  Greek  saying,  that  '  It  is  harder  to  fight 
against  pleasure  than  against  pain.' 

2,  6.  An  hideous  roaring,  &c. ; — so  Horn.  Od.  12.  202  : 

Kairvbv  KOI  ftfya  Kvp.a  'ioov,  real  oovirov  aicovaa- 
rwv  8'  apa  dfiadvrow  €K  \fipwv  ITTTOT'  Iper/id' 
@6/jil3r)<Tav  o'  apa  Travra  Kara  poov. 

'A    8,  4.  the  Gulfe  of  Greedinesse; — this  is  the  Chary  bdis  of  the  ancients,  ever 
"regarded  as  a  type  of  greediness.     Horn.  Od.  12.  235  ;  Virg.  Aen.  3.  420. 

9.  doe  seeme  away  to  fly  ; — PS.  114.  3,  "  The  sea  saw  that,  and  fled." 
4,  I.  an  hideous  rocke,  &c. ; — so  the  rock  of  Scylla  is  described  by  the 

ancients  ;  but  instead  of  the  horrible  sea-monster  dwelling  in  it,  Spenser  has 
given  it  magnetic  qualities. 

i.  mighty  magnes  stone; — the  magnet  is  named  from  Magnesia,  whence 
it  was  supposed  to  come.     Lucr.  6.  909 : 

"  Quern  Magneta  vocant  patrio  de  nomine  Graiei, 

Magnetum  quia  sit  patriis  in  finibus  ortus." 
9.  wawes  ; — '  waves' ;  not  '  woes,'  as  has  been  suggested. 

6,  I.  doe; — ed.  1590,  1596  'did,'  corrected  to  'doe'  in  'Faults  Escaped,' 

8,  i.  As  on  the  one  side  is  Chary  bdis  or  greediness,  past  which  snare  the 
Knight  rows  unscathed,  so  on  the  other  side  is  Scylla, '  the  Rock  of  vile 
Reproch,'  the  place  of  broken  credit  and  repute,  arising  from  extravagance. 
The  Knight  is  made  to  run  the  gauntlet  of  every  kind  of  excess  in  pleasure  : 
first  gluttony,  then  vain  show,  next  the  wandering  islands,  i.  e.  listless  idle 
ness,  and  so  on  up  to  Acrasia's  Bower. 

11,  3.  seeming  now  and  than ; — appearing  at  intervals  upon  the  sea. 

13,  I.  tb'  isle  of  Delos,  &c. ; — Delos,  says  the  legend,  was  at  first  a  float 
ing  island ;  but  Zeus  anchored  it  to  the  sea-bottom  with  an  adamantine 
chain,  that  it  might  be  a  safe  resting-place  for  Latona,  who  was  flying  from 
the  wrath  of  Here  (Juno).  There  she  brought  forth  twin  children,  Apolic 
and  Artemis.  The  island  was  afterwards  consecrated  to  Apollo,  to  whom  it 
was  held  to  belong  absolutely.  Thucydides,  3.  104,  gives  an  account  of  the 
purification  of  Delos  at  the  time  of  the  Peloponnesian  war.  See  Ovid,  Met. 
6.  186  ;  Virg.  Aen.  3.  73. 

15,  8.  the  departing  land; — departing,  either  because  her  boat  left  it,  or 
because,  being  a  wandering  island,  it  drifted  away  from  her. 

16,  2.  to   bord,  and  purpose   diversly ; — to  address   them,   and   try   all 
manner  of  talk. 

18,  7.  the  checked  wave; — any  one  will  understand  this  who  has  watched 
the  tide  running  upon  sands. 

19,  l.  a  goodly  ship  did  see,  Sec.', — the  shipwreck  of  some  noble  gentle 
man,   well  equipped,   but  cast   away  through  unthrift   and   careless  living. 
The  time  was  that  of  a  newly-awakened  interest  in  seafaring :  gentlemen 
fitted  out  gallant  ships,  and  sailed  them  themselves.     One  feels  the  power  of 
the  sea,  and,  probably,  the  influence  of  Raleigh,  in  these  descriptive  passages. 


242  NOTES.  [St. 

Raleigh,  the  poet's  most  intimate  friend,  was  just  at  this  time  especially  keen 
•on  such  adventure. 

21,  3.  th'  utmost  sandy  breach ; — the  very  end  of  the  sandbank,  on  which 
the  sea  was  breaking. 

23,  6.  Spring-headed  hydraes  ;  and  sea-shouldring  whales  ; — i.  e.  Hydras 
with  many  heads  springing  from  their  necks,  and  whales  which  from  their 
bigness  shoulder  away  the  waves  from  them.     The  hydra  is  an  amphibious 
monster,  a  huge  water-snake,  seven-headed  ;  whenever  one  head  was  cut  off, 
two  new  ones  instantly  sprang  up  in  its  place.     Hence  the  epithet  '  spring- 

7  whirlpooles; — Gesner,  vol.  iii.  p.  256  (1558),  says,  "  Whirlpoole 
ab  Anglis  dictus  cetus  balaena  est.  Videtur  a  vorticibus,  quos  turbinis  instar 
in  aqua  excitat,  nomen  habere."  In  Job  41.  I,  leviathan  is  rendered  in  the 
margin,  '  a  whale  or  whirlpool.'  This  whale  was  also  called  thurlepoole. 

8.  sColopendraes ; — a  marine  insect,  a  palm  long,  said  by  Avicenna  to 
have  forty-four  legs,  like  a  centipede.     Its  bite  was  poisonous,  and  it  had  a 
sting  in  its  tail.     This  is  probably  not  the  monster  meant  by  Spenser. 

•9.  monoceros ; — the  narwhal,  a  whale  scarcely  known  when  Spensei 
wrote.  Or  he  may  mean  the  sword-fish,  which  has  only  one  '  horn,'  and  is  a 
sufficiently  formidable  sea-monster.  See  Gesner,  Hist.  Animalium,  vol.  iii. 
p.  645  (1558)  :  "  Monoceros  est  monstrum  marinum,  habens  in  fronte  cornu 
maximum,  quo  naves  obvias  penetrare  potest  ac  destruere,  et  hominum  mul- 
titudinem  perdere."  He  also,  p.  247,  gives  a  picture  of  the  monoceros  of 
Olaus  Wormius,  but  deems  it  fabulous. 

Notice  the  halting  of  this  line.  '  Mighty  mon6ceros  with  unmeasured 

24,  i.  The  dreadfull  fish ; — Gesner  (p.  249)  says  that  Mors  is  another 
name  for  the  '  Rosemary.'    On  p.  498  he  describes  a  big  brute,  half  sea-calf, 
half  hippopotamus,  as  the  Mortz. 

3.  The  griesly  wasserman ; — Gesner  (pp.  519-522)  gives  some  varie 
ties  of  these  maritime  demons,  with  their  portraits.  There  seems  to  have 
been  a  water-monk,  and  a  water-bishop ;  both  under  the  heading  "  Homo 

5.  sea-satyre; — Gesner  (p.  1197)  gives  us  this  monster  as  "Pan,  vel 
Satyrus  marinus,"  with 'his  picture,  and  calls  it  a  *;  daemon  marinus.'' 

7.  ztffius; — Gesner  (p.  249)  classes  ziffius  under  the  whales.  His 
account  of  him  is  that  "  if  you  saw  his  face,  you  would  say  it  was  utterly 
monstrous  ;  if  the  abyss  of  his  mouth,  you  would  flee  as  from  the  picture  of 
death  ;  if  his  eyes,  you  would  shudder ;  if  his  whole  body,  you  would  declare 
there  was  nothing  like  it  in  the  world."  Gesner's  picture  bears  out  his 

9.  greedy  rosmarines ; — Gesner   (p.    249)   pourtrays   the   Rosmarus 
among  the  whales.    He  says  of  him  that  he  is  as  big  as  an  elephant ;  that  he 
climbs  up  the  shore  and  eats  grass  ;  and  when  he  wants  to  sleep,  hangs  him 
self  by  his  teeth  to  a  rock.     He  then  slumbers  so  soundly  that  fishermen  can 
throw  ropes  and  nets  round  him  and  capture  him. 

26,  5.  draw  from  on  this  journey  to  procsede; — notice  this  construction, 
'  from  to  proceed.'  The  substantival  use  of  the  infin.  is  common  to  many 
languages.  So  Schiller's  famous  "  Sterben  ist  nichts ;  doch  leben  und  nich 

21-36.]  CANTO    XII.  243 

seben — Dass  1st  das  Ungiiick."  (Wilhelm  Tell.)  Once  grant  this  substantival 
infin.,  and  the  use  of  the  preposition  with  it,  whether  'for  to*  or  'from  to,' 
becomes  perfectly  natural,  though  our  language  rather  shrinks  from  the  use 
of  abstract  forms,  and  has  gradually  dropped  these  phrases.  The  '  for'  early 
became  quite  pleonastic;  as  in  the  English  Bible  of  1611,  Matt,  xxvii.  6, 
"It  is  not  lawful  for  to  put  them  into  the  treasury,"  where  the  force  of  the 
preposition  is  quite  lost.  'For  to'  is  still  retained  in  vulgar  speech. 

6.  vertuons  staffe  ; — his  miraculous  staff,  having  '  virtue'  in  it.   Tasso's 
Ubaldo  has  a  similar  wand:  Gier.  Lib.  14.  73;  15.  49.     It  is  the  proper 
accompaniment  of  all  workers  of  wonders  or  magicians,  from  Moses'  rod 

9.  great  Tetbys  bosome ; — Tethys,  daughter  of  Uranus  and  Gaea,  was 
Ocean's  wife,  and  sea-gods  and  sea-monsters  were  her  offspring. 

30,  2.  it  was  a  still,  &c. ; — This  is  Virgil's  bay,  Aen.  I.  159  sqq. 

7.  did  like  an  balfe  theatre  fulfill ; — completed  a  semicircle  (not  an 
ampbitbealre,  as  Upton  says),  which  looked  down  on  the  quiet  bay  and 

31,  I.  They  were  faire  ladies,  &c. ; — Spenser  has,  as  usual,  altered  the 
classical  legend  to  his  own.  mind.     The  Sirens  were  mythical  ladies,  who  had 
the  power  of  enchanting  passers-by  to  their  ruin.     They  are  not  mermaids  in 
classical  times ;  late  poets  grant  them  wings,  but  make  no  other  deviation 
from  human  form.     They  were  not  five  in  number,  but  two  or  three. 

2.  With  tV  Heliconian  maides ; — the  Muses,  who  had  their  especial 
seat  upon  the  eastern  side  of  Mount  Helicon,  where  was  a  grove  sacred  to 
them,  and  the  well-known  fountain  of  Aganippe.  Pindar  calls  the  Muses 
(Isthm.  7  (8).  126)  'E\iKwviai  irapOfvoi.  This  musical  contest  between 
Sirens  and  Muses  answers  to  no  classical  legend ;  but  it  is  well  conceived. 
The  student  will  do  well  to  contrast  this  passage  of  Spenser  with  the  account 
of  the  Sirens  in  the  Odyssey  (12.  166-200).  Spenser's  bay  has  a  modern 
beauty  about  it,  which  Homer's  Siren  Island  misses ;  his  description  of  the 
Sirens  is  more  grotesque  than  Homer's,  as  we  should  expect  in  a  '  Gothic ' 
poem.  The  two  songs  are  very  different  in  tone  and  character :  Spenser's 
suggests  sweet  rest  and  quiet  after  storm ;  Homer's  tempts  Ulysses  by  a  pro 
mise  of  an  epic  upon  the  labours  of  Troy.  The  harmony  of  nature,  also  a 
more  modern  conception,  comes  out  very  clearly  in  Spenser,  st.  33.  We  feel 
his  exquisite  sense  of  harmonious  sounds,  for  which  this  canto  is  remarkable 
throughout.  The  victory  of  Sir  Guyon  over  this  temptation  is  far  nobler 
than  that  of  Ulysses,  who,,  bound  doubly  and  trebly  to  the  mast,  with  ges 
ture  and  voice  beseeches  his  sailors  (whose  ears  are  stopped  with  wax,  so  that 
they  cannot  hear)  to  loose  him,  that  he  may  go  to  them.  Finally,  Spenser's 
passage  avoids  the  grim  accessories  of  the  shore  strewed  with  dead  men's 
bones  and  garbage.  (Od.  12.  45,  46.)  It  would  have  jarred  on  the  sense  of 
calm  sweetness"  and  beauty  ;  it  would  have  lessened  the  force  of  the  tempta 
tion,  had  Guyon  espied  these  evidences  of  the  Sirens'  deadly  power.  On  the 
whole,  Homer  is  more  forcible,  Spenser  more  beautiful. 

32,  8.  the  port  of  rest; — so  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  15.  63. 

34,  5.  a  grossefog ; — notice  the  sharp  clear  touches  with  which  the  poet 
paints  the  coming  on  of  a  fog. 

36,  4.   The  ill-faste  owl ; — see  Bk.  I.  v.  30,  and  note  there. 
R  2 

244  NOTES.  [St.' 

36,  5.   The  hoars  night-raven; — always  regarded  as  a  weird,  uncanny  bird. 
See  Milton,  Allegro : 

"  Where  brooding  darkness  spreads  her  jealous  wings, 
And  the  night-raven  sings." 

6.  The  .  .  .  bat,  dayes  enimy ; — naturally  introduced  in  the  dark  fog. 

7.  The  ruefull  strich,  still  watting  on  the  here ; — the  screech-owl.  Also 
called  the  licb-o\vl,  or  bird  of  death.     So  Ovid,  Met.  10.  452  : 

"Ter  omen 

Funereus  bubo  letali  carmine  fecit." 
So  also  Drayton's  Owl  (quoted  by  Nares),  has : 

"  The  shrieking  litch-owl,  that  doth  never  cry 
But  boding  death,  and  quick  herself  inters 
In  darksome  graves,  and  hollow  sepulchres." 
9.   The  hellish  harpies; — see  above,  vii.  23. 

37,  8.  The  sacred  soils ; — Latinism,  sacer,  accursed.     So  i.  51 : 

'  Shonne 
The  cursed  land,  where  many  wend  amis.' 

38,  3.  crooked  keele ; — i.  e.  at  the  bow  of  the  boat. 

41,  2.  Caduceus ; — Mercury's  rod;  it  was  an  olive-branch,  or  wand,  around 
which  two  snakes  were  twined.     He  used  it  to  quell  all  discord  and  disturb 
ance.     It  is  said  that  Apollo  invented  it,  and  exchanged  it  for  a  lyre. 

4.   With  which  he  wonts  the  Stygian  realmes  invade ; — So  Virgil,  Aen. 
4.  242  : 

"  Turn  virgam  capit :   hac  animas  ille  evocat  Oreo 

Pallentes,  alias  sub  Tartara  tristia  mittit." 
And  Horace,  Od.  I.  10,  18  : 

"Virgaque  levem  coerces 
Aurea  turbam." 

42,  2.  the  Bowre  of  glisse ; — upon  this  description  Spenser  has  expended 
all  the  riches  of  his  imagination.    His  Faery-land  is  intended  to  heighten  the 
contrast  between  the  good  and  the  evil  land — that  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  the 
Faery  Queene,  and  that  of  vice  and  luxury.     It  also  heightens  the  continual 
triumph  of  virtue  over  the  most  seductive  forms  of  temptation.     Compare 
Tasso's  Bower  of  Armida,  Gier.  Lib.  15  and  1 6. 

43,  5.  Nought  feard  their  force,  that  fortilage  to  win,  But,  &c. ; — this 
seems  to  signify  that  '  their  force'  (i.e.  the  power  of  the  wild  beasts  without) 
in  no  respect  frightened  them  ('  feared'  is  so  used  by  Spenser  =  to  affear,  or 
terrify),  lest  they  should  get  in ;  but  Wisdom  and  Temperance  did  frighten 
them.     The  fence  was  '  weake  and  thin ; '   but  the  guests  feared  not  the 
beasts   without ;    what  they  really  feared  was  Wisdom   and  Temperance, 
against  whom  the  mightiest  fence  would  have  been  powerless. 

44,  4.  Jason  and  Medaea; — Love  and  Magic;    and  then  '  falsed  faith' 
«  when  Jason  deserted  Medea  for  Creiisa,  Creon's  daughter.     The  latter  part 

of  the  tale  is  worked  out  by  Euripides,  Medea  ;  also  by  Ovid,  Met.  7. 

8.  The  wondred  Argo  ; — the  famous  ship  of  the  Argonauts. 

45,  6.  like  the  boyes  bloud ; — the  blood  of  Medea's  children  murdered  by 
her  in  her  terrible  revenge. 

9.  tb'  enchaunted  flame,   &c. ; — Medea   sent  Glauce  (or   Creiisa)  a 
magical  medicated  robe,  which  destroyed  her  by  fire  when  she  put  it  on. 

36-74-]  CANTO    XII.  245 

47,  I.  him  Genius  did  call ; — there  were  two  sorts  of  genius  (according  to] 
Servius  ad  Aen.  6.  743),  good  and  bad.     Spenser  here  follows  that  division.^ 
See  the  passage  from  Natalis  Comes,  4.  3,  quoted  by  T.  Warton. 

2.  Not  that  celestial  poiure ; — this  'Genius'  of  the  Romans  was  an  \ 
emanation  from  the  gods.     To  him  the  marriage-bed  was  sacred  ('  lectus    I 
genialis  '),  as  Spenser  hints  in  this  place  ;  he  was  the  spirit  of  renovation  and  / 
plenty  ;  he  inspired  good  thoughts,  warned  men  of  evil,  escorted  them  toy 
another  world.     They  were  called  Daemons  by  the  Greeks. 

8.   That   is   our   Selfe ; — Spenser    inclines    to    the    opinion    of  those~^ 
who  make  the  Socratic  Daemon  only  a  Conscience,  or  Moral  Sense.     The    / 
ancients  never  confound  these  '  guardian  angels '  with  the  men  whose  inte 
rests  they  watched  over.  ^  &c,^-+*-r-~+*-~*  J   t-*"* 

48,  2.  good  Agdistes; — Agdistis    is    a    mythical    being,  connected   with 
Phrygian  rites  of  worship,  and  with  the  symbolical  worship  of  the  powers  of 
nature.      Eiesychius   arid  Strabo   make  Agdistis  the  same  as  Cybele.     The 
ancients  did  not  connect  this  being  with  the  Genius.    This  connection  comes 
from  Natalis  Comes,  4.  3  (quoted  by  T.  Warton). 

Zft^j^Jflprfies  prid<> ;— the  wedHing^of  Nature  and  Art  in  gardening. 

51,  i.  bevens  alwayes  joviall ; — '  jovialP  is  '  sub  Jove,'  clear,  serene.    Cp. 
Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  15.  9. 

52,  I.  the  pleasaunt  bill  Of  Rbodope ; — a  desolate,  high  mountain  on  the 
frontiers  of  Thrace  and  Macedonia :  far  from  being  a  '  pleasant  hill.'    There 
was  on  it  a  great  sanctuary  of  the  Thracian  Dionysus.     Spenser's  notion  of 
it  comes  from  Ovid,  Met.  10.  86  sqq. 

i.  on  which  the  nimphe,  &c. ; — this  story  is  told  in  Plutarch,  De  Flut. 
p.  23  ;  and  is  alluded  to  by  Ovid,  Met.  6.  87.  (Upton.) 

4.  Tbessalian  Ternpe; — here  too  the  scenery  is  wild  and  grand,  not 
soft  and  garden-like,  as  Spenser  conceives.  Tempe  is  a  long,  deep  defile, 
difficult  of  access,  five  miles  long,  with  steep,  frowning  cliffs. 

6.  Ida; — the  famous  hill  of  Phrygia. 

8.  I^arnasse ; — the  hill  sacred  to  Apollo  and  the  Muses. 

9.  Eden  selfe; — Spenser  is  blamed  for  mixing  sacred  conceptions  with 
classical ;  as  also  in  Bk.  I.  x.  54. 

57.  Compare  with  this  stanza  Milton's  account  of  the  brothers  breaking 
Comus'  cup,  Comus  651. 

58.  9.  The  art,  &c. ; — 'ars  celare  artem.'     So  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  16.  9, 
whence  this  description  is  largely  drawn  : 

"  L'arte,  che  tutto  fa,  nulla  si  scopre." 

59.  This  stanza  comes  straight  from  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  16.  10  ;  and  the 
fountain  from  the  same,  15.  55,  &c. 

70,  6.  what  manner  ninsicke ; — the  Old  English  usage  of  *  manner,'  com 
mon  in  Chaucer.     So  Spenser  also  uses  '  mister,'  '  what  mister  wight,'  Bk.  I. 
ix.  23. 

71.  Notice  the  extraordinary  art  with  which  this  sequence  is  carried  on.\ 
The  intricacy  of  it  is  intended  to  give  a  sense  of  infinitely  complicated,  and  j 
so  harmonious  and  gentle,  sounds ;  while  out  of  it  all  arises  the  sweet  human 
voice  of  one  who  sings.     Cp.  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib.  16.  12. 

74.   For  this  love  lay,  cp.  Ariosto.  i.  58  ;  but  especially  Tasso,  Gier.  Lib. 
16.  14,  on  which  it  is  modelled. 

246  NOTES. 

J.  C.  Walker  quotes  a  stanza  from  G.  Niccolo  degli  Agostini,  4.  7,  whence 
Spenser  seems  to  have  drawn  this  image  of  the  rose  almost  literally. 

3.  the  image  of  thy  day ; — the  likeness  of  thy  day  of  life.     This  is 
the  old  strain  of  "  Gather  your  rosebuds,"  &c.,  the  Epicurean  "  Carpe  diem." 
75,  6.  Gather  therefore,  &c. ; — so  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur.  1.58: 
"  Corro  la  fresca  e  mattutina  rosa 
Che  tardando  stagion  perder  potria." 

79,  7.  Yet  sleeping ; — absolute  nom.  =  '  he  yet  sleeping.' 

80,  2.  sleeping  praise ; — Latinism,  praise  being  used  as  Virgil  uses  ''laus' 
=  virtus. 

'""81,4.  A   subfile  net; — this   is   drawn  from  Vulcan's  cunning  net,  with 
which  he  captures  Mars  and  Venus,  in  the  Iliad.     Cp.  also  Ariosto,  Orl.  Fur. 

IS-  56. 

85,  I.  These  seeming  beasts; — again  the  menagerie  of  Circe. 

5.  like  monstruous ;— in  shape  they  have  become  monstrous,  like  their 
disordered  minds. 

86,  7.  Grille ;— the  hoggish  mind  alone  refuses  to  be  restored  to  human 
shape.     The  incident  is  found  in  Plutarch's  Dialogue,  irepl  rov  rci  dXofa 
\6yq>  xprjaOai.     An  allusion  also  to  2  Pet.  2.  22,  perhaps.     The  force  and 
vigour  of  these  last  touches  are  very  remarkable.     The  poet  does  not  end 
with  abstract  moralities  or  reflections.     The  work  is  done  ;  one  touch  of  thei 
grotesque  relieves  the  sense  of  sadness  caused  by  the  breaking-down  of  iht? 
earthly  Paradise.     Grille  shews,  more  plainly  than  a  dozen  ethical  stanzas 
would  have  done,  the  degradation  and  loss  of  human  qualities,  of  self-respect, 
of  aims  above  sense,  which  are  the  natural  outcome  of  the  life  of  sensual 

delights,  however  beautiful  and  refined.     The  victorious  Knight  has  dong 

his  work  without  a  word :  and,  with  the  sententious  Palmer,  spurns  from 
him  the  degraded  brute,  and  departs. 


List  of  Books  cited,  with  explanation  of  references. 

Dictionaries,  Glossaries. 
Baretti:  Italian  Dictionary.  1839. 

Bartsch  :  Chrestomathie  de  1'ancien  Fran9ais.   1880  (Glossaire). 
Brachet:  French  Diet.,  translated  by  Kitchin.   1878. 
Burguy  :  Glossaire  de  la  langue  d' Oil.  1856. 
Catholicon  Anglicum  :  ed.  Herrtage,  E.  E.  T.  S.   1882. 
Chaucer:  ed.  Morris.  1880  (Glossary). 
Chaucer  i :  ed.  Morris,  Prologue,  &c.          \ 
Chaucer  2  :  ed.  Skeat,  Prioresses  Tale,  &c.  >   Glossaries. 
Chaucer  3  :  ed.  Skeat,  Man  of  Lawe,  &c.    ) 
Coleridge:  Glossarial  Index.  1852. 
Cotgrave  :  French  and  English  Diet.  1611. 
Davies :  Supplementary  English  Glossary.   1881. 
Diez:  Etymologisches  Worterbuch.  1878. 
Ducange :  Lexicon  Manuale;  Maigne  D'Arnis.   1866. 
Pick:  Worterbuch  der  Indogerman.  Sprachen.   1874.. 
Florio:  Italian  and  English  Diet.  1659. 

Gloss.  T  :  Glossary  to  Faery  Queene,  Book  i.     Clarendon  Press,  1881. 
Grein  :  Glossary  to  Anglo-Saxon  Poetry.   1861. 
Halliwell :  Diet,  of  Archaic  and  Provincial  Words.   1874. 
Hilpert:  German-English  Diet.  1857. 
Heliand  :  ed.  Heyne  (Glossary). 

Icel.  Diet. :  Icelandic  Diet,  by  Cleasby  and  Vigfusson.    1874 
Jamieson:  Scottish  Diet.  1867. 
Leo:  Angelsachsisches  Glossar.   1877. 
M.S.  I :  Specimens  of  Early  English,  ed.  R.  Morris.   1882. 
M.S.  2 :         „  „       „          „        ed.  Morris  and  Skeat.   1873. 

Nares:  Glossary.  1876. 
O'Reilly:  Irish-English  Diet.  1864. 

Palserave:  L'Ksclaircissement  de  la  langue  Fran^-aise.  1530. 
P.  Plowman,  C.  P. :  ed.  Skeat,  Clarendon  Press.  1869. 
Prompt.  Parv. :  Promptorium  Parvulorum,  ed.  Way.  1865. 
Richardson:  English  Diet.  1867. 
Roquefort  :  Glossaire  de  la  langue  Romane.   1808. 
Schmid  :  Gesetze  der  Angelsachsen.   1858  (Glossar.). 
Schmidt:  Shakspere  Lexicon.   1874. 
Skeat:  Etymological  Diet,  of  Eng.  Lang.   1882 
Stratmann:  Diet,  of  the  Old  Eug.  Lang.  1873. 
Sweet:  Anglo-Saxon  Reader.  1879  (Glossary). 
Trench:  Select  Glossary.  1879. 


Webster-Mahn :  English  Diet.  1875. 
Weigand:  Deutsches  Worterbuch.  1878. 

Grammars,  Philological  "Works. 

Curtius:  Grundziige  der  Griechischen  Etymologic.   1873. 
Earle:  Philology  of  the  English  Tongue.  1879. 
Morris:  Historical  Outlines  of  English  Accidence.   1876. 
M.  Miiller  :  Lectures  on  the  Science  of  Language.   1871. 
M.  Miiller,  Chips:  Chips  from  a  German  Workshop.  1875. 
P.  Plowman :  notes  to,  by  Skeat :  E.  E.  T.  S.   1877. 
Rhys  :  Lectures  on  Welsh  Philology.   1879. 
Sweet:  A.  S.  Reader  (with  grammar).   1879. 


Ancren  Riwle  :  ed.  Morton.     Camden  Soc.    1853. 

A.  S.  Chron. :  Two  Saxon  Chronicles,  ed.  Earle.   1865. 

Chanson  de  Roland  :  ed.  Gautier.   1881. 

More's  Utopia  :  translated  by  Robynson,  ed.  Lumby.    1879. 

Spenser:  Complete  Works,  ed.  Morris.   1879. 

Wiclif,  N.  T. :  New  Test.,  ed.  Skeat.   1879. 

Wiclif,  O.  T. :  Old  Test.  1881. 

Abbreviations  (Languages), 
A.  S.=  Anglo-Saxon.  |        M.  E.  Middle  English. 

M.  H.G.  =  Middle  High  German. 
O.  H.  G.  =  Old  High  German. 
O.  N.=Old  Norse  (Icelandic). 
O.  S.  =  Old  Saxon. 
Scot.  =  Lowland  Scotch. 
Sk.  =  Sanscrit. 
Sp.  =  Spanish. 

Dr..  =  Dutch. 

Fr.=  French. 

O.  Fr.  =  Old  French. 

Ger.  =  German. 

Go.  =  Gothic. 

Gr.  =  Greek. 

Heb.  =  Hebrew. 

It.  =  Italian.  Sw.  =  Swedish. 

Lat.=  Latin.  W.  =  Welsh. 

L.  Lat.=Late  Latin. 

Other  Abbreviations. 

adj.  =  adjective.  pp.  =  past  participle, 

adv.  =  adverb.  pret.  =  preterite, 

cp.  —  compare.  sb.  =  substantive. 

exx.  =  examples.  s.  v.  =  sub  verbo  (under  the  word), 

pi.  =  plural.  vb.  =  verb. 

A.  V.  =  Authorised  Version. 
C.  T.=  Canterbury  Tales. 

N.B.     The  semicolon  stop  ' 


I        F.  Q.  =  Faery  Queene. 
P.  L.  =  Paradise  Lost. 

before  forms  is  equivalent  to  the  symbol  — 

in  Skeat's  Etymological  Diet.,  and  is  to  be  read  '  directly  derived  from,'  or 
'  borrowed  from.'  The  abbreviation  'cp.'  is  equivalent  to  Skeat's  symbol  +, 
and  is  used  to  introduce  cognate  forms,  having  no  part  in  the  direct  history 
of  the  word. 




Abace,  i.  26,  to  lower;  O.  Fr. 
abaisser  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat.  abas- 
sare  (Ducange)  ;  ad  +  bassare  ; 
from  bassus,  low,  prop,  stout, 
short  (Diez,  p.  45)  ;  see  Bace. 

Aband,  x.  65,  to  abandon ;  con 
tracted  from  abandon;  see  Halli- 
well ;  O.  Fr.  abandoner,  to  give 
up  into  the  power  of  another 
(Bartsch),  from  a  bandon,  at  the 
free  will,  discretion  of  any  one ; 
O.  Fr.  bandon  (L.  Lat.  bando- 
nem*)  is  from  L.  Lat.  bandum  or 
bannum,  an  order,  decree,  from 
O.  H.  G.  ban,  a  proclamation. 
For  this  meaning  of  bandon,  '  free 
disposal,  unfettered  authority/  cp. 
Chanson  de  Roland,  2703,  'All 
Spain  will  be  to-day  en  lur  ban- 
dun,'  i.  e.  in  their  power,  en  leurs 

Abate,  ii.  19,  to  beat  down ;  O.  Fr. 
abatre  (Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat.  abbat- 
tere ;  see  Brachet  (s.  v.  abattre). 

Abord,  vi.  4.  For  on  board;  see 
Skeat  (s.v.  A-  prefix). 

Abash,  vii.  42,  to  frighten,  amaze; 
M.  E.  abaischen,  cp.  Wiclif,  Mk. 
5.  42,  '  Thei  weren  abaischid 
with  a  greet  stonying,' =  obstu- 
puerunt  stupore  magno  (Vulgate)  ; 
O.  Fr.  esbahiss-,  stem  of  pres.  part, 
of  esbahir  (Fr.  ebahir),  to  as 
tonish;  es  (  =  Lat.  ex,  out,  often, 
intensitive)  +  bahir,  to  be  amazed, 
to  cry  bah !  For  the  final  -sh,  Fr. 
-iss,  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  abash). 

Abusion,  deceit,  fraud:  M.  E. 
abusioun  (Chaucer)  ;  see  also  Hal- 
liwell ;  O.  Fr.  abus'ion  (Bartsch) 
from  abuser,  to  use  amiss ;  from 
Lat.  abusus,  pp.  of  abuti,  to  mis 
use  ;  ab  +  uti. 

Abyde,  i.  20  ;  Aby,  viii.  33 ;  used 
with  '  dearely,'  to  suffer  for  a 
thing;  so  Shakespeare  'lest  thou 
abide  it  dear,'  Mids.  Nt.  Dream, 

iii.  2.  1 75,  where  the  first  quarto 
has  '  aby,'  the  latter  being  the 
correct  form;  M.  E.  abyen,  to 
buy  off  (Chaucer)  ;  A.  S.  dbycgan  ; 
d-  (intensitive)  +  bycgan,  to  buy  ; 
see  Skeat  (s.  v.  abide,  2). 

Accloye,  vii.  15,  to  stop  up,  en 
cumber,  choke  (with  weeds)  ;  see 
Halliwell,  Palsgrave  ;  O.  Fr.  cloyer 
in  encloyer,  to  stop  up  (Cotgrave), 
>a  form  of  O.Fr.  doer  (mod.  clover) 
to  nail,  fasten  up ;  from  O.  Fr. 
do  (mod.  clou),  a  nail ;  Lat.  cla- 
vum,  ace.  of  clavus,  a  nail;  see 
STceat  (s.  v.  cloy). 

Accorage,  ii.  38,  to  encourage; 
Fr.  accourager  (Cotgrave);  see 
Cor  age. 

Accord,  ii.  30,  to  bring  to  terms, 
reconcile  a  matter ;  Fr.  accorder 
(Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat.  ac-cordare, 
to  bring  to  terms  (Ducange) ; 
from  ad  +  cord-,  stem  of  cor,  the 

Accord,  iv.  21 ;  ix.  2  ;  x.  66,  agree 
ment  ;  a  subst.  formed  from  the 

According,  x.  71,  accordingly;  so 
Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt. 

Accourting,  ii.  16,  entertaining 
courteously ;  see  court. 

Accoyl,  ix.  30,  to  gather  together ; 
O.  Fr.  acoillir  (mod.  accueillir)  ; 
L.  Lat.  accollegere) ;  ad  +  colli- 

Achates,  ix.  31,  provisions,  lit.  pur 
chases;  M.  E.  achates  (Chaucer)  ; 
Fr.  achat,  achet,  a  thing  purchased 
(Cotgrave)  ;  from  O.  Fr.  achater, 
acater,  achapter  (Bartsch) ;  L. 
Lat.  accaptare ;  Lat.  ad  +  captare ; 
see  Brachet  (s.  v.  acheter).  An 
other  form  of  achates  is  M.  E. 
acates,  victuals,  delicacies,  whence 
acatour  (catour),  a  buyer  of  pro 
visions,  whence  our  cater,  to  buy 
provisions ;  see  Skeat. 

Acquight,  xii.  3,  to  deliver;  Fr. 
acquiter  (Cotgrave)  ;  L.  Lat.  '  ac- 



quietare,  quietum  et  securum  red- 
^ere,  absolvere — vox  forensis'  (Du- 
cange)  ;  from  L^  Lat.  quietus,  out 
of  debt.  Glossal,  Acquite. 

Address,  iii.  I,  to  prepare,  clothe, 
arm;  O.  Fr.  adresser,  adrecier 
(Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat.  addretiare  (Du- 
cange),  a  verb  formed  from  L. 
Lat.  drictus,  Lat.  directus,  straight. 

Admire,  Introd.  4,  to  be  surprised  ; 
Fr.  admirer;  Lat.  admirari',  see 

Advaunce,  iv.  46 ;  xi.  34,  to  bring 
forward,  to  raise,  iv.  36,  to  show, 
boast ;  so  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt 
(s.  v.  advance")  ;  advance  is  a  mis 
taken  form,  in  the  i6th  cent.,  for 
M.  E.  avancen  (Stratmann)  ;  Fr. 
avancer,  from  avant,  before ; 
avant  =  Lat.  ab  +  ante ;  see  Bra- 

Advise,  avise,  avize,  vii.  38  ;  ix. 
38;  x.  31;  xii.  17,  to  consider 
(a  reflexive,  vi.  46)  ;  i.  31  ;  ix.  59, 
to  look  at;  vi.  27,  to  advise,  ad 
monish  ;  O.  Fr.  aviser,  to  be  of 
opinion,  from  avis,  an  opinion, 
a  word  due  to  the  phrase  il  rrfest 
a  vis,  my  opinion  is  that  .  .  . ;  vis 
=  Lat.  visum,  that  which  has 
seemed  good  to  one. 

Advizement,  v.  1 3,  consideration ; 
ix.  9,  advice ;  see  Halliwell. 

Affeare,  iii.  20  (ed.  1590),  45; 
xii.  2  ;  to  frighten  ;  M.  E.  afered 
(Chaucer)  ;  A.  S.  dfdran  (Grein), 
from  far,  a  sudden  peril,  fear ; 
orig.  used  of  the  peril  of  travel 
ling;  related  to  A.  S.  (ge)faran, 
to  go,  travel ;  cp.  Ger.  Gefahr, 

Affoord,  vi.  19,  to  yield,  to  con 
sent  :  see  Shakespeare  (Schmidt, 
s.  v.  afford);  M.  E.  aforthen, 
to  provide  ;  A.  S.  geforftian,  to 
further,  provide  ;  see  Skeat. 

Affrap,  i.  26,  to  strike  sharply ;  It. 
affrappdre  (Baretti),  from  frap- 
pdre;  Fr.  f rapper',  O.N.hrapa, 

to  rush,  to  bluster  (Icel.  Diet.); 
see  Diez,  p.  588. 

Affright,  iv.  30,  terror,  fright;  not 
to  be  confused  with  qffret,  furious 
onset  (F.  CL  III.  ix.  16),  a  word 
probably  connected  with  It.fretta, 

Affront,  v.  20,  to  face;  O.  Fr. 
afronter  (Burguy)  ;  L.  Lat.  affron- 
tare  (Ducange),  from  Lat.  ad  + 
front-,  stem  of  frons,  the  fore 

Affyaunce,  iv.  21,  betrothal;  O.Fr. 
ajiance,  a  promising,  from  afier, 
to  promise  faithfully  (Bartsch); 
L.  Lat.  affidare  (Ducange),  from 
Lzt.Jidem,  faith. 

Afore,  iv.  4;  xii.  15,  before  (of 
place  and  time)  ;  A.  S.  onforan. 

Against,  ix.  27,  in  provision  for 
the  time  when;  so  Shakespeare 

Aggrace,  xii.  58,  to  lend  a  charm 
to;  It. aggrazidre (Baretti).  Gloss. 
I,  Agraste.  viii.  56,  goodwill, 

Aggrate,  ix.  34;  xii.  42,  85,  to 
please ;  It.  aggratare  (Florio) ; 
L.  Lat.  aggratare  ;  hence  O.  Fr. 
agreer.  See  Agree. 

Aghast,  viii.  4,  struck  with  horror; 
M.  E.  agaste  (Chaucer  2)  pret.  of 
agasten,  to  terrify.  Gloss.  I. 

Agonyes  (House  of),  ix.  52,  the 
districts  of  the  heavens  in  which 
the  planet  Saturn  rises ;  see  note. 

Agree,  iv.  3,  to  settle,  quiet,  ap 
pease  ;  O.  Fr.  agreer,  to  please 
(Bartsch);  L.  Lat.  aggratare, 
from  Lat.  gratum,  pleasing.  See 

Agrise,  vi.  46,  to  disfigure  horribly. 
This  usage  of  the  word  seems 
peculiar  to  Spenser.  A.  S.  d-grys- 
an,  to  fear  greatly,  to  be  horri 
fied  (Leo)  ;  cp.  Ger.  er-grausen, 
to  fear,  to  horrify. 

Aguise,  i.  21,  31 ;  vi.  7»  to  dress 
out,  adorn;  from  guize. 



Alablaster,  ix.  44,  alabaster;  so 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt)  ;  M.  E.  see 
Catholicon  Anglicum  ;  O.  Fr.  ala- 
bastre  (mod.  albalre)  ;  Lat.  ala 
baster  ;  Gr.  aXa&aOTpov,  aka- 

Alarmes,  vi.  34,  summons  to  arms, 
notice  of  hostile  attack  ;  see  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt)  ;  O.  Fr.  alarms 
(Bartsch)  ;  It.  all'  arme,  to  arms  ! 
The  word  alarum  is  merely  a 
Northern  Eng.  form  of  alarm  ; 
see  Skeat  ;  see  Lamm-bell. 

Albe,  vi.  4;  viii.  28,  although. 
Gloss.  I. 

Algates,  i.  2;  ii.  12,  wholly,  alto 
gether;  v.  20,  37,  at  all  events, 
by  all  means;  jamieson.  M.  E. 
algatis,  omnimodo  (Catholicon 
Anglicum).  Lit.  by  all  ways  ; 
gate  means  a  way  ;  O.  N.  gata, 
a  path,  road  ;  cp.  Ger.  gasse,  a 
street.  See  Gate. 

All,  i.  46,  altogether  ;  so  in  various 
dialects  (Halliwell). 

Allegaunce,  v.  13,  allegiance,  the 
duty  of  a  subject  to  his  liege  lord, 
from  Fr.  ligence,  liegemanship 
(Cotgrave),  from  O.  Fr.  lige, 
liege  :  see  Liege. 

Als,  i.  7,  40,  also.     Gloss.  I. 

Amate,  i.  6,  ii.  5,  to  daunt,  stupefy  ; 
Fr.  amatir,  emmatir,  'to  amate, 
quaile'  (Cotgrave),  from  O.  Fr. 
mat,  beaten,  subdued,  weak 
(Bartsch).  Mat  was  orig.  a  chess 
term,  like  our  mate  in  checkmate, 
which  represents  the  Pers.  shah 
mat,  'the  king  is  dead.'  Mat  is 
of  Semitic  origin,  being  from  the 
Arab,  mdta,  he  died. 

Amate,  ix.  34,  to  keep  company 
with,  from  mate  =  M.  E.  make; 
A.  S.  maca  (ge-macd),  a  mate,  an 
equal  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  mate}. 

Ambrosiall  (odours),  iii.  22,  'Am 
brosia  deorum  unguentum  est,'  cp. 
Virgil  Aen.  i.  403  ;  Gr.  dpfipoaia, 
the  food,  ointment,  &c.,  of  the 

immortal   gods;    from 

Amenage,  iv.  ii,  to  manage,  con 
trol  ;  a  form  of  the  verb  menage. 

Amenaunce,  viii.  17;  ix.  5,  be 
haviour,  see  Halliwell ;  Fr.  ame- 
ner,  to  conduct,  from  mener,  to 
manage,  conduct,  lead  (Cotgrave)  ; 
Lat.  minare,  to  drive  cattle 

Amove,  i.  12;  vi.  37,  to  move; 
see  Halliwell.  Gloss.  I. 

Annoy,  ii.  43  ;  ix.  35  :  x.  64,  an 
noyance,  vexation;  vii.  15  ;  x.  14, 
to  vex,  trouble ;  annoy  represents 
the  Lat.  in  odio,  in  hatred.  Gloss.  I. 

Anone,  i.  13;  ix.  28,  anon,  forth 
with  ;  A.  S.  on  an,  in  one  (mo 
ment),  see  Grein,  p.  31,  where  it 
may  be  seen  that  the  general 
meaning  of  on  an  is  '  once  for  all.' 

Antickes,  iii.  27 ;  vii.  4,  odd,  fanci 
ful  figures  (wrought).  Anticke 
orig.  an  adj.,  a  doublet  of  antique 
(Lat.  antiquus,  anticus).  Cotgrave 
gives  s.  v.  Antique,  'taille  a  an 
tiques,  cut  with  anticks,  of  with 
<77z//e£-works.'  See  Skeat. 

Apayd  (111),  ix.  37;  xii.  28,  ill 
treated,  lit.  ill-satisfied ;  cp.  Chaucer 
2,  '  evel  apayed' ;  O.  Fr.  apaier, 
to  satisfy  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  ad + pa- 
care,  to  satisfy.  See  Wiclif  N.  T. 

Appall,  ii.  32  ;  xi.  39,  to  weaken. 
See  Skeat  for  examples  of  the 
word  with  this,  the  usual  M.  E. 
meaning.  Etymology  uncertain; 
prob.  connected  with  pall,  to 
wane,  decay ;  see  Schmidt. 

Appeach,  viii.  44;  xi.  40,  to  cen 
sure,  accuse ;  see  Halliwell, 
Schmidt ;  appeach,  a  corrupted 
form  of  impeach;  M.  E.  apechen 
for  empechen ;  O.  Fr.  empescher,  to 
hinder,  stop,  embarrass  (Bartsch) ; 
cp.  Skeat  (s.  v.  impeach).  See 

Approvaunce,  xii.  76,   approval ; 



from  Fr.  approuver;  Lat.  appro- 

Approv'd,  iii.  15,  proved,  tried; 
so  Fr.  approuve  (Cotgrave). 

Arber,  v.  29 ;  vii.  53 ;  arbour, 
vi.  2,  a  bower  made  of  branches 
oftiees;  M.  E.  herber  (erber),  a 
garden  of  herbs,  an  orchard,  a 
bower ;  O.  Fr.  herbier  (erbier) ; 
Lat.  herbarium,  a  collection  of 
herbs ;  the  word  arbour  has  no 
thing  in  the  world  to  do  with 

Arboret,  vi.  12,  a  shrub  ;  but  gene 
rally  the  word  means  a  place  where 
trees  are  planted;  cp.  Ducange, 
1  Arborea,  locus  arboribus  consitus, 
Fr.  arboie,  arboret.'  Arboreta 
and  arboretum  are  also  found  in 
L.  Lat.  in  this  sense.  Arbustum  is 
the  Class.  Lat.  form.  Milton 
uses  the  word  arboret  in  the  sense 
of  shrub,  P.  L.  ix.  437.  Cp. 

Aread  (areed),  i.  7;  iii.  14;  v. 
1 6,  to  interpret,  explain,  tell ;  A.  S. 
d-rizdan,  to  explain  (Leo,  p.  446)  ; 
cp.  Ger.  er-rathen.  See  Bead. 

Areare,  xi.  36,  back  ;  M.  E.  arere  ; 
O.  Fr.  arier,  ariere ;  Lat.  ad  + 
retro,  backward.  See  Brachet 
(s.  v.  arriere),  and  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Argo,  xii.  44,  Jason's  ship;  Gr. 
'Apyu,  '  the  swift,'  from  d/yyds, 
swift ;  so  Liddell  and  Scott. 

Arras,  ix.  33,  tapestry  hangings  of 
rooms,  woven  with  figures  ;  often 
in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt.  So 
named  from  Arras  in  Artois, 
France,  where  it  was  first  made. 
See  Halliwell. 

Arraught,  x.  34,  seized  by  vio 
lence  ;  see  Halliwell  (s.v.  araught 
and  arraughf) ;  pret.  of  M.  E. 
arechen,  to  attain,  reach  (Richard 
son,  Halliwell)  ;  A.  S.  a-r&can 
(Sweet).  See  Gloss,  i.  Baught. 

Arret,  viii.  8 ;    xi.  7,   to    entrust, 

allot ;  M.  E.  aretten,  to  ascribe, 
impute  (Chaucer  i),  cp.  Wiclif, 
N.T.,  Glossary  ;  L.  Lat.  arretare, 
arrectare,  to  decree,  decide,  also 
to  accuse  (Ducange)  ;  Lat.  ad  + 
reputare,  to  count,  reckon.  Ac 
cording  to  Cowell's  Interpreter  a 
person  is  arretted  'that  is  charged 
with  a  crime.'  'Rider  translates 
the  word  by  ad  rectum  vocatus' 
Halliwell  (s.  v.  arette). 

Artillery,  xi.  7,  machines  of  war, 
including  cross-bows,  etc.  in  early 
times  ;  O.  Fr.  artillerie  (Bartsch) ; 
L.  Lat.  artillaria,  from  arlillare* 
to  make  machines,  a  vb.  inferred 
from  the  sb.  artillator,  a  maker  of 
machines  (Ducange).  From  arti-, 
crude  form  of  ars,  art ;  see  Skeat. 

Askaunce,  vii.  7,  obliquely,  with 
a  sidelong  glance.  See  Schmidt 
under  askance,  askaunt  (ascauni], 
Etymology  doubtful. 

Aspe'etes,  xi.  8;  xii.  23,  appear 
ances  ;  so  Milton,  Comus,  694, 
'  What  grim  aspects  are  these, 
These  ugly -headed  monsters?'; 
Lat.  aspectus. 

Assay,  iv.  40,  proved  value,  cp. 
F-  Q..  I.  ii.  13;  vii.  34,  an  at 
tempt  ;  i.  35  ;  iii.  12  ;  viii.  7, 36  ; 
x.  49 ;  xii.  13,  38.  hostile  at 
tempt,  attack;  O.  Fr.  essai,  a 
trial;  Lat.  exagium,  a  trial  of 
exact  weight ;  Gr.  c£dyiov,  a 
weighing.  See  Gloss.  I.  Hence 
to  assay,  viii.  22,  to  attempt  (with 
ace.)  ;  iv.  8  ;  vi.  7 ;  ix.  42  ;  x.  3, 
to  try,  endeavour  (with  infin.)  ;  ii. 
24;  iv.  6;  vi.  23;  x.  40,  to  as 
sail;  O.  Fr.  assaier  (Bartsch)  = 
assaier,  from  essai. 

Assieged,  xi.  15,  besieged ;  the 
verb  assege  is  used  in  Holinshed, 
Hist.  Eng.  p.  44  (Halliwell) ;  see 

Assind,  viii.  1 1,  assigned;  Fr.  as- 
signer ;  Lat.  assignare. 

Assott,  x.  6,  to  befool ;  Fr.  assoter, 



to  besot  (Cotgrave),  from  O.  Fr. 
sof,  a  fool  (Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat. 
sottus  '  stolidus,  bardus, — simplex, 
hinc  Carolus  Sottus,  qui  vulgo  Sim 
plex'  (Ducange).  Derivation  un 
known.  For  two  suggested  ety 
mologies  see  Diez,  p.  347  (s.  v. 

Assoyle,  v.  19,  to  loose  ;  for  exx. 
see  Nares,  Richardson  (s.  v.  as- 
soz7)  ;  O.  Fr.  asoldre ;  Lat.  ab- 
soluere',  see  Brachet  (s.  v.  ab- 

Atchiev'ment,  i.  8,  exploit ;  Fr. 
achevement,  an  atchievement  (Cot- 
grave),  from  achever,  to  perform 
thoroughly,  lit.  to  bring  to  a  head, 
from  O.  Fr.  a  chef=  Lat.  ad  caput. 
Hatchment,  the  escutcheon  of  a 
.  deceased  person  publicly  displayed, 
is  a  corruption  of  atctiment,  the 
shortened  form  of  atchievement. 
See  Richardson  (s.  v.  hatchment). 

At  one,  i.  29,  reconciled ;  M.  E. 
at  oon,  at  on  ;  '  heo  were  al  at 
o«,'  i.  e.  they  were  all  agreed, 
Rob.  of  Glouc.  p.  113;  from  this 
phrase  arose  the  words  atone, 
atonement;  see  Skeat's  masterly 
article  s.  v. ;  attone,  i.  42,  to 
gether;  attonce,  iv.  18,  toge 
ther,  at  once ;  M.  E.  attones ; 
ones  =  A..  S.  dnes  (semel)  the  gen. 
case  of  dn.  For  the  adverbial 
genitive  see  Earle,  pp.  431,  480. 

Attach,  x.  19 ;  xi.  28,  to  seize,  to 
take  and  hold  fast ;  M.  E.  attache, 
Catholicon  Anglicum ;  L.  Lat. 
attachiare,  'apud  leguleios  Anglos, 
prehendere,  reum  vincire '  (Du 
cange)  ;  O.  Fr.  atachier,  to  fasten 
(Bartsch),  whence  the  two  Fr. 
forms  attacher  and  attaquer,  see 
Brachet.  Gloss.  I. 

Attend,  x.  68,  to  wait;  Fr.  at- 

Atweene,  vi.  32,  between ;  prob. 
from  A.  S.  on  tweonum,  in  two 
parts,  where  twe6num  is  dat.  pi. 

of  twedn,  double  (Chaucer  3,  s.  v. 

Aumayld,  iii.  27,  enameled,  fur 
nished  with  a  glass-like  coating; 
'  ammell,  esmailler '  (Palsgrave)  ; 
'amell,  or  enamell '  (Cotgrave,  s.r. 
Email)  ;  Fr.  esmail  (mod.  tmail), 
cp.  It.  smalto ;  L.  Lat.  smaltum 
(Ducange)  ;  see  Diez  p.  296, 
Skeat  (s.  v.  enamel).  For  aum- 
=  am-  cp.  Eng.  avaunt=-  Fr.  avant, 
daunger  (Chaucer)  =  O.  Fr.  dan 
gler,  pawn  (a  pledge  =  Fr.  pan). 

Avale,  ix>  10,  to  dismount ;  O.  Fr. 
avaler,  to  descend,  often  in  Chan 
son  de  Roland  ;  from  aval,  down, 
Lat.  ad  vallem.  Gloss.  I. 

Avauntage,  v.  9,  advantage ;  Fr. 
avantage;  the  d  in  the  modern 
form  is  an  impertinent  intrusion ; 
for  the  au  =  a  see  aumayld. 

Avaunting,  iii.  6,  advancing ;  dis 
tinct  from  the  word  in  More's 
Utopia,  '  they  rejoyse  and  avaunt 
(boast)  themselves,  if  they  van- 
quishe  their  enemies  by  craft,'  p. 
133  ;  where  'avaunt  is  only  vaunt 
(Fr.  vanter,  L.  Lat.  vanitare)  with 
the  a  prefixed.' 

Avize  :  see  Advise. 

Ay,  i.  60,  ever;  O.  N.  ei,  ey,  ever ; 
cp.  A.  S.  d,  aye,  ever;  Go.  aiw ; 
see  Skeat  (s.  v.  aye). 

Ayery,  viii.  5,  airy,  passing  through 
the  air ;  cp.  Shakespeare,  K.  John, 
iii.  2.  2,  '  some  airy  devil.' 

Aygulet,  iii.  26,  aglet,  tag  of  a  lace, 
see  Halliwell,  p.  31 ;  fi.aiguillette, 
a  point  (Cotgrave),  dimin.  of 
aiguille,  a  needle  ;  L.  Lat.  acucula. 
dimin.  of  acus ;  see  Brachet. 

Ayme  (By),  vi.  10,  direct,  straight; 
M,  E.  aimen,  to  estimate;  O.  Fr. 
aesmer ;  L.  Lat.  adaestimare ;  see 
Skeat  (s.  v.  aim). 


Bace,  ii.  41,  low  in  place;  this 
world  is  base  as  contrasted  with 



heaven,  see  Schmidt  for  Shake 
spearian  exx. ;  xii.  8,  deep-voiced, 
bass ;  see  Abace. 

Badge,  i.  27,  mark,  cognizance; 
M.  E.  bage  or  badge  =  banidium 
(Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  L.  Lat.  bagea, 
bagia,  '  signum,  insigne  quoddam ' 
(Ducange).  Derivation  unknown. 

Bait,  i.  4,  enticement  to  bite  ;  the 
vb.  to  bait  is  O.  N.  beita,  to  make 
to  bite.  Gloss.  I. 

Bale,  ii.  45 ;  iv.  29,  mischief,  trou 
ble  ;  vi.  34 ;  vii.  23,  grief,  sorrow ; 
A.  S.  bealu,  disaster,  harm  (Grein) ; 
hence  balefull,  ii.  2  ;  baleful- 
nesse  xii.  83. 

Bane,  xi.  29,  ruin,  destruction  ; 
M.  E.  bane  (Chaucer  i) ;  O.  N. 
bani,  violent  death,  cognate  with 
ben,  a  mortal  wound ;  cp.  Go. 
banja,  a  wound,  A.  S.  bana,  a 
murderer,  Gr.  <povos,  murder,  see 
Curtius,  p.  300. 

Banket,  xi.  2,  a  rich  entertain 
ment,  feast;  so  Palsgrave,  pp. 
454,  804  ;  Fr.  '  banquet,  a  banket ' 
(Cotgrave),  dimin.  of  bane,  a 
bench  ;  M.  H.  G.  bane. 

Barbes,  ii.  ii,  trappings  for  a 
horse,  horse -armour  protecting 
forehead,  neck,  chest,  and  back ; 
barbe,  a  corruption  of  barde 
(Nares)  ;  Fr.  barde,  hence  barde, 
armed,  of  a  horse  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat. 
bar  da  (Ducange);  see  Diez,  p.  42. 

Barbican,  ix.  25,  'a  casemate,  or 
a  hole  in  a  town-wall  to  shoot 
out  at,'  so  Cotgrave,  s.  v.  Barba- 
cane,  who  goes  on  to  say  '  some 
hold  it  also  to  be  a  Sentrie,  Scout- 
house,  and  thereupon  our  Chaucer 
useth  the  word  Barbican  for  a 
,  watch-tower,  which  in  the  Saxon 

tongue  was  called  a  Borough-ken- 
ning'-  L.  Lat.  barbacana,  pro- 
pugnaculum  exterius,  quo  portae 
muniuntur  (Ducange).  Etymo 
logy  unknown. 

Bash,  iv.  37,  to  be  ashamed;  for 

exx.  see  Nares  ;  short  for  abash ; 
M.  E.  abaischen  ;  see  Abash.  In 
this  passage  however  the  meaning 
of  the  word  has  been  probably  in 
fluenced  by  the  words  base,  abase, 
see  Abace,  and  so  to  bash  has 
here  the  connotation  of  to  lower, 
to  look  down. 

Bastard,  iii.  42,  low-born ;  O.  Fr. 
bastard,  i.  e.  fils  de  bast,  lit.  '  the 
son  of  a  pack-saddle,'  not  of  the 
marriage-bed;  see  Diez,  p.  45. 
Gloss,  i. 

Bate,  v.  7,  bit ;  see  Halliwell ;  A.  S. 
bat,  pret.  sing,  of  bilan,  to  bite 
(Sweet,  Ixx). 

Battailous  (aray),  vii.  37 ;  viii. 
22,  ready  for  battle,  combative  ; 
see  Nares ;  cp.  Milton  P.  L.  vi. 
81,  'in  battaillous  aspect,'  and 
Pattison's  Milton,  p.  14,  'the 
battailous  canticles  of  his  prose 

Bauldricke,  iii.  29,  belt;  see 
Nares  (s.  v.  Baldricfi).  Gloss.  I. 

Bayt,  xii.  29,  to  give  rest  to,  to 
cause  to  abate ;  short  for  abate. 

Becke,  xi.  8,  beak,  bill;  Fr.  bee. 

Bedight  (111),  i.  14,  disfigured ; 
see  also  dight. 

Beduked,  vi.  42,  dipped ;  from  to 
duck ;  ep.  Du.  dutken,  to  stoop, 
dive,  Ger.  tauchen. 

Beene,  i.  I,  52,  to  be  (infin.) ; 
M.  E.  been  ;  A.S.  beon,  to  be  :  for 
root  cp.  Lat./M-z  ;  Gr.  <f>v-eiv,  see 
Curtius,  p.  305  ;  ii.  3>  P1-  3  Pers-> 
so  A.  S.  beon,  they  be,  pres.  subj.; 
cp.  Shakespeare,  Peric.  ii.  Prol.  28, 
'  where,  when  men  been,  there's 
seldom  ease  '  (Gower  loq.). 

Beetle  (browes),  ix.  52,  beetling 
(  r  prominent ;  cp.  M.  E.  bytel- 
browed  (P.  Plowman,  p.  117); 
see  Skeat  (s.  v.  beetle  3). 

Befell,  ix  17,  was  fitting,  an  un 
usual  meaning  of  the  vb.  to  befall, 
A.  S.  be-feallan,  to  happen. 

Behave,  iii.  40,  to  manage,  govern 


(trans.)  ;  A.  S.  be-habban,  lit.  to 
surround,  then,  to  restrain,  detain, 
cp.  Lu.  4.  42,  '  hi  behafdon  hine,' 
they  detained  him  ;  behabban  a 
compound  of  A.  S.  habban,  to 
have,  hold  ;  see  Skeat. 

Behest,  iii.  32,  see  Gloss.  I.  Be- 

Behight,  (pret.)  iv.  43 ;  ix.  17, 
ordered ;  (pp.)  iii.  I,  promised ; 
viii.  9,  entrusted ;  M.  E.  bikdten, 
to  promise  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
behdtan,  to  promise,  A.  S.  Chron. 
an.  1012  ;  a  compound  of  hdtan, 
to  call,  command. 

Belamoure,  vi.  16,  a  lover;  see 
Nares  ;  Fr.  Bel  amour. 

Belamy,  vii.  52,  a  dear  friend,  fair 
friend  ;  M.  E.,  see  Chaucer  3  ; 
cp.  Halliwell ;  Fr.  Bel  ami. 

Belgards,  iii.  25,  pretty  looks, 
amorous  glances  ;  see  Richardson ; 
Fr.  bel  egard ;  from  O.  Fr.  es- 
garder,  to  look  (Bartsch). 
.  Bend,  iii.  27;  vii.  30;  a  band; 
Fr.  bende,  bande,  a  band,  a  stripe 
(Cotgrare) ;  a  term  used  in  He 

Bend,  iv.  31 ;  vii.  I ;  viii.  32  ;  xi.  9, 
12,  35,  to  direct  (oneself,  one's 
course,  sword,  spear,  engines,  etc.) 
for  many  Shakespearian  exx.  see 
Schmidt;  so  Milton,  P.  L.  ii.  729, 
'  to  bend  that  mortal  dart.' 

Bene  (ye),  i.  33  ;  ii.  5  ;  viii.  13,  ye 
be,  are ;  see  Beene. 

Bere,  xii.  36,  bier,  a  frame  on 
which  a  corpse  is  borne ;  M.  E. 
beere  ;  A.  S.  bter  ;  from  beran,  to 

Bereave,  vii.  19,  to  take  away; 
A.  S.  beredfian,  A.  S.  Chron.  an. 
975 ;  see  Keave. 

Besits,  vii.  10,  it  befits,  becomes ; 
Gloss  i.  Sits. 

Bespeak,  i.  8  (and  often  1  ;  to  ad 
dress,  speak  to  ;  Gloss.  I. 

Bestad,  i.  52,  situated,  circum 
stanced;  Gloss.  I.  Bestedd. 

Bestow,  ix.  28,  to  place,  lodge, 
stow  ;  so  often  in  Shakespeare,  see 
Schmidt ;  M.  E.  bistowen  (Strat 
mann),  from  stowen,  to  put  in  a 
place,  from  A.  S.  stdw,  a  place 
(often  occurring  in  place-names), 
see  Sweet. 

Beteeme,  viii.  19,  to  deliver,  give; 
for  exx.  see  Richardson,  Nares, 
Schmidt,  also  note  on  Hamlet  i. 
2.  141,  Clar.  Press,  ed.  To  be- 
teem  means  to  'think  fit/  hence  to 
permit,  allow,  give ;  from  teem, 
to  think  fit  (for  exx.  see  Halli 
well)  ;  cp.  Du.  beta-men,  to  be 
seem.  Beteem  does  not  appear 
in  English  before  the  1 6th 
century.  See  New  English  Dic 

Sever,  i.  29 ;  v.  6,  the  part  of  the 
helmet  which,  when  let  down, 
covered  the  face ;  Fr.  baviere,  a 
beaver,  a  bib  (Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I. 

Bevy,  ix.  34,  a  company  (of  la 
dies)  ;  so  generally,  see  Richard 
son  ;  cp.  It.  beva,  a  bevy  (Florio); 
a  flock  of  pheasants  called  a 
'  bevy,'  see  Florio  (s.  v.  covdtd). 
Probably  from  O.  Fr.  bevee,  a 
drinking,  the  orig.  sense  of  bevy 
being  a  company  for  drinking. 

Bittur,  vii.  50,  bittern,  a  bird  of 
the  heron  tribe;  M.  E.  bitonre, 
bytonre  (Chaucer)  ;  Fr.  '  butor,  a 
bittor '  (Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat.  bu- 
torius,  cp.  butire,  to  cry  like  a 
bittern  (Ducange).  For  the  suf 
fixed  n  in  the  modern  form  bittern, 
cp.  marten,  for  marterne  =  marter, 
Fr.  marfre;  also  wyvern  =  M.  E. 
wivere,  O.  F.  wivre  (mod.  givre), 
a  viper. 

Blame,  viii.  16,  to  injure;  O.  Fr. 
blasmer.  Gloss.  I. 

Blazers,  ix.  25,  proclaimers.  Gloss, 
i.  Blaze. 

Blend,  vii.  10  ;  xii.  80,  to  blind  ; 
A.  S.  blendan,  to  make  blind 
(Leo)  ;  blent,  iv.  7,  blinded. 


Blent,  iv.  26 ;  v.  5 ;  xii.  7,  defiled, 
stained,  obscured,  lit.  mixed,  con 
fused  ;  pp.  of  vb.  to  blend ;  A.  S. 
blandan,  to  mix  (Sweet). 

Blive,  iii.  18 ;  bylive,  viii.  18, 
forthwith,  quickly  ;  M.  E.  bi  live, 
quickly;  A.  S.  bi  life,  with  life, 
see  Stratmann  (s.  v.  lif).  See 
Nares,  Coleridge.  The  word  oc 
curs  in  Burns'  Cotter's  Saturday 
Night,  in  the  sense  of '  presently ' : 
'Belyve  the  elder  bairns  came 
drappin  in.'  Gloss.  1.  Bilive. 

Bord,  ii.  5  ;  iv.  24 ;  ix.  2,  to  ad 
dress,  accost ;  '  I'll  board  (accost) 
him  presently,'  Hamlet  ii.  2.  1 7*9 
so  frequently  in  Shakespeare,  see 
Schmidt;  a  metaphorical  expres 
sion  from  boarding  a  ship,  see 
Nares  (s.  v.  boord)  ;  cp.  Fr.  'abor- 
der,  to  approach,  accoast'  (Cot- 

Bord,  xii.  16,  to  jest ;  for  exx.  see 
Nares  (s.  v.  bourd)  ;  Fr.  'bourder, 
to  bourd  or  j east  with'  (Cotgrave), 
from  bourde,  a  jest.  See  Skeat 
(s.  v.  bourd).  t 

Bordraging,  x.  63,  border  ravag 
ing,  border  raid ;  cp.  '  nightly 
bordrags?  Colin  Clout,  266. 

Boult,  iv.  24,  to  sift  meal;  to 
boulte  =  Fr.  bulter  (Palsgrave)  ; 
mod.  Fr.  bluter;  O.  Fr.  bulefer 
for  bureter,  to  sift  through  cloth 
(Burguy)  ;  L.  Lat.  buratare  (Du- 
cange) ;  from  O.  Fr.  bure,  coarse 
woollen  cloth ;  L.  Lat.  burra, 
coarse  red  cloth,  from  Lat.  burrus, 
reddish;  Gr.  irvppos,  from  irvp, 

Bountihed,  x.  2 ;  xii.  I,  generosity ; 
the  suffix  answers  to  A.  S.  had, 
faculty,  quality,  which  is  used  also 
as  a  suffix,  as  in  cildhdd,  child 
hood  ;  cp.  in  mod.  Eng.  Godhead ; 
see  Earle,  p.  308,  M.  Muller, 
Chips,  4.  91.  Bounty  =  Fr.  bonte; 
O.  Fr.  bonteit  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  ace. 

Bourne,  vi.  lo,  boundary ;  often  in 
Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt;  Fr. 
borne,  also  bonne  (Cotgrave),  also 
spelt  bodne  (Burguy) ;  L.  Lat. 
bodina  (Ducange).  Derivation  un 

Bownd,  iv.  43,  ready  to  go;  formed 
with  excrescent  d  from  M.  E. 
boun,  ready  (Chaucer)  ;  O.  N. 
buinn,  prepared,  pp.  of  bua,  to 
make  ready,  see  Icel.  Diet. 

Bowre,  iv.  24 ;  xii.  83,  a  chamber ; 
M.  E.  bour  (Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S. 
bur,  a  lady's  apartment,  as  op 
posed  to  the  '  hall '  where  all 
assemble,  A.  S.  Chron.  an.  755  ; 
from  buan,  to  dwell ;  see  Icel. 
Diet.  (s.  v.  bua,  to  dwell).  Gloss. 

Brake,  xi.  10,  22,  tangle  of  a  wood, 
fern;  M.E.  brake  (Prompt. Parv.); 
A.  S.  bracce,  fern  (Cockayne's 
Leechdoms,  gloss.).  The  original 
sense  of  the  word  seems  to  have 
been  rough  or  'broken'  ground 
(cp.  Ger.  brach),  as  well  as  the 
overgrowth  spreading  bn  it ;  see 
Skeat.  Cp.  Halli'well  (s.  v.  breach, 

Bravely,  xii.  19,  splendidly.  Gloss, 
i.  Brave. 

Bray,  i.  38,  to  make  a  loud  noise ; 
M.  E.  brayen  (Prompt.  Parv.)  ; 
O.  F.  braire,  '  to  bray  as  a  deere 
doth,  or  other  beest'  (Palsgrave), 
used  of  any  loud  sound,  even  of 
the  'fast,  thick  warble*'  of  the 
nightingale,  see  Diez,  p.  532  ;  L. 
Lat.  bragire  (Ducange).  Gloss.  I. 

Breaches,  vii.  28,  stalactites. 

Breaded,  ii.  15,  braided,  entwined  ; 
M.  E.  '  breiden,  braiden,  necto, 
torqueo '  (Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  A.  S. 
(ge)bregdan,  bredan,  to  weave, 
lit.  to  turn  about  quickly,  to 
brandish  (Sweet)  ;  see  Icel.  Diet, 
(s.  v.  bregdd). 

Brent,  vi.  49,  burnt ;  M.  E.  brent, 
pp.  of  brennen  (Chaucer  i)  for 


bernen,  Ancren  Riwle,  p.  306; 
A.  S.  byrnan  (Grein) ;  cp.  Ger. 

Brimston,  x.  26,  sulphur;  M.  E. 
brenstoon,  so  Wiclif,  Deut.  29. 
23,  lit.  burn-stone ;  cp.  O.  N. 
brennisteinn ;  see  above. 

Brond,  viii.  22,  37,  a  sword  ;  M.  E. 
brand,  ensis,  Will,  of  Palerne,  1244, 
so  in  A.  S.,  see  Grein;  ii.  29;  iii. 
1 8,  a  brand,  a  burning  piece  of 
wood.  Cognate  with  brent ;  see 
Skeat  (s.  v.  brand).  The  sword- 
blade  was  called  a  brand  or  brand 
from  its  brightness,  so  in  O.  Fr. 
brant,  see  Bartsch,  and  Chanson 
de  Roland,  1067. 

Brood,  vii.  8,  a  brooding  place. 

Brutenesse,  viii.  1 2,  brutality ;  Fr. 
brut  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  brutus,  stu 
pid.  The  suffix  -nesse  is  the  ob 
lique  form  of  A.  S.  -nes  or  -nis 
(Sweet  Ixxxv).  Of  this  suffix  -nis 
the  original  formative  is  -*s  =  Go. 
-assiis,  the  n  being  due  to  a  fre 
quency  of  contact,  as  in  Go. 
gudjin-assus,  the  priestly  office ; 
so  in  English  a  newt  now  stands 
for  an  ewt,  and  a  nickname  =  an 
eke-name.  See  Earle,  p.  302,  for 
interesting  remarks  on  this  suffix ; 
also  Weigand  (s.  v.  -nis}.  ' 

Buff,  ii.  23;  v.  6,  a  blow;  Fr. 
buffe,  a  buffet  (Cotgrave). 

Bug,  iii.  20  ;  xii.  25,  a  terrifying 
object;  often  in  Shakespeare,  see 
Schmidt;  bug  =  Fr.  'gobelin' 
(Cotgrave)  ;  cp.  Coverdale's  ver 
sion,  Ps.  91.  5,  >thou  shalt  not 
nede  to  be  afrayed  for  eny  bugges 
by  night '  (timore  nocturno,  Vulg. ) ; 
see  Skeat. 

Bulwarks,  viii.  35  ;  xi.  7,  a  ram 
part,  propugnaculum ;  occurs  in 
the  Bible  and  in  Shakespeare ; 
M.  E.  bulwerke,  Lydgate,  see 
Richardson ;  O.  Fr.  bollewerque 
(Roquefort)  ;  M.  H.  G.  bolewerc. 
The  Fr.  boulevard  is  a  corrupt 


form  of  boleiverc.  See  Diez,  p. 
530,  Weigand,  p.  244. 

Burganet,  viii.  45,  a  close-fitting 
helmet ;  burgonet,  Shakespeare 
(Schmidt)  ;  Fr.  '  bourguignotte, 
a  burganet,  hufkin,  or  Spanish 
murrion '  (Cotgrave)  ;  prop,  the 
casque  of  a  '  Bourgitignon,  a 
Burgonian,'  i.e.  Burgundian  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  see  Nares.  A  burgonet 
is  figured  in  Clark's  Introd.  to 
Heraldry  (see  Glossary). 

Busie,  xii.  15,  to  occupy,  engage 
attention ;  A.  S.  (ge}bysgian 
(Sweet),  from  bysig,  active. 

Buskin,  iii.  27,  a  legging;  for 
bruskin ;  O.  Du.  brozeken,  dimin. 
ofbroos  ;  O.Du.  brozeken  is  related 
to  Fr.  brodequin  (Cotgrave);  cp. 
It.borzacchino;  Sp.borcegui;  Port. 
borzeguins  ;  see  Diez,  p.  61.  Ety 
mology  unknown. 

Bynempt,  i.  60,  named  (of  a 
solemn  vow) ;  a  rare  word  re 
vived  by  Spenser  ;  also  used  by 
Thomson  in  imitation  of  Spenser, 
see  Castle  of  Indolence,  c.  ii.  32, 
'  a  fiery  -  footed  boy,  Benempt 
Dispatch';  A.  S.  be-nemnan,  as- 
serere,  stipulari  (Grein)  ;  cp.  Beo 
wulf,  1098,  '  Fin  Hengeste  aftum 
be-nemde,'  Fin  to  Hengest  with 
oaths  declared. 


Cabinet,  xii.  83,  an  arbour  in  a 
garden,  so  Cotgrave  (s.v.  cabinet). 

Caduceus,  xii.  41,  '  the  rod  of 
Mercury';  Lat.  caduceus;  Doric 
fcapvKiov  (Attic  Kapviteiov),  '  the 
herald's  wand';  the  Lat.  form  is 
prob.  an  instance  of  popular  ety 
mology,  being  influenced  by  ca- 
dere,  caducus,  and  the  idea  of 
'falling';  see  Curtius,  p.  430. 

Calmy,  xii.  30,  sheltered  (of  a 
bay)  ;  see  Richardson ;  from  Fr. 
calme,  still,  quiet  (Cotgrave)  ; 
allied  to  Prov.  chaume,  the  time 


when  the  flocks  rest;  Fr.  chommer 
(mod.  chomer}  to  rest  from  work  ; 
from  L.  Lat.  cauma,  the  heat  of 
the  sun  (whence,  time  for  rest); 
see  Mayor's  Bede  (glossary)  ;  Gr. 
AcaC/xa,  heat ;  see  Diez,  p.  78. 

Camus,  iii.  26,  a  thin  robe  (of 
silk)  ;  see  Halliwell  (s.  v.  camis) ; 
L.  Lat.  camisia.  Diez,  p.  80, 
quotes  Jerome,  '  solent  militantes 
habere  lineas  quas  camisias  vo- 
cant,'  see  Lewis  and  Short,  Lat. 
Diet.  s.  v.  Hence  Fr.  chemise 
(Burguy).  Etymology  unknown. 

Can,  i.  31  ;  xii.  15,  an  auxiliary 
verb  with  pret.  meaning,  did;  in 
A.  S.  can  is  in  form  a  pret.,  in 
sense  a  present,  meaning  '  know  ' 
(Morris,  p.  183).  Gloss.  I. 

Cancred,  i.  i,  corrupt ;  from  Lat. 
cancer,  an  '  eating '  tumour,  lit. 
a  crab. 

Card,  vii.  i,  a  chart,  a  marine  map; 
Shakespeare,  Macbeth  i.  3.  17, 
'the  shipman's  card'',  Fr.  carte, 
a  card  (Cotgrave)  ;  L.  Lat.  carta ; 
Lat.  charta ;  Gr.  X"PT77>  a  l£af  °f 
paper ;  see  M.  Miiller,  i.  107. 

Carde,  vi.  16,  to  comb  wool;  Fr. 
carder  (Cotgrave),  from  carde,  a 
thistle ;  L.  Lat.  cardus ;  Lat. 
carduus,  from  Lat.  carer e,  to 
scratch  wool ;  see  Pick,  iv.  59. 

Carle,  vii.  43 ;  xi.37,  a  churl;  Shake 
speare,  Cymb.  v.  2. 4 ;  O.  N.  karl, 
prop,  a  man,  see  Icel.  Diet.,  Fick 
vii.  43.  Hence  the  famous  name 
Charlemagne  (Chanson  de  Ro 
land),  i.e.  Karl  the  Great.  Gloss.  I. 

Cast,  i.  48,  52 ;  iv.  30 ;  xi.  28,  to 
plan,  resolve;  'I  caste,  I  deter- 
myne,  or  purpose  a  thyng,  Je 
determine '  (Palsgrave) ;  O.  N. 
kasta,  to  cast,  to  throw.  Gloss.  I. 

Castory,  ix.  41,  a  colour,  red  or 
pink;  Lat.  (medical)  castoreum,  a 
substance  taken  from  the  'castor' 
or  beaver  ;  see  Larousse,  Encyclop. 
s.  v.  Castoreum, '  L'analyse  chim- 

ique  a  trouv4  dans  cette  substance 
un  principe  colorant  rougeatre.' 

Caytive,  i.  i ;  iii.  7 ;  iv.  16 ;  viii.  12, 
37,  vile,  base,  also  wretch;  caitiff, 
often  in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt ; 
M.  E.  caityf  (Chaucer  3)  ;  O.  Fr. 
caitif,  captive,  wretched  (Chanson 
de  Roland)  ;  L.  Lat.  captivus,  vilis 
(Ducange) ;  Lat.  captivus,  captive. 
Gloss,  i. 

Centaur,  ix.  50,  a  creature  half  man 
and  half  horse ;  Lat.  centaurus ; 
Gr.  Kfvravpos. 

Cesure,  x.  68,  a  breaking  off ;  Lat. 

Chaffar,  v.  3,  to  chaffer,  exchange ; 
M.  E.  chaffare,  vb.  (Chaucer), 
from  chaffare,  'a  bargaining'; 
chapfare,  Ayenbite  of  Inwyt,  mean 
ing  lit. '  a  price  business,'  from  A.S. 
cedp,  price  +faru,  business.  Cedp 
is  not  a  word  of  Teutonic  origin, 
being  closely  connectedwithO.H.G. 
choufo,  which  is  the  Lat.  caupo,  a 
huckster — a  word  borrowed  by  the 
Germans  in  commerce;  see  Skeat. 
Gloss,  i.  Keepe. 

Chalenge,  i.  12,  to  track,  follow  ; 
an  extension  of  one  of  the  old 
meanings  of  challenge, '  to  accuse'; 
M.  E.  'ckalange,  calumniari'  (Ca- 
tholicon  Anglicum);  O.Yi.chalon- 
gier,  calengier,  to  claim  (Bartsch)  ; 
from  chalonge,  calenge,  an  ac- 
,  cusation ;  Lat.  calumnia,  a  false 
accusation ;  see  Skeat. 

Champion,  ii.  18,  he  who  fights 
for  a  person ;  O.  Fr.  champion 
(Bartsch),  camptuns,  Chanson  de 
Roland  ;  L.  Lat.  campionem,  from 
campus,  a  duel,"  combat  ;  Lat. 
campus,  a  field.  Gloss.  I. 

Charm,  v.  27 ;  xii.  49,  to  affect  by 
magic  power  ;  from  Fr.  charme  = 
Lat.  carmen,  a  verse,  a  formula  of 

Chaufe,  Chauffe,  iii.  46;  iv.  32, 
to  chafe ;  O.  Fr.  chaufer,  to  make 
warm  (Bartsch) ;  Prov.  calfar ; 



It.  calefare;  Lat.  calefacere ;  see 
Brachet.  Gloss,  i. 
Cheare,  ii.  34 ;  vi.  10,  cheerfulness ; 
x.  30,  food,  entertainment ;  see 
cheer  in  Shakespeare  (Schmidt)  ; 
O.  Fr.  chiere,  chere,  cier,  the  face, 
then,  the  look,  the  look  of  wel 
come  (Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat.  caret,  a 
face;  see  Diez,  p.  87. 

Chevisaunce,  ix.  8,  achievement ; 
gen.  an  agreement,  bargain,  pur 
chase,  for  exx.  see  Richardson  (s.v. 
cheve) ;  Fr. '  chevissance,  an  agree 
ment  or  composition  made  be 
tween  a  creditor  and  debtor'  (Cot- 
grave),  from  chevir,  to  finish 
(Bartsch)  =  O.  Fr.  venir  a  chief 
(caput),  to  come  to  a  head ;  see 
Diez,  p.  545.  There  is  a  M.  E. 
cheviss  (  =  O.  Fr.  chevir),  meaning 
'  to  achieve  one's  purpose ' ;  see 
M.S.  ii.  p.  212.  Cp.  atehiev'- 

Childe,  viii.  7,  a  youth  trained  to 
arms,  a  young  knight  (a  not  un 
usual  meaning  of  the  word  in  old 
romances)  ;  see  Nares ;  M.  E. 
Child  (Thopas),  see  Skeat's  note, 
Chaucer  2,  p.  159;  child  =  Lat. 
'  comes'  in  Trevisa's  Higden,  Rolls 
Ser.  No.  41,  vii.  123;  A.  S.  did, 
the  child  of  a  noble  house,  also, 
used  as  a  title,  A.  S.  Chron.,  an. 
1074.  Cp.  the  use  of  enfant  (  =  in- 
fans)  in  the  Chanson  de  Roland. 
See  Infant. 

Choler,  ii.  23,  anger  ;  often  in 
Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt ;  Fr.  *cho- 
lere  (now  colere},  choler,  anger, 
also  the  humour  termed  choler' 
(Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  cholera,  the 
jaundice,  also  the  bile ;  Gr.  xoA-cpa, 
the  cholera,  from  \o\rj,  bile ;  cp. 
\6\os,  bile,  wrath. 

Cicuta,  vii.  52,  hemlock;  a  Latin 

Cleeped,  iii.  8 ;  ix.  '58,  called ; 
Shakespeare,  '  Love's  Labour's 
Lost,'  v.  i.  24,  'he  clepe/h  a  calf 

cauf;  M.E.  clepen  (Chaucer  i); 
A.  S.  cleopian,  clipian  (Sweet). 

Clew,  i.  8,  a  ball  of  thread ;  in 
Shakespeare,  All's  Well.i.  3.  188  ; 
M.  E.  clewe  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
cliwe,cleowen,  globus  (Grein);  see 

Clifte,  vii.  23,  28,  a  cliff;  see  Halli- 
well ;  M.E.  dif,  so  A.S.,  see  Grein ; 
the  orig.  sense  prob.  '  a  climbing 
place';  cp.  O.  N.  /Wz/with  klifa, 
to  climb  ;  see  Skeat. 

Coast  (on  even),  iii.  17,  on  equal 
terms  ;  cp.  '  coste  a  coste,  equally ' 

Colocjuintida,  vii.  52,  colocynth, 
a  kind  of  gourd  growing  wild ; 
Shakespeare, Othello,  i.  3.  355, 'as 
bitter  as  coloquintida ' ;  Gr.  KO\O- 
KwOiSa,  ace.  otxoXoKvvOis,  also  tco- 
XoKvvTT],  so  named  from  its  colossal 
size  ;  see  Skeat. 

Combrous,  ix.  1 7,  troublesome ; 
see  Nares,  comberous,  to  comber. 
Gloss,  i. 

Commoned,  ix.  41,  communed. 

Commons,  x.  62,  the  common 
people  (opposed  to  the  nobility) ; 
so  in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt ;  Fr. 
'  commune,  the  common  people' 
(Cotgrave)  ;  L.  Lat.  commune,  in- 
colarum  urbis  aut  oppidi  universitas 

Compacture,  ix.  24,  a  joining  to 
gether;  Lat.  compactura. 

Comportaunce,  i.  29,  behaviour ; 
cp.  Fr.  '  comport 'ement,  comport 
ment,  behaviour'  (Cotgrave),  from 
se  comforter,  to  carry  oneself,  be 

Comprize,  ix.  49,  to  draw  a  con 
clusion;  from  O.Fr.  compris,  pp.  of 
comprendre;  Lat.  comprehendere. 

Conduct,  ii.  25,  handling  (of  a 
sword);  cp.  Pope,  Rape  of  the 
Lock,  iv.  124,  'the  nice  conduct 
of  a  clouded  cane.' 

Conge",  i.  34;  iii.  2  ;  xi.  17,  leave, 
farewell ;  Fr.  '  conge,  leave,  per- 

S  2 


GL  O  S  S  A  R  Y. 

mission,  dismission  (Cotgrave) ; 
O.  Fr.  cumgiet  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat. 
comiatus,  permission,  authoriza 
tion  ;  Lat.  commeatus,  leave  of 
absence,  from  commeare,  to  go, 
travel ;  see  Brachet. 

Consort,  vii.  22,  company,  fellow 
ship  ;  Shakespeare,  Two  Gent,  of 
Verona,  iv.  i.  64,  'will  thou  be 
of  our  consort?'',  v.  31  ;  ix.  35, 
harmonious  music ;  Shakespeare, 
ibid.  iii.  2.  84,  '  visit  by  night  your 
lady's  chamber-window  with  some 
sweet  consort.7 

Consorted,  xii.  70,  combined,  as 

Contrive,  ix.  48,  to  wear  out, 
spend ;  for  exx.  see  Nares,  Richard 
son  ;  cp.  '  totum  hunc  contrivi 
diem,'  Ter.  Hec.  5.  3.  17;  contrivi, 
pret.  of  conterere,  to  wear  out. 
Not  the  same  word  as  mod.  E. 

Cordwayne,  iii.  27,  Spanish  leather 
from  Cordova ;  also  spelt  cordevan, 
cordovan,  see  Nares,  Richardson  ; 
M.  E.  '  cordewayn,  aluta'  (Catho- 
licon  Anglicum)  ;  Fr.  cordouan  ; 
L.  Lat.  cordoanus  (Ducange),  from 
Cordoa,  a  spelling  of  Cordova 
(Lat.  Corduba) ;  see  Diez,  p.  108. 

Corse,  v.  23;  ix.  55,  body;  O.  Fr. 
cors  (Bartsch).  Gloss.  I. 

Cott,  vi.  9,  a  little  boat ;  Ir.  '  cot,  a 
small  boat'  (O'Reilly). 

Couch,  v.  3,  to  lay  (the  spear  in  the 
rest}.  Gloss.  I. 

Countenauuce,  ii.  16,  to  show 
forth  by  look. 

Countervayle,  vi.  29,  to  counter 
balance  ;  so  in  Shakespeare,  Rom. 
and  Jul.  ii.  6.  4 ;  Peric.  ii.  3.  56 ; 
O.  Fr.  contrevaloir ;  It.  contrav- 
valere  ;  Lat.  contra  +  valere. 

Courd,  viii.  9,  cherished,  brooded 
over ;  M.  E.  couren,  to  cower. 
A  Scandinavian  word,  cp.  Swed. 
kura,  to  settle  to  rest  as  birds  do  ; 
see  Skeat  (s.v.  cower). 

Court,  ii.  35,  courteous  attention. 
Gloss,  i. 

Couth,  vii.  58,  could  ;  M.  E.  coutke, 
coude,  pret.  of  cunnen,  posse,  scire 
(Stratmann,  p.  107)  ;  A.  S.  cuffe, 
pret.  ofcunnan  (Sweet) ;  see  Earle, 
p.  162. 

Covetise,  vii.  12,  15,  covetousness. 
Gloss,  i. 

Coward  (adj.),  viii.  12;  O.  Fr. 
couard,  coard,  lit.  an  animal  that 
drops  his  tail,  or  that  shows  his 
tail,  turns  tail;  O.  Fr.  coe  (Lat. 
cauda)  a  tail  +  the  suffix  *ard,  of 
Teutonic  origin,  for  which  suffix 
see  M.  Miiller,  Chips,  iv.  91 ;  see 

Crack,  i.  12,  to  impair,  weaken  ;  a 
favourite  word  of  Shakespeare's, 
see  Schmidt ;  A.  S.  cearcian  (Leo). 

Crake,  xi.  10,  a  bragging ;  so  Shake 
speare  uses  to  crack,  to  bluster, 
cracker,  a  blusterer,  swaggerer,  see 

Cremosin,  xi.  3,  crimson;  It.  cre- 
misino,  crimson-coloured,  from  cre- 
misi,  crimson  ;  Arab,  qermez,  adj. 
qermazi ;  from  Sk.  krimi-ja,  i.  e. 
produced  by  an  insect.  The  colour 
is  so  called  because  produced  by 
the  cochineal  insect  (L.  Lat.  grand}. 
Gloss,  i.  Graine. 

Crest,  viii.  12,  the  top  of  the  helmet 
whence  the  plume  falls ;  Fr. '  creste, 
a  crest,  comb'  (Cotgrave);  Lat. 
crista,  a  comb  on  a  bird's  head. 
In  heraldry  the  '  crest'  is  the  cogni 
zance  worn  above  the  helmet  to 
distinguish  such  as  had  superior 
military  command. 

Culver,  vii.  34,  a  dove;  M.  E. 
culver  =  Lat.  columba,  Mk.  I.  10 
(Wiclif) ;  A.  S.  culfre,  prob.  a  cor 
ruption  of  the  Lat.  columba. 

Dalliaunce,ii.  35 ;  vi.8, 21,  trifling, 
idle  talk  ;  a  Miltonic  word  ;  prop. 
lingering,loitering,cp.  Shakespeare, 

GLOSS  A  R  Y. 

I  Hen.  VI,  v.  2.  5  ;  M.  E.  dalien, 
supposed  to  be  a  form  of  dwelien, 
to  be  foolish,  connected  with  M.  E. 
dwellen,  to  linger ;  see  Skeat.  For 
Fr.  suffix  -once,  see  Earle,  p.  330, 
Brachet,  p.  cix. 

Damnifyde,  vi.  43,  injured.  Gloss. 
I .  Damnify. 

Damozell,  and  Damzell,  i.  19, 
maiden.  Gloss.  I. 

Dan,  ii.  7,  a  title  prefixed  to  the  god 
Faunus ;  in  Chaucer  commonly 
given  to  monks,  but  also  prefixed 
to  the  names  of  persons  of  all  sorts 
(Chaucer  I);  O.Fr.otons  (Bartsch), 
cp.  Chanson  de  Roland,  1367,  danz 
Oliviers,  mon  seigneur  Olivier; 
Lat.  dominus.  Used  in  a  kind  of 
jocular  way  by  Shakespeare,  e.  g. 
4  Dan  Cupid,'  L.  L.  L.  iii.  182. 

Dapled,  i.  18,  spotted  (of  an  ani 
mal)  ;  M.  E.  dappel,  a  spot,  dappel- 
gray  (Chaucer  2)  ;  O.  N.  depill,  a 
spot,  orig.  a  little  pool ;  see  Skeat. 

Darraine,  ii.  26,  to  prepare,  get 
ready  (battle).  Gloss.  I. 

Date,  i.  44,  assigned  term  of  life. 
Gloss,  i. 

Dayes-man,  viii.  28,  an  umpire  or 
arbitrator;  occurs  Job  9.  33;  for 
other  exx.  see  Nares,  Richardson. 
In  the  judicial  language  of  the 
middle  ages,  words  for  '  day'  were 
specially  applied  to  the  day  ap 
pointed  for  hearing  a  cause,  or  for 
the  meeting  of  an  assembly.  So 
L.  Lat.  dies  (Ducange)  ;  for  Teu 
tonic  equivalents  see  Wedgwood 
(s.v.  day).  Hence  the  use  of  day 
in  the  sense  of 'judgment,' as  in 
the  compound  dayesman.  Cp.  I 
Cor.  4.  3,  fifjifpa  (dies,  Vulgate)  ^ 
judgment,  see  Stanley's  note  ;  and 
for  the  same  idiom  in  Hebrew  cp. 
Is.  2.  12. 

Dayntest,  xii.  42,  nicest,  most  fas 
tidious.  Gloss,  i.  Daint. 

Deare,  ii.  39,  earnestly ;  v.  38, 
sorely  ;  xi.  34,  true,  inmost ;  for 

these  senses  of  'dear'  cp.  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt)  ;  A.  S.  detire, 
carus,  pretiosus,  nobilis  (Sweet) ; 
cp.  O.  H.  G.  tiuri ;  Ger.  theuer. 

Dearnly,  i.  35,  mournfully ;  also 
spelt  dernly,  see  Nares,  Richard 
son  ;  M.  E.  derne,  dernliche,  ob- 
scurus,  obscure  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
dime,  secret,  hidden  (Sweet)  ;  cp. 
Ger.  Tdrn-kappe,  the  mantle  of 
concealment  in  the  Nibelungenlied 

Debate,  i.  6,  to  contend,  combat ; 
Shakespeare,  Lucr.  1421 ;  Fr.  '  de- 
batre,  to  debate,  contend'  (Cot- 

Debonaire,  vi.  28,  gentle;  so 
Shakespeare,  Troil.  I.  3.  235; 
M.  E.,  see  Chaucer  I  ;  O.  Yr.'de- 
bonaire,  gracious  (Bartsch) ;  cp. 
Chanson  de  Roland,  2252,  'E! 
gentilz  hum,  chevaliers  de  bon 
aire,'  translated  by  Gautier,  '  Ah  ! 
gentilhomme,  chevalier  de  noble 
lignee.'  See  Diez,  p.  6. 

Decay,  viii.  51,  xi.  36,  death,  de 
struction  ;  so  Shakespeare  often 
(Schmidt) ;  from  the  verb  decay ; 
O.Yr.decaer ;  caer,  coder  (Bartsch) 
=  Lat.  cadere,  to  fall ;  see  Skeat. 

Decretals,  ix.  53,  prob.  decrees; 
L.  Lat.  decretalia  not  decretales 
(Romanorum  Pontificum),  see  Du 

Deface,  xi.  6,  to  destroy ;  defaste, 
iv.  14,  destroyed;  so  in  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt)  ;  Fr.  '  desfacer, 
as  effacer,  to  efface,  deface,  wipe 
away,  to  abolish'  (Cotgrave),from 
face-,  Lzt.  fades. 

Deforme,  xii.  24,  misshaped,  ill- 
favoured ;  cp.  Milton,  P.  L.  ii. 
706  ;  xi.  494  ;  Lat.  deformis. 

Delay,  vi.  40;  ix.  30,  to  temper; 
for  exx.  see  Richardson.  Trench  ; 
Fr.  delayer,  to  soften,  dilute  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  Prov.  deslegar ;  It.  dile- 
guare;  Lat.dis  +  liquare',  see  Diez 
p.  119.  A  different  word  from 


G  L  0  S  S  A  R  Y. 

delay,  to  put  off;  O.  Fr.  delayer, 
delaier  (Bartsch);  Lat.  dilatare; 
see  Ducange. 

Delve,  viii.  4,  a  hole,  cave ;  M.  E. 
Wiclif,  2  Chron.  34.  II,  delves  = 
'  lapicidinse '  (Vulgate);  from  del- 
ven,  to  dig  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
delfan  (Sweet). 

Demayne,  viii.  23  ;  ix.  40,  treat 
ment,  demeanour ;  M .  E .  demeane, 
behaviour  (Chaucer),  from  demey- 
nen,  to  control ;  O.  Fr.  demener,  ' 
to  guide  (Bartsch)  ;  see  Skeat  (s.v. 

Dempt,  vii.  55,  deemed,  judged ; 
A.  S.  deman,  from  ddm,  a  decision 

Demure,  i.  6,  modest ;  cp.  Trench ; 
so  used  without  any  insinuation  of 
unreality  by  Shakespeare;  O.  Fr. 
de  murs,  of  manners ;  Lat.  mores; 
so  Skeat. 

Depainted,  v.  n,  depicted;  M.  E. 
depeynted  (Chaucer  i). 

Depart,  x.  14,  to  part,  divide ;  '  I 
departe.  Je  desmesle'  (Palsgrave), 
M.E.,  see  Chaucer  I  Wiclif,  N.T.; 
Fr.  departir  (Cotgrave). 

Der-doing,  vii.  10,  dare-doing. 

Derring  doe,  iv.  42,  deeds  of  daring ; 
so  Nares ;  M.  E.,  Chaucer,  Troilus, 
'  In  dorryng  don  that  longeth  to  a 
knyght,'  see  Academy,  No.  469. 

Desarts,  ii.  29,  a  phonetic  spelling 
for  deserts  ;  cp.  the  family  name 
Clark  from  clerk ;  see  Skeat,  Notes 
and  Queries,  6th  S.  iii.  4. 

Descrive,  iii.  25,  to  describe  ;  '  I 
descryve,  je  blasonne,  je  descrips' 
(Palsgrave);  see  Nares;  M.E.  de- 
scriven ;  O.  Fr.  descrivre ;  Lat. 
describere ;  see  Skeat. 

Despight,  i.  14  and  freq.,  malice, 
contemptuous  hate  ;  O.  Fr.  despit. 
Gloss,  i.  Hence  despiteously, 
vi.  29. 

Dessignment,  xi.  10,  an  attempt 
(to  attack)  ;  Shakespeare,  Oth.  ii. 
I.  22,  '  their  designment  halts.' 

Devise,  ix,  42,  guess,  imagine ;  ix. 
59,  to  treat  of;  see  Shakespeare 
(Schmidt)  ;  Fr.  deviser  (Cotgrave). 
from  L.  Lat.  divisa,  a  division, 
mark,  device,  deviz'd,  i.  31, 
painted  as  a  device. 

Diademe,  vii.  13,  a  fillet  on  the 
head  worn  by  rulers  ;  Gr.  StaS^/wt, 
what  is  bound  round. 

Diapase,  ix.  22,  harmony,  a  whole 
octave  ;  for  diapason  ;  Gr.  Siaira- 
a&v,  the  concord  of  the  first  and 
last  notes  of  an  octave  ;  see  Skeat. 

Dight,  to  arrange,  dress  (very  freq.) ; 
A.  S.  dihtan.  Gloss.  I. 

Dilate,  xii.  53,  to  spread  abroad;  Fr. 
dilater  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  dilatare. 

Discreet,  xii.  71,  distinct,  mea 
sured  ;  Lat.  discretus,  pp.  of  dis- 
cernere,  to  separate. 

Discure,  ix.  42,  to  discover,  dis 
close  ;  for  discover,  see  Nares, 

Disease,  ii.  12,  24,  to  deprive  of 
ease.  Gloss.  I. 

Dishable,  v.  21,  to  disparage;  'to 
disable,  to  disgrace  by  bad  report 
or  censure '  (Nares) ;  for  hable  — 
able,  cp.  More's  Utopia,  passim ; 
O.  Fr.  habile ;  Lat.  habilis ;  see 
Skeat  (s.  v.  able). 

Disleall,  v.  5,  disloyal;  M.  E.  Id; 
Norm.  Fr.  leal ;  O.  Fr.  leial ;  Lat. 
ley  alts  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  loyal). 

Dismall,  vii.  26  ;  viii.  51,  ill-boding, 
fatal ;  so  in  Shakespeare  often 
(Schmidt) ;  a  difficult  word,  in 
old  books  the  usual  phrase  is 
'dismal  days'  (Trench),  which 
may  refer  to  tithing-time  ;  O.  Fr. 
dismal ;  Lat.  decimalis,  from  de- 
cima,  a  tithe ;  see  Skeat. 

Dismay,  viii.  7  ;  ix.  34,  to  deprive 
of  power  ;  this  is  the  etymological 
meaning  of  the  word  ;  see  Gloss.  I. 

Dismayd,  xi.  n,  deformed  ;  dis  + 

Dismay le,  vi.  29,  to  injure  the 
mail ;  see  Male. 



Disparaged,  x.  2,  rendered  inferior 
in  ability ;  M.  E.  desparagen,  to 
lower  in  rank  or  estimation  (Strat- 
mann);  Fr.cfesparagw  (Cotgrave), 
from  par  age,  rank  ;  L.  Lat.  para- 

C'  im,  paraticum  (Ducange),  from 
t.  par,  equal. 

Dispence,  ix.  29,  expenditure ;  Fr. 
despense  (Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I. 

Display,  v.  30,  to  unfold,  spread 
out ;  O.  Fr.  despleier ;  from  Lat. 
plicare,  to  fold  ;  see  Skeat. 

Disports,  vi.  26,  acts  of  playfulness. 
Gloss.  I. 

Dispred,  v.  29,  to  spread  abroad ; 
for  exx.  see  Richardson. 

Disthronize,  x.  44,  to  dethrone  ; 
'Desthroner,  to  disthronize,  or 
unthrone*  (Cotgrave). 

Distraine,  xii.  82,  to  pull  asunder, 
break  (of  a  net);  Fr.  destraindre 
(Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  distringere. 

Ditt,  vi.  13  ;  ditty,  x.  50,  a  theme 
for  song.  Gloss.  I. 

Diverse,  ii.  3,  distracting ;  Lat. 

Do,  i,  25, '  to  do  him  rew,'  to  make 
him  repent.  Gloss.  I. 

Doole,  xii.  20,  grief;  see  Richard 
son  (s.  v.  dole);  M.  E.  dole  in 
Chaucer;  also  doel,  see  Strat- 
mann ;  O.  Fr.  doel,  duel  (mod. 
deuil),  verbal  subst.  of  doloir,  Lat. 
dolere,  to  grieve. 

Doome,  ix.  48,  judgment,  deci 
sion,  M.  E.  dom ;  A.  S.  dom,  lit. 
a  thing  set,  decided  on,  from  d6-n, 
to  set,  do ;  from  dom  comes  the 
vb.  to  deem,  A.  S.  demon,  to  give 
a  doom ;  for  change  of  6  into  e, 
see  Skeat,  Preface  xiii. 

Drapets,  ix.  27,  cloths;  dimin.  of 
Fr.  drap  ;  L.  Lat.  drappus.  Ori 
gin  uncertain,  see  Diez,  p.  123. 

Draught,  x.  51  (rhymes  with 
ought,  fought,  seeEarle,  p.  152),  a 
stratagem ;  cp.  Halliwell, '  draught 
(2),  a  spider's  web.  Metaph.  a 
snare  to  entrap  any  one.' 

Drent,  vi.  49,  drowned ;  pp.  of  to 
drench  ;  M.  E.  drenchen,  pp. 
dreint ;  A.  S.  dretican,  causal  of 
drincan ;  see  Stratmann,  Skeat. 
For  vowei-change,  cp.  M.  E. 
sengen,A..  S.  (be}  sengan,  to  singe, 
causal  of  singan,  to  sing;  and 
see  Feld. 

Drere,  xii.  36 ;  dreriment,  i.  15  ; 
iv.  31,  grief.  Gloss.  I. 

Drift,  xii.  8,  a  driving. 

Drive,  i.  55,  to  hasten ;  cp.  Germ. 

Driven,  vii.  5,  beaten,  of  gold  ;  so 
Germ,  treiben. 

Drouth,  vii.  58,  drought,  thirst ; 
see  Halliwell,  Schmidt;  M.  E. 
drouhthe,  P.  Plowman,  A.  text: 
A.  S.  drugade,  from  drugian,  to 
dry;  see  Skeat.  For  suffix  -ad  (od), 
denoting  action,  see  Sweet,  Ixxxv. 


Easterland,  x.  41,  the  eastern 
land  ;  here  prob.  east  Germany. 

Easterlings,  x.  63,  people  of  the 
east ;  in  this  passage  prob.  the 
inhabitants  of  Norway  and  Den 
mark,  see  citation  from  Holinshed 
in  Richardson.  Later  the  word 
Easterlings  or  Esterlings  was  a 
name  for  the  Hanse  merchants, 
see  Skeat  (s.v.  sterling),  and 
Davies  (s.  v.  Easterling).  For  an 
account  of  the  suffix  -ling,  see 
Earle,  p.  300,  and  Weigand  (s.  v. 

Eath,  iii.  40;  iv.  II,  easy;  M.  E. 
ead  (Stratmann) ;  A.  S.  edde 
(Grein)  ;  cp.  O.  S.  66i  (Heliand). 

Eden,  xii.  52,  the  first  residence  of 
man;  a  Hebrew  word, Gen. ii.  15, 
but  perhaps  of  Accadian  origin, 
and  standing  for  the  Accadian 
edin,  plain  or  valley,  a  word  bor 
rowed  by  the  Semitic  Babylonians 
and  Assyrians  under  the  form 
edinu ;  so  Sayce  in  Academy, 
No.  496. 



Eft,  iii.  21 ;  iv.  18;  xi.  36,  after 
wards,  again,  forthwith  ;  A.S.  aft, 
eft,  again. 

Eftsoones,  i.  8  (and  freq.),  soon 
after,  forthwith.  Gloss.  I. 

Eke,  ii.  34,  also ;  M.  E.  ec,  see 
M.S.  I  ;  A.  S.  edc,  from  the  verb 
ecan,  to  increase ;  cp.  Germ,  auch, 
Dan.  og  (and)  ;  see  Skeat. 

Eld,  ix.  56,  old  age;  M.  E.  elde ; 
A.  S.  eldo,  yldo,  see  Stratmann, 
Leo.  Gloss,  i. 

Elfe,  x.  71,  'Elfe,  to  weet  Quick,' 
i.  e.  living,  the  name  of  the  man 
'authour  of  all  Elfin  kind '  who 
was  created  by  Prometheus  ;  M.  E. 
elf,  alfe,  see  Stratmann,  p.  21  ; 
A.  S.  elf,  <zlf  (Leo).  Origin 
doubtful,  but  see  Curtius,  p.  293. 
Gloss,  i. 

Embatteiled,  v.  2,  armed  for 
battle ;  a  favourite  word  with 
Milton,  cp.  P.  L.  vi.  16,  '  em- 
batter  d  squadrons  bright ' ;  for 
Shakespeare's  use  of  embattle  see 

Embaye,  i.  40 ;  viii.  55,  to  bathe ; 
see  Nares.  Gloss.  I.  Is  this  form 
due  to  a  confusion  of  the  letter 
/  with  the  letter  y  ? 

Embayle,  iii.  27,  'to  enclose,  or 
pack  up  as  in  a  bale1  (Nares) ; 
Fr.  '  emballer,  to  packe  up '  (Cot- 
grave).  The  word  bale,  a  pack 
age,  is  the  same  as  ball,  a  spherical 
body ;  see  Skeat. 

Embosome,  iv.  25,  to  foster,  to 
receive  within  the  bosom ;  for 
exx.  see  Richardson. 

Emboyle,  iv.  9;  v.  18,  to  boil 
(with  anger). 

Embrace,  i.  26,  to  brace,  fasten, 
or  bind  ;  Fr.  '  embrasser  son  escu, 
to  put  his  shield  upon  his  arme, 
to  buckle  his  shield  unto  his 
arme'  (Cotgrave). 

Embracement,  iv.  26,  embrace; 
for  exx.  see  Richardson;  often 
in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt. 

Embrave,  i.  60,  to  decorate ;  for 
exx.  see  Richardson.  Gloss.  I. 

Embrew,  i.  40,  to  moisten,  drench  ; 
Fr. '  s'embruer,  to  imbrue  himselfe 
with '  (Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I.  Im- 

Erne,  x.  47,  uncle;  still  used  in 
N.  of  England,  see  Jamieson ; 
M.  E.  em,  earn  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
edm(  Sweet);  cp.  Du.  oom;  Germ. 
oheim  (Weigand). 

Emeraude,  xii.  54,  emerald  ;  M.  E. 
emeraude ;  Fr.  '  esmeraude,  an 
emerauld '  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  sma- 
ragdus ;  Gr.  ajMpaySos ;  see 

Emmove,  i.  50,  to  move;  Fr. 
'  esmouvoir,  to  stirre  up  '  (Cot- 

Emongst,  ix.  52,  amongst;  the 
form  emonge  occurs  in  Gower, 
see  Richardson  ;  for  various  other 
forms  see  Stratmann  (s.  v.  mang)  ; 
the  t  is  merely  excrescent  (as  often 
after  s) ,  cp.  whilst,  amidst ;  amonges 
is  an  adverbial  form  in  -es,  orig. 
a  gen.  sing.,  for  which  adverbial 
inflexion  see  Earle,  p.  480,  Sweet, 
Ixxxix ;  among  stands  for  A.  S. 
onmang  —  on  mange  or  on  ge- 
mange,  in  a  crowd  ;  see  Skeat. 

Empayre,  x.  30,  to  diminish ; 
M.E.enpeiren  (Stratmann, p.  149); 
O.  Fr.  empeirier,  ew/>/rer(Bartsch). 
cp.  Cotgrave, '  empirer,  to  impaire, 
make  worse';  L.  Lat.  impeiorare 
(Ducange),  from  Lat.  peior,  worse. 

Empeach,  vii.  15,  to  hinder;  for 
exx.  in  this  sense  see  citations 
from  Holland  in  Skeat  (s.  v.  im 
peach)  ;  M.  E.  in  Chaucer  (Ri 
chardson)  ;  Fr.  '  empescher,  to 
hinder,  impeach  '  (Cotgrave)  ;  O. 
Fr.  empescher  (Bartsch)  ;  see  ap- 

Empiglit,  iv.  1 6,  pret.,  fixed,  set 
tled  (of  a  dart).  Gloss,  i.  Pight. 

Emprise,  vii.  39,  an  undertaking; 



Fr.  emprise  (Cotgrave,  Bartsch). 
Gloss,  i. 

Enchace,  ix.  24,  to  adorn,  em 
bellish;  Fr.  '  enchasser  en  or,  to 
enchace  or  set  in  gold '  (Cotgrave). 
Gloss.  I. 

Enehaunter,  i.  5,  a  magician,  lit. 
one  who  repeats  a  chant,  a 
charmer  ;  from  the  vb.  enchant ; 
M.  E.  enchaunten  (Chaucer) ;  O. 
Fr.  enchanter  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  in- 
cantare,  to  repeat  a  chant ;  see 

Encheason,  i.  30,  reason,  cause, 
occasion ;  M.  E.  enchesoun  (Chau 
cer),  see  also  Stratmann,  p.  149  ; 
O.  Fr.  enchaison,  an  occasion 
(Roquefort) ;  from  encheoir  (Bur- 
guy),  chaoir,  cader,  to  fall 
(Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  cadere. 

Engin,  iv.  27,  wiles,  deceit;  Fr. 
'  engin,  understanding,  policie, 
reach  of  wit,  also,  suttletie,  fraud, 
craft '  (Cotgrave)  ;  O.  Fr.  engien, 
wiliness  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  ingenium, 
used  of '  natural  abilities, cleverness.' 

Englut,  ii.  23,  to  devour  ;  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt);  Fr.  ' englontir, 
to  inglut,  ingulfe '  (Cotgrave) ; 
Lat.  glutire,  to  swallow. 

Engore,  viii.  42,  to  pierce;  from 
the  vb.  to  gore,  to  pierce,  which 
is  formed  from  M.  E.  gare,  gore, 
a  spear  ;  A.  S.  gar  (Sweet)  ;  = 
O.  H.  G.  ger,  ker ;  cp.  the  Gaulish 
gaesum  in  Virgil,  A.  viii.  662. 

Engrave,  i.  60,  to  inter,  bury ;  for 
exx.  see  Trench.  Gloss.  I. 

Enhaunse,  vi.  31 ;  vii.  44,  to 
raise,  lift  up ;  prop,  to  further, 
advance  a  thing ;  M.  E.  enhansen 
(Stratmann).  Gloss.  I. 

Enlarge,  v.  19,  to  set  at  large. 
Gloss,  i. 

Enlumine,  ix.  4,  to  illumine;  Fr. 
'  enluminer,  to  illuminate,  in- 
lighten'  (Cotgrave);  Lat.  lumen, 

Ensue,  iii.  2,  to  follow  after ;  often 

in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt ; 
O.  Fr.  ensnir.  Gloss.  I. 

Entayle,  iii.  27  ;  vi.  29,  to  carve, 
cut  into  ;  entayle,  vii.  4,  orna 
mental  work  cut  on  gold  (cp.  It. 
intaglio) ;  M.  E.  entailen,  to  cut 
or  carve  in  an  ornamental  way ; 
O.  Fr.  entaillier  (Bartsch),  from 
taillier,  to  cut;  L.  Lat.  taleare, 
to  cut  (Ducange),  from  Lat.  talea, 
a  cutting  from  a  plant ;  see  Diez, 
p.  313,  Brachet  (s.  v.  tailler). 

Enterpris,  i.  19,  to  undertake ; 
for  its  use  as  a  verb,  cp.  Skeat 
(s.  v.)  ;  O.  Fr.  entreprise,  entre- 
prinse  (Bartsch)  ;  from  entrepris, 
pp.  of  entreprendre,  to  undertake  ; 
L.  Lat.  interprendere  (Ducange). 

Enterprise,  ii.  14,  to  receive  (as  a 
host  his  guests) ;  this  sense  ap 
parently  peculiar  to  Spenser,  see 

Entertaine,ix.6,to  receive;  so  freq. 
in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt ;  O.  Fr. 
entretenir,  to  receive  (Bartsch) ; 
L.  Lat.  intertenere,  to  support, 
maintain  (Ducange). 

Entertainment,  ii.  35,  hospitality; 
see  above. 

Entrall,  xii.  25,  the  inward  part, 
depth  (bowels)  ;  a  spelling  of  the 
word  entrails ;  Fr.  '  entratlles,  the 
intrals,  intestines'  (Cotgrave) ; 
L.  Lat.  intralia,  also  (and  more 
correctly)  intranea,  in  the  Lex 
Salica,  see  Ducange ;  Lat.  inter- 
anea,  intestines.  For  the  change 
from  n  to  /  cp.  Palermo  from  Lat. 
Panormus,  see  Brachet,  xcvii. 

Entrayle,  iii.  27,  to  twist,  entwine, 
interlace;  prob.  from  Fr.  treiller, 
to  lattice  (Cotgrave),  from  treille, 
an  arbour  of  intertwining  trees ; 
Lat.  tricla,  trichila,  a  bower, 
arbour;  see  Brachet  (s.  v.  treille}, 
Skeat  (s.  v.  trellis). 

Entyre,  v.  8;  viii.  15^  wholly;  Fr. 
'  entier,  intire,  whole  '  (Cotgrave) ; 
Lat.  integrum. 


G  LO  SSA  R  F. 

Envy,  ii.  19,  to  feel  jealousy  at; 
Fr.  '  envier,  to  envie '  (Cotgrave) ; 
from  Fr.  envie  =  Lat.  invidia. 

Enwombed,  i.  50,  pregnant ;  x.  50, 
enclosed  in  the  womb  ;  cp.  Shake 
speare,  All's  Well,  i.  3.  150. 

Equipaged,  ix.  17,  arrayed,  equip 
ped  ;  the  vb.  from  the  sb.  equipage 
in  Spenser's  Sheph.  Kal.  Oct.  114; 
Fr.  '  equipage,  equipage,  furniture, 
good  armour  '  (Cotgrave)  ;  from 
equiper,  esquiper ;  O.  N.  skipa,  to 
arrange.  Gloss.  I. 

Erne,  in.  46,  to  yearn,  to  long  for  ; 
see  Halliwell;  erne  apparently  = 
M.  E.  $ernen ;  A.  S.  gyrnan,  to 
be  desirous,  from  georn,  desirous 
(Sweet);  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  yearn). 

Errant,  i.  19,  51,  'the  errant 
damozell,'  '  errant  knighte' ;  from 
O.  Fr.  errer,  edrar,  to  travel 
(Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat.  iterare,  iter- 
facere  (Ducange),  from  Lat.  tier ; 
see  Burguy.  Gloss.  I. 

Error,  x.  9,  wandering  ;  Lat.  error. 

Erst,  ix.  17,  previously  ;  also  earst. 
Gloss,  i. 

Evangely,  x.  53,  Gospel ;  Fr.  evan- 
gile  (Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat.  evan- 
gelium  ;  Gr.  tvayyeXiov,  N.  T. 

Exanimate,  xii.  7,  lifeless;  the 
word  occurs  in  Thomson's  Spring, 
1052  ;  Lat.  exanimatus. 

Exprest,  xi.  42,  pressed,  squeezed 
out ;  press  is  Fr.  presser ;  Lat.  pres- 
sare,  frequentative  formed  from 
pressus,  pp.  of  premere. 

Expyre,  viii.  24,  '  to  expire  a  date,' 
to  fulfil,  come  to  the  end  of,  a 
term  ;  the  vb.  used  transitively  as 
the  Lat.  exspirare,  to  breathe  out. 

Extent,  vii.  61,  stretched  out ;  pp. 
of  the  vb.  extend. 

Faerie,  Faery,   (i)  Introd.   i,  4, 
'  land  of  Faery,'  ix.  4,  •  Queene  of 

Faerie,'  enchantment;  the  subst. 
used  adjectivally  by  collocation 
(Earle,  p.  400),  ix.  9,  'Faerie 
court ' ;  i.  6 ;  ii.  40 ;  ix.  60, 
'  Faerie  land  ' ;  Introd.  5  ;  i.  17*; 
vi.  36  ;  vii.  42,  '  Faerie  knight ' ; 
(2)  used  for  fay  (a  use  pecu 
liarly  English),  vii.  38,  'Faeries 
sonne' ;  ix.  60, '  Elves  and  Faeries' ; 
cp.  x.  71.  M.  E.  faerie,  fairye, 
enchantment,  fairy  land  (Strat- 
mann,  Chaucer  2)  ;  O.  Fr.  faerie, 
enchantment,  from  fae  (Fr.  fee), 
see  fay.  Cp.  Skeat  (s.  v.  fairy). 

Fail,  v.  II,  to  deceive;  Fr.  'faillir, 
to  faile,  to  deceive '  (Cotgrave)  ; 

Fain,  Fayn,  ii.  34;  vii.  61,  to 
feign,  pretend ;  M.  E.  feynen, 
feinen  (Stratmann) ;  O.Fr.feindre, 
faindre  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  fingere. 

Faine,  vi.  i,  gladly;  A.S.fagen, 
glad  (Sweet).  Gloss,  i.  Fayne. 

Faine,  xii.  74,  to  desire;  M.  E. 
faine,  to  be  glad  (M.  S.  2)  ;  see 

Faitour,  faytour,  i.  30;  iv.  30, 
'  false  faitour,1  cheat,  deceiver ; 
O.Fr. l faitour,  createur'  (Bartsch). 
Gloss,  i. 

Falsed,  i.  I ;  xii.  44,  falsified ;  so 
Chaucer ;  false  from  Lat.  falsus, 
pp.  offallere,  to  deceive.  Gloss.  I. 

Fantasy,  xii.  42,  fancy;  M.  E. 
fantasie  (Chaucer  2)  ;  Fr.  fantasie 
(Cotgrave);  L.  Lat.  fantasia, 
phantasia ;  Gr.  ^avracrta  in  Acts 
xxv.  23, 'pomp.'  Hence fantas- 
ticke,  vi.  7,  fanciful. 

Fare,  i.  2, 4,  to  travel,  speed  ;  M.  E. 
far  en  (Chaucer  2)  ;  A.  S.  far  an 
(Leo),  usually  (ge^faran  (Sweet)  ; 
cp.  Goth,  faran,  to  go,  Germ. 
fahren,  cognate  with  Lat.  -per-  in 
experior ;  see  Skeat. 

Faste,  xi.  12,  faced;  cp.  xii.  36, 

Fatall,  xii.  36,  of  ill  omen ;  so  in 
Shakespeare  often,  see  Schmidt ; 



Lzt.fatalis,  from  fatum,  what  is 
spoken,  fate. 

Fault,  xi.  9,  to  err ;  see  Richard 
son,  citation  from  Cheke. 

ITavourlesse,  ix.  7,  not  showing 

Fay,  ii.  43;  x.  42,  71,  a  superna 
tural  being  in  the  mythology  of 
romance  ;  the  word  does  not  occur 
in  Shakespeare ;  Milton,  Od.  Nat. 
235,  sings  how  '  the  yellow-skirted 
Fayes  Fly  after  the  night-steeds, 
leaving  their  moon-loved  maze ' ; 
O.  Fr.  fee,  a  witch,  enchantress 
(Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat./ata,  a  goddess 
of  destiny  ;  cp.  It.fata,  Port.fada, 
Sp.  hada,  a  fay,  a  witch ;  from 
Iszt.fatum,  what  is  spoken,  fate  ; 
hence  faerie;  see  Brachet  (s.v. 

Fealty,  x.  37,  true  service,  fidelity  ; 
O.  Fr.fealte,  feelleit;  Lat.  fideli- 
tatem ;  for  loss  of  d  see  Brachet, 
Introd.  sect.  1 20. 

Fear,  xii.  25,  to  affright,  to  terrify; 
so  in  Shakespeare  often,  see 

Fee,  vii.  56,  reward,  recompense 
(fruit  of  a  tree);  ii.  13;  iii.  8, 
'  in  fee?  as  a  reward,  payment ; 
M.  E.  fee,  fe,  feo,  feoh,  property, 
hence  a  grant  of  land,  payment; 
A.  S.  fed,  feoh,  cattle,  property, 
money  ;  see  Leo,  A.  S.  Chron.  an. 
865  ;  cp.  O.  N.  fe,  Goth,  faihu, 
cognate  with  Lat.  pecus;  see  Skeat. 
Gloss.  I. 

Feend,  vii.  26;  ix.  50,  a  fiend, 
an  unfriendly  supernatural  being; 
M.  E.  feend  (Chaucer  2) ;  A.  S. 
feond,  a  foe,  a  fiend  (Sweet), 
properly  pres.  pt.  offeon,  to  hate ; 
cp.  O.  N.  fjdndi,  Ger.  feitid ;  see 

Feld,  vi.  32  ;  xii.  40,  let  fall;  pret. 
of  to  fell,  A.  S.fellan,  formed  as  a 
causal  by  vowel-change  from/otfo* 
(feallan),  to  fall ;  cp.  drent. 

Fell,  viii.  31,  fierce,  cruel;    M.  E. • 

fel  (Chaucer  2)  ;  A.  S.  fel,  as  in 
comp.  wal-fel,  slaughter -fierce 
(Leo);  cp.  O.  Fr.  fel,^  in  oblique 
case  felon  (Bartsch),  see  Chanson 
de  Roland. 

Felon,  viii.  30,  a  wretch,  criminal; 
O.  Fr.  felon  (see  above)  ;  cp.  L. 
Lat.y<?//o  (Ducange). 

Fensible,  ix.  21,  fit  for  defence; 
for  exx.  see  Richardson ;  fence  is 
merely  an  abbreviation  for  defence ; 
see  Skeat. 

Ferry,  vi.  19,  a  ferry-boat ;  to  ferry, 
A.  S.  ferian,  ferigan,  to  carry,  is 
causal  offaran,  to  fare. 

Fetch,  xii.  21, '  they  fetch  the  sandy 
breach,'  they  reach,  arrive  at ;  the 
orig.  notion  of  to  fetch  seems  to 
be  '  to  go  to  find ' ;  M.  E.  fecchen 
Stratmann)  ;  A.  S.  feccan  in  John 
iv.  7;  see  Skeat,  p.  790. 

Fett,  ix.  58,  to  fetch;  M.E.  fette 
(Stratmann,  p.  167)  ;  A.  S.  fetian, 
see  Sweet. 

Field,  i.  18,  (in  heraldry)  the  sur 
face  of  the  shield,  containing  the 
charges  ;  so  in  Shakespeare  figura 
tively,  Lucrece  58,  and  cp.  Peri 
cles,  i.  I.  37,  '  yo\\  field  of  stars.' 
The  Fr.  equivalent  is  champ,  L. 
Lat.  campus  (Ducange). 

Field,  vi.  29,  battle  in  the  '  champ 
clos ' ;  cp.  stanza  28, '  thyselfe  pre- 
paire  to  batteile?  So  L.  Lat. 
campus  =  duellum,  single  combat 

Fine,  xii.  59,  '  in  fine?  in  the  end ; 
Fr.  enfin. 

Firme,  vii.  i,  to  fix  firmly;  Lat. 

Fits,  ii.  II,  it  is  fitting ;  M.E.Jitten, 
to  arrange ;  O.  N.  fitja,  to  knit 
together,  see  Skeat. 

Fitt,  iv.  14;  vi.  21  ;  vii.  66,  an 
attack  (of  fury,  of  merriment,  of 
weakness)  ;  M.  TL.jit  (Stratmann) ; 
A.  S.ft,  a  struggle  (Leo). 

Flamed,  vi.  8,  inflamed. 

Fleet,    vii.    14,    to    move    swiftly ; 



M.  E.   fleten,   fleoten,    to    float, 
swim  ;  A.  S.  fledtan. 

Flit,  iv.  38;  vi.  20,  38;  xii.  44, 
flee,  swift. 

Flitting,  viii.  2,  fleeting,  moving. 

Flore,  xi.  37,  ground  ;  A.  S.  flor 
(Sweet);  cp.  Ir.  Idr  (Pick,  iv. 

Flowre-deluce,  vi.  16,  the  white 
lily ;  flower-de-luce  in  Shakespeare, 
see  Schmidt ;  M.  E.  floure-de-lice 
(M.S. 2);  O.Fr./or<fe/M(Btrt$ch); 
fr.fieiir  de  Us  ;  Us  =  L.  Lat.  lilius, 
a  form  of  Lat.  lilium,  a  lily. 

F9ltring,i. 47, stammering.  Gloss.i. 

Fond,  vii.  14,  foolish;  M.  E.  fanned 
(Wiclif).  Gloss.  I. 

Fone,  viii.  21,  x.  10;  foen,  iii.  13, 
foes;  M.  E.  fon,  R.  Gloucester 
(Matzner);  A.  S.  fan,  pi.  of  fdh 
(fa),  weak  declension. 

Food,  i.  3,  feud ;  M.  E.  fede  (a 
Northern  form)  ;  A.  S.  fak®,  en- 
mity  (Sweet),  from  fdg  (fdh), 
see  above.  Cp.  Skeat. 

Fool-hardize,  ii.  17;  iv.  42,  fool- 
hardiness  ;  for  exx.  of  fool-hardy 
see  Richardson  (s.v./oo/)  ;  for  the 
suffix  -ize  (-ice,  -ise)  formed  on 
Lat.  -itia  see  Earle,  p.  323,  Morris, 
p.  239. 

Foot,  iii.  3,  to  pace,  to  walk  ;  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt). 

Forckheadj  iv.  46,  the  barbed  head 
of  the  dart. 

Fordonne,  i.  51,  utterly  undone; 
pp.  of  fordo  ;  A.  S.  fordon,  to  ruin 
(Sweet)  ;  for  the  prefix  /or-,  see 
Skeat,  p.  728  (13  a). 

Foreby,  viii.  10,  close  by ;  M.  E. 
forby  (Chaucer  2).  Gloss.  I. 

Forestall,  iv.  39, '  forestalled  place,' 
taken  previous  possession  of;  ix. 
n,  to  be  beforehand,  hence,  to 
prevent ;  see  Shakespeare's  use  of 
the  word  (Schmidt) ;  M.  E.  for- 
stallen  (P.  Plowman) ;  orig.  used . 
as  a  marketing  term,  viz.  to  buy 
up  goods  before  they  had  been 

displayed  at  a  stall  in  the  market ; 
see  Skeat. 

Forgery,  xii.  28,  fiction,  deceit ; 
from  vb.  to  forge,  M.  E.  forgen, 
see  Wiclif,  Ps.  cxxviii.  3, '  synneris 
forgeden  on  my  bak,'  =  supra  dor- 
sum  meum  fabricaverunt  pecca- 
tores  (Vulg.),from/org-e  (Gower) ; 
O.  Fr.  forge\  Lat.  fabrica,  a 
workshop  :  see  Brachet.  Diez,  p. 
145,  Skeat. 

Forlore,pp.  iii.  31,  lost  (unawares)  ; 
vi.  48,  utterly  lost,  ruined  (A.  S. 
forloren);  pret.  xii.  52,  (they) 
left,  abandoned  (A.  S.  forluron)  ; 
see  Sweet,  Ixxii.  Gloss,  i.  For- 

Forthright,  xi.  4,  straightway; 
A.  S.  forftriht  (Leo). 

Forthy,  i.  14 ;  vii.  65 ;  xii.  8, 
therefore;  M.  E.forthy  (Chaucer)  ; 
A.  S.  for  dy,  therefore  ;  %y  is  the 
instrumental  case  of  the  demon 
strative  neuter  ftcet  (that) ;  see 
Sweet's  glossary  (s.v./or). 

Fortilage,  xii.  43,  a  little  fort; 
used  by  Spenser  in  his  View  of  the 
State  of  Ireland,  see  Richardson ; 
cp.  L.  Lat.  fortilitium  (Ducange)  ; 
It.  fortilizio  ;  see  Skeat  (s.v.  for- 

Fortuned  (him),  i.  5,  it  chanced 
to  him ;  for  many  exx.  see  Rich 

Fouldring,ii.  20,  thundering,  thun 
derous,  blasting  with  lightning ; 
Fr.  'fouldroyant,  darting  thunder 
bolts'  (Cotgrave),  homfouldroyer 
(mod.  foudroyer),  from  fouldre, 
O.  Fr.  foldre  =  Lat.  fulgurem,  a 
thunderbolt  (Burguy);  see  Brachet 

Foy,  x.  41,  fealty,  here  tribute;  Fr. 
foy  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  fidem,  which 
in  L.  Lat.  is  used  in  sense  of  tax, 
tribute,  see  Ducange  (s.v.  fides). 

Foyle,  iii.  13,  repulse,  defeat;  cp. 
Shakespeare,  I  Hen.  VI,  iii.  3. 
II,  'one  sudden  foil  shall  never 



breed  mistrust ' ;  from  the  vb.  to 
foil,  M.E./qy/£/*,  to  trample  under 
foot ;  corrupted  from  O.  Fr.  fouler 
(Bartsch),  so  in  Cotgrave,  'fouler, 
to  trample  on,  to  presse,  oppresse, 
fpyle ' ;  L.  Lat.  fullare,  folare,  to 
full  cloth  (by  trampling  or  beat 
ing)  ;  from  Lat./w//o,  a  fuller,  one 
who  cleanses  or  bleaches  clothes  ; 
perhaps  connected  with  Gr.  </>dAos, 
white ;  see  Skeat  (foil,  full). 

Foyne,  v.  9 ;  viii.  47,  to  thrust  or 
lunge  with  a  sword  ;  so  Shake 
speare,  see  Schmidt ;  M.  E.  in 
Chaucer,  C.  T.  1654;  Fr./OKM«, 
an  eel-spear  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat./ws- 
clna,  a  three-pronged  spear,  a  tri 
dent  ;  so  Skeat. 

Frame,  ii.  16,  to  prepare;  M.  E. 
fremen  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.  S.  (ge)frem- 
man,  to  further,  effect  (Sweet)  ; 
see  Skeat. 

Franck,  ii.  37,  free,  forward;  O. 
Fr.  franc  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat./raw- 
cus  (Ducange)  ;  O.  H.  G.francho, 
a  Frank,  a  free  man  ;  connected 
with  Go.  -friks,  G.frech,  bold,  in 
solent  ;  so  Weigand. 

Franion,  ii.  37,  an  idle,  loose,  li 
centious  person ;  for  exx.  see 

Fray,  xii.  40,  to  frighten ;  so  in 
Shakespeare,  Troilus,  iii.  2.  34, 
'  as  if  she  were  frayed  with  a 
sprite ' ;  shortened  from  vb.  to 
affray ;  Fr.  '  effrayer,  to  affright, 
fray '  (Cotgrave)  ;  O.  Fr.  e/reer, 
esfraer  (Bartsch)  ;  Prov.  esfredar ; 
L.  Lat.  exfridare,  exfrediare  (Du 
cange),  from  O.  H.  G.fridu  (now 
friede),  peace,  hence,  '  to  put  out 
of  peace' ;  see  note  by  H.  Nicol, 
in  Skeat,  p.  776. 

Fret,  ii.  34,  to  eat  away ;  M.  E. 
freten  (Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S.  fretan 
(Sweet);  from  for-  intensive  prefix, 
and  etan,  to  eat ;  cp.  Germ,  fressen 
(  =ver-essen). 

Fret,  ix.  37,  to  ornament,  variegate; 

M.  E.  fretien  (Stratmann) ;  A.  S. 
(ge)frcEtwan  (Sweet) ;  cp.  O.  S. 
fratahon  (Heliand). 

Frigot,  vi.  7  ;  xii.  10,  a  little  boat ; 
Fr.  'fregate,  a  swift  pinnace ' 
(Cotgrave)  ;  It.  'fregata,  a  spiall 
ship  '  (Florio)  ;  L.  Lat.  'fregata, 
navis  exploratoria  A.D.  1362'  (Du 
cange)  ;  for  supposed  etymology, 
see  Diez,  p.  147,  and  Skeat. 

Fro,  i.  48,  from ;  M.  E.  fra,  fro  ; 
O.N.frd;  see  Skeat. 

Fry,  xii.  45,  to  boil,  foam;  Fr. 
'frire,  to  frie '  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat. 
frigere,  to  roast ;  cp.  Gr.  <ppvyetv, 
to  parch. 

Funerall,  v.  25,  death;  so  Lat. 
funus,  funeral,  burial,  occurs  also 
in  the  sense  of  '  death,'  especially 
violent  death. 


Gaged,  iii.  14,  left  as  gages,  or  host 
ages ;  to  gage  =  O.  Fr.  gager, 
wager  (Burguy);  L.  Lat.  wadiare, 
to  pledge,  from  wadius,  a  pledge 
(Ducange) ;  see  "Wage. 

Gainstrive,  i  v.  1 4,  to  strive  against ; 
so  F.  Q.  IV.  vii.  12;  the  prefix 
gain-  is  the  A.  S.  gegn,  against, 
as  in  gegncwide,  a  speech  against 
anything  (Grein). 

Gan,  i.  42  (and  freq.),  pret.  of  the 
vb.  to  gin,  M.  E.  ginnen,  A.  S. 
ginnan,  to  begin  (only  in  com 
pounds).  Pick  connects  ginnan 
with,  O.  N.  gunnr,  war,  as  if  the 
orig.  sense  was  'to  strike';  cp. 
O.  Slav,  zena,  I  drive  ;  see  Skeat 
(s.v.  gin). 

Garre,  v.  19,  to  cause,  make ;  com 
mon  in  Lowland  Scotch,  and  see 
P.  Plowman,  C.  P. ;  a  Scandina 
vian  word,  cp.  the  O.  N.  gora,  to 
make,  pp.  gorr,  ready  =  A.S.  gearu 
(yare)  ;  see  Icel.  Diet. 

Gate,  xii.  17,  a  way,  path  ;  a  Scan 
dinavian  word,  common  in  the 
N.  of  Britain ;  O.  N.  gata ;  cp. 



Go.  gatwo,  Ger.  gasse.  This 
gate  = '  a  way  '  should  be  distin 
guished  from  gate,  '  a  door,  open 
ing,'  A.  S.  geat  (Sweet),  cognate 
with  O.  N.  gat.  Gloss.  I. 

G-aze  (at),  ii.  5,  staring;  so  Shake 
speare,  see  Schmidt,  and  for  other 
exx.  cp.  Richardson,  Nares,  and 
Halliwell;  gaze,  a  vb.  of  Scandi 
navian  origin,  see  Skeat. 

G-eare,  iv.  26,  dress ;  M.  E.  gere 
(Chaucer  i);  A.  S.  gearwe,  pi. 
fern,  preparation,  dress  (Leo). 

Geare,  vi.  21,  to  jeer,  mock,  scoff; 
another  form  of  jeer',  Du.  scheeren, 
to  shear,  to  jeer,  from  the  phrase 
den  gelt  scheeren,  to  shear  the 
fool,  see  Skeat  (s.v.jeer). 

Gent,  i.  30,  'a  ladie  gent';  xi.  17, 
'  most  gent '  (of  Arthur),  gentle, 
i.  e.  having  the  manners  of  the 
well-born  ;  O.  Fr.  gent  (Bartsch)  ; 
Lat.  gentium,  begotten,  produced. 

German,  viii.  46;  x.  22,  brother  ; 
Lat.  gerrnanus,  fully  akin,  said  of 
brothers  and  sisters  having  the 
same  father  and  mother ;  the  word 
is  from  the  same  root  as  germen, 
a  sprout,  shoot,  bud. 

Gest,  ii.  16 ;  ix.  53,  deed  of  arms, 
exploit;  gestes,  ix.  26,  gestures  ; 
O.  Fr.  geste,  an  exploit  (Burguy)  ; 
L.  Lat.  gesta,  lit.  'a  thing  per 
formed,' but  generally  'a  history 
of  exploits,  donations,  &c."  (Du 
cange).  Gloss.  I. 

Ghesse,  i.  51,  to  guess;  M.  E. 
gessen.  Gloss.  I. 

Ghost,  i.  42,  spirit  (of  the  living 
man)  ;  viii.  45,  spirit  (of  a  dead 
man) ;  viii.  26,  a  dead  body  ;  M.  E. 
goost,  gost  (Chaucer  i) ;  A.  S. 
gd*t,  a  spirit;  cp.  O.  S.  gest; 
Ger.  geist. 

Giambeux,  vi.  29,  leggings, 
greaves;  M.E.  lambeux (Chaucer); 
Fr.  '  lambiere,  a  greave,  Jeg- 
harnesse'  (Cotgrave),  fromjambe, 
the  leg  or  shank  ;  L.  Lat.  gamba. 

a  hoof,  a  joint  of  the  leg;  O. 
Span,  camba,  the  bend  of  the  leg. 
The  root  is  found  in  Lat.  camera, 
a  chamber,  and  in  the  Celtic  cam, 
bent ;  see  Rhys,  p.  49,  and  Diez, 

P- 154 

Gibe,  vi.  21,  to  mock,  taunt;  for 
exx.  see  Richardson ;  a  Shake 
spearian  word,  see  Schmidt.  Ety 
mology  unknown ;  not  from  Icel. 
geip,  idle  talk. 

Gift,  vii.  28,  quality ;  so  Shake 
speare  often,  see  Schmidt. 

Gin,  iii.  13,  snare ;  for  M.  E.  engin, 
a  contrivance;  O.  Fr.  engin,  en- 
gien,  natural  capacity,  contriv 
ance,  engine  of  war  (Bartsch) ; 
L.  Lat.  ingenium  (Ducange). 

Girlond,  ii.  31,  garland,  wreath ; 
cp.  It.  ghirlanda  ;  Fr.  guirlande  ; 
the  mod.  Eng.  form  garland  comes 
to  us  from  the  O.  Fr.  garlande,  see 

Glee,  viii.  6,  mirth,  play;  M.  E. 
gleo  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S.  gliw,  joy, 
music  (Sweet). 

Glistering,  vii.  46,  54 ;  xi.  24, 
shining,  sparkling  ;  occurs  in  the 
New  Test.  A.  V.,  Luke  ix.  29  ;  to 
glister  is  also  found  often  in  Milton, 
as  in  Comus,  219,  and  in  Shake 
speare,  see  Schmidt ;  M.  E.  glis- 
teren  (Gower),  see  Skeat.  Glister 
is  in  form  a  frequentative,  cp.  the 
-er  in  stamm-er,  stutt-er,  falt-er, 
see  Morris,  p.  2  2 1 . 

G-litterand,  vii.  42  :  xi.  17,  shin 
ing,  sparkling ;  -and,  the  present 
participle  form  in  Northern  Eng 
lish,  see  Morris,'  p.  45. 

Glory,  iii.  4,  vain-glory;  cp.  the 
frequent  use  of  the  vb.  to  glory 
=  to  boast  in  the  New  Test.,  see 
Concordance ;  Lat.  gloria. 

Gobbelines,  x.  73,  goblins ;  often 
referred  to  in  Shakespeare ;  Fr. 
gobelin  (Cotgrave)  ;  L.  Lat.  gobe- 
linus,  a  demon  (Ducange),  a  form 
of  cobalus ;  Gr.  KofiaXos,  a  rogue, 



a  mischievous  sprite,  see  Weigand 
(s.  v.  Kobold). 

Gondelay,  vi.  2,  u,  gondola,  a 
little  pleasure-boat ;  It.  gondola, 
a  boat  used  at  Venice  (Florio)  ; 
Low  Lat.  gondola  from  Gr.  /tovSv, 
a  drinking-vessel,  so  Diez,  p.  376. 

Goodlihed,  iii.  33,  goodness,  kind 
ness  ;  M.  E.  goodlihede  in  Gower, 
see  Richardson ;  for  the  suffix 
-hed,  see  Earle,  p.  308,  and  Gloss, 
i.  -hed. 

Gore,  xii.  52,  to  pierce;  see  en- 

Gore  blood,  i.  39,  clotted  blood ; 
Shakespeare,  Romeo,  iii.  2.  56, 
'  all  in  gore  blood' ;  M.  E.  gore- 
blo'd  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.  S.  gor,  dirt, 
filth  (Grein). 

Goth,  xii.  57,  goeth. 

Governall,  xii.  48,  management, 
lit.  the  helm;  Fr.  ' gouvernal, 
gouvernail,  the  rudder  or  sterne 
of  a  ship  '  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  gu- 
bernaculum,  from  gubernare,  to 
steer  a  ship;  Gr.  Kvfiepvqv;  see 

Governaunce,  i.  29  ;  ii.  35,  be 
haviour,  self-control ;  governance 
in  Shakespeare,  2  Henry  VI,  i. 

3-  50- 

Grace,  vii.  59,  favour,  kindness ; 
« of  grace,'  cp.  Fr.  '  de  grace,  of 
courtesie,  I  pray  you  heartily,  I 
beseech  you,  sir  '  (Cotgrave). 

Gramercy,  vii.  50  ;  ix.  9,  thanks ! 
often  in  Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt, 
formerly  grand  mercy  (Chaucer, 
C.  T.  8964)  ;  Fr.  grand  merci, 
great  thanks ;  see  Mercie. 

Graplement,  xt.  29,  grappling  ; 
the  suffix  -ment  is  Fr.,  as  in  com 
mencement  ;  Lat.  -mentum,  as  in 
vestimentum,  see  Brachet,  Introd. 
cxix,  Earle,  p.  315  ;  Lat.  -mentum 
=  Sk.  -mania,  see  Pick,  i.  83. 

Grate,  i.  56,  to  weep,  lament ;  Scot. 
greit  (Jamieson) ;  A.  S.  gratan 
(Sweet)  ;  cp.  O.  N.  grata. 

Grayle,  x.  53,  'the  holy  grayle,' 
the,  holy  grail,  the  dish  at  the  Last 
Supper,  in  which  Joseph  of  Ari- 
mathea  is  said  to  have  collected 
our  Lord's  blood,  but  in  course 
of  time  the  sense  of  grail  was 
changed  from  'dish'  to  'cup,' 
namely,  the  Cup  at  the  Last 
Supper ;  M.  E.  grail  in  Joseph 
of  Arimathie;  Fr.  greal  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  O.  Fr.  graal,  grasal,  a 
flat  dish  ;  L.  Lat.  gradale,  gra- 
sale  ;  supposed  to  be  a  corruption 
of  L.  Lat.  cratella,  dimin.  of 
crater,  a  bowl;  for  g  =  c,  cp. 
grant  — L.  Lat.  creantare  (Diez), 
and  cp.  goblin ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Gree,  iii.  5,  favour ;  M.  E.  gre,  see 
Halliwell;  Fr.  *  gre,  will,  liking' 
(Cotgrave) ;  O.  Fr.  gred,  gret, 
greit  (Bartsch);  Lat.  gratum,  a 
favour,  from  gratus,  pleasing. 

Griesie,  vi.  18,  thick,  sluggish  (of 
a  lake). 

Griesly,  xi.  29,  grisly,  hideous, 
horrible  ;  so  grisly  in  Shakespeare, 
see  Schmidt ;  M.  E.  grisiliche 
(Stratmann) ;  A. S.  gryslic  (Grein), 
gryrelic  (Sweet). 

Gronefull,  xi.  42,  full  of  groans. 

Groome,  iii.  32  ;  iv.  24,  a  young 
man ;  M.  E.  grom,  grome  (Strat 
mann)  ;  a  word  often  erroneously 
derived  from  M.  E.  gome  (M.S. 
i)  ;  A.  S.  guma,  a  man. 

Groveling,  i.  45  ;  viii.  32  ;  xi.  34, 
with  face  flat  to  the  ground  ;  so 
the  M.  E.  groveling,  grovelings 
is  an  adv.,  see  Prompt.  Parv. ; 
Chaucer  (C.  T.  951)  uses'  grof 
(gruf)  alone  with  exactly  the 
same  adverbial  sense,  cp.  O.  N. 
d  grufu,  on  one's  face;  for  ad 
verbs  in  -ling  see  Earle,  p.  41 1 . 

Grudge,  i.  42  ;  xi.  32,  to  murmur; 
ii-  34>  grutch;  M.  E.  gn/cchen, 
grochen  (Chaucer)  ;  Fr.  '  gruger, 
to  grudge,  repine '  (Cotgrave) ; 



O.  Fr.  groueher,  grocer  (Burguy)  ; 
see  exx.  of  usage  in  Trench. 

Gryde,  viii.  36,  to  pierce,  cut 
through ;  Milton,  P.  L.  vi.  329, 
'griding  sword';  M.  E.  girden, 
Chaucer,  C.  T.  IOI 2  ;  lit.  to  strike 
with  a  rod ;  from  gerde  (now 

Gryphon,  xi.  8,  griffin  (a  fabulous 
animal)  ;  Fr.  'griffon,  a  gripe  or 
griffon'  (Cotgrave)  ;  from  L.  Lat. 
griffus  (Ducange)  ;  Gr.  "ypvif/. 

Grysie,  xi.  1 2,  horrible ;  cp.  griesly. 

Guerdon,  i.  61  ;  vi.  28,  a  reward; 
occurs  in  Shakespeare*,  see  Schmidt ; 
Fr.  'guerdon,  guerdon,  recom- 
pence  '  (Cotgrave)  ;  see  Gloss.  I . 

Guifte,  ii.  6,  gift. 

Guilt,  ix.  45,  gilded;  cp.  guilty- 
cups,  butter-cups  (Halliwell). 

Guize,  ii.  14;  vi.  25;  xii.  ai, 
fashion,  appearance,  manner  ;  Fr. 
guise  (Cotgrave)  ;  see  Wize. 

Guyler,  vii.  64,  deceiver;  from 
guile,  deceit ;  Fr.  '  guille,  guile, 
craft '  (Cotgrave)  ;  O.  Fr.  guile, 
gile  (Bartsch) ;  cp.  A.  S.  wil,  wile, 
A.  S.  Chron.  an. '1128. 

Gyeld,  vii.  43,  guild,  guild-house: 
M.  E.  gilde;  A.  S.  gilde^fa- 
ternitas,  Schmidt,  p.  603,  from 
gild,  a  payment ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Gyre,  v.  8,  circle ;  Lat.  gyrus ; 
Gr.  yvpos.  * 


Haberjeon,  vi.  29,  armour  for  the 
neck  and  breast;  M.  E.  habergeon 
(Chaucer  l);  Fr.  '  haubergeon, 
a  little  coat  of  maile '  (Cotgrave), 
dimin.  of  O.  Fr.  hauberc,  halberc 
(Bartsch) ;  see  Hauberk. 

Habiliments,  i.  22,  clothes;  oft. 
in  Shakespeare ;  Fr.  habillement 
(Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I. 

Habitaunce,  vii.  7,  habitation. 

Hable,  iii.  22,  able;  so  in  More's 
Utopia  passim  ;  O.  Fr.  habile,  able; 

Lat.  Tiabilis  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Hacqueton,  viii.  38,  a  jacket  worn 
under  armour ;  M.  E.  dketoun 
(Chaucer  2) ;  Fr.  hocqueton,  hoque- 
ton  (Cotgrave) ;  O.  Fr.  auque- 
ton,  alquetun  (Bartsch) ;  related 
to  Sp.  algodon,  cotton-plant  (where 
al  is  the  Arab.  def.  art.)  ;  Arab. 
qutun,  cotton. 

Hainous,  iii.  14,  heinous ;  M.  E. 
hainous,  heinous  ;  O.  Fr.  ha'inos, 
odious,  from  hawe,  hate,  from 
hair,  to  hate  ;  of  Teutonic  origin, 
see  Brachet. 

Hand  (with  easie),  x.  61,  at  full 
speed ;  cp.  Fr.  '  a  la  main,  nimbly, 
readily,  actively'  (Cotgrave). 

Hardiment,  i.  27;  ii.  37,  rashness, 
boldness;  a  Shakesperian  word, 
see  Schmidt ;  M.  E.  har dement 
(Chaucer) ;  O.  Fr.  har  dement 
(Bartsch)  ;  for  suffix  see  graple- 

Harnesse,  i.  5  ;  xi.  43,  armour ; 
M.  E.  harneys  (Chaucer  i) ;  O. 
Fr.  harnois,  harneis  (Bartsch) ; 
supposed  to  be  of  Celtic  origin ; 
see  Diez  (s.  v.  arnese),  Weigand 
(s.  v.  harnisch) . 

Harpy,  xii.  36,  a  mythological 
monster,  half  bird  and  half  wo 
man  ;  Lat.  harpyia ;  Gr.  pi.  apirviai, 
lit.  the  spoilers. 

Harrow,  vi.  49  ;  viii.  46,  '  harrow 
and  well  away';  vi.  43,  'harrow 
now  out,  and  well  away';  har 
row  !  an  exclamation  of  distress,  a 
call  for  help  ;  M.  E.  harrow,  haro 
(Chaucer  1,3);  O.  Fr.  haro,  hare, 
hari  (Bartsch).  Cp.  Cotgrave, 
'  Haro,  ou  Harol,  crier  Haro  sur, 
to  crie  out  upon,  or  make  huy  and 
crie  after,  used  in  Normandie  by 
such  as  are  outraged,  or  in  some 
high  degree  wronged ;  in  which 
case  those  that  are  within  the 
hearing  thereof  must  pursue  the 
malefactor,  or  else  they  pay  a  fine.' 



Hartlesse,  ii.  7,  timid,  wanting 
courage ;  so  Shakespeare,  see 

Hartsore,  i.  2,  heart-sore ;  cp. 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  so  in 
Milton,  Samson  Ag.  1339,  *  heart 

Hastly,  x.  52,  hastily. 

Hauberk,  viii.  44,  a  coat  of  mail ; 
orig.  armour  for  the  neck  ;  M.  E. 
hauberk  (Chaucer  i)  ;  O.  Fr.  hau- 
berc,  halberc  (Bartsch);  O.  H.  G. 
halsberc,  halsberge,  lit.  the  neck- 
protector  ;  cp.  O.  Fr.  osbercs,  in 
the  Chanson  de  Roland,  It.  osbergo, 
see  Diez,  p.  336,  and  Haberjeon. 

Haviour,  ii.  15,  behaviour;  so  in 
Shakespeare  often ;  see  Behave. 

Hayle,  iv.  14,  to  drag,  haul ;  M.  E. 
halien  (Matzner)  ;  cp.  O.  S.  ha- 
Idn,  to  bring  (Heliand);  allied  to 
Gr.  /caAeiV,  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  hale, 

Hazardize,  xii.  19,  risk;  M.  E. 
hasard  (Chaucer)  ;  O.  Fr.  hasart 
(Bartsch),  orig.  '  a  game  at  dice'; 
Sp.  azar,  a  die  ;  Arab,  al  zdr,  the 
die  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  hazard).  For 
the  suffix  -ize  see  Earle,  p.  323. 

Hazardry,  v.  13,  risk ;  for  the 
romance  suffix  -ry  (Fr.  -rie),  see 
Earle,  p.  314,  Morris,  p.  233. 

Heben,  vii.  52  ;  viii.  17,  ebony,  of 
ebony  wood.  Gloss.  I. 

Hell,  vii.  24,  also  Hell-mouth, 
the  abode  of  evil  spirits,  and  the 
entrance  thereto  ;  M.  E.  helle ; 
A.  S.  hell  (Sweet)  ;  the  orig.  sense 
is  the  hidden  or  unseen  place ;  cp. 
A.  S.  helan,  to  hide,  cognate  with 
Lat.  celare. 

Hellebore,  vii.  52,  the  name  of  a 
plant ;  Lat.  helleborus  ;  Gr.  eAAe- 

Hent,  ii.  I  ;  iv.  12  ;  xi.  17,  took, 
seized  ;  vi.  49,  pp. ;  Shakespeare, 
Meas.  for  M.  iv.  6.  14,  '  citizens 
have  hentihe  gates ';  M.E.henten, 
to  seize,  pret.  hente,  pp.  hent 


(Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S.  kentan,  ge- 
hentan,  A.  S.  Chron.  an.  905. 

Herbars,  ix.  46,  herbs;  prob.  pecu 
liar  to  Spenser  (Nares)  ;  from  Lat. 
herbai  O.  Lat./orfoa,  food;  Gr. 
<£op/377,  see  Fick,  i.  159. 

Herce,  viii.  16,  a  decorated  funeral 
bier  ;  M.  E.  herse,  used  by  Chau 
cer,  '  And  doune  I  fel  when  that  I 
saugh  the  herse,'  Complaint  to 
Pity,  st.  3  ;  Fr.  '  herce,  a  harrow, 
a  portcullis  full  of  outstanding  iron 
pins'  (Cotgrave).  The  changes 
of  sense  from  the  orig.  one  of 
'harrow'  are  these:  (i)  a  trian 
gular  frame  for  lights  in  church, 
and  specially  at  funerals,  (2)  a 
funeral  pageant,  (3)  a  frame  on 
which  a  body  was  laid.  Fr. 
herce  =  Lat.  hirpicem,  a  harrow. 
See  Skeat,  Trench  (s.  v.  hearse). 

Herried,  xii.  13,  honoured,  praised ; 
M.  E.  herien  (Chaucer  3)  ;  A.  S. 
herian,  to  praise  (Sweet). 

Hew,  iii.  22  ;  vii.  3,  23 ;  ix.  3  ;  xi. 
13;  xii.  24,  appearance;  ix.  52, 
face  ;  xii.  31,  shape;  M.  E.  hew, 
hewe  (Chaucer  2")  ;  A.  S.  keo,  hiw, 
appearance ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  hue). 

Hide,  xi.  25,  hied,  hastened;  M.  E. 
hien,  hi$en,  to  hie  ;  A.  S.  higian 
(Grein) ;  see  Skeat. 

Hight,  i.  1 8,  51 ;  iv.  25,  was  called; 
ii.  17  (pp.)  called.  Gloss.  I. 

Hippodame,  ix.  50,  a  seahorse ; 
M.  E.  ypotamus,  Alexander  and 
Dindimus,  157,  also  ypotanos 
(Coleridge)  ;  corrupted  from  Lat. 
hippopotamus ;  Gr.  l-mroTrorafjios, 
the  river  horse  of  Egypt;  see 

Hoars,  xii.  8,  hoarse,  having  a 
rough  harsh  voice  ;  M.  E.  horse 
(Chaucer),  hos  (Skeat);  A,  S. 
fais  (Grein). 

Hogh  (The  westerne),  x.  10, 
'  the  Hoe '  near  Plymouth ;  called 
'  the  Haw '  in  Camden's  Britan 
nia;  hoe  is  a  survival  of  M.  E. 



hogh,  a  hillock,  also  hou%  (Strat- 
mann)  ;  cp.  O.  N.  haugr,  a 
mound  (Icel.  Diet.) ;  see  Skeat 
(s.  v.  how). 

Hop,  i.  43,  to  pulse  (of  blood  in 
the  veins) ;  M.  E.  happen,  to 
dance  ;  A.  S.  hoppian  (Leo). 

Hospitale,  ix.  10,  a  place  of  rest,  a 
building  for  receiving  guests ;  Fr. 
hospital  (Cotgrave)  ;  L.  Lat.  hos 
pitals  (Ducange) ;  hence  hostel. 

Hoye,  x.  64,  a  small  ship;  for  early 
exx.  see  Richardson ;  Du.  heu ; 
Flem.  hut ;  whence  Fr.  heu  ;  Ger. 
heu  (Hilpert). 

Hurtle,  v.  8  ;  vii.  42,  to  jostle 
against,  to  rush  confusedly ;  oc 
curs  in  Shakespeare;  M.  E.  hurtlen 
(Wiclif);  a  frequentative  of  hurt 
in  the  sense  '  to  dash ' ;  M.  E. 
hurten,  hirten,  to  stumble,  to  dash 
the  foot  (Wiclif) ;  O.  Fr.  hurier, 
to  strike,  dash  (Bartsch)  ;  said  to 
be  of  Celtic  origin ;  cp.  Wei. 
hwrdd,  a  ram ;  see  Diez,  p.  336, 
where  hurt  is  supposed  to  have 
come  to  England  as  a  tournament 

Hyacine,  xii:  54,  jacinth',  a  pre 
cious  stone,  in  colour  dark  pur 
ple  ;  M.  E.  iacynt,  in  Wiclif,  Rev. 
ix.  1 7 ;  Lat.  hyacinthus  (Vulgate)  ; 
Gr.  vaKiv6os,  jacinth  (in  N.  T.), 
also  the  iris. 

Hydre,  xii.  23,  hydra,  a  many- 
headed  water-snake  (in  fable)  ; 
Lat.  hydra;  Gr.  v8pa,also  {/Spos  (in 
Homer),  related  to  vS<up,  water. 


Idole,  ii.  41,  image,  reflection  ;  Lat. 

idolum  (Vulgate) ;  Gr.  fi5<u\ov,  an 

image,  likeness. 
Immeasured,  xii.  23,  that  cannot 

be  measured  ;  see  Richardson. 
Implore,  v.  37,  entreaty. 
Importable,   viii.   35,  unbearable, 

irresistible ;  for  exx.  see  Richard 

son  ;  used  by  Chaucer ;  Lat.  im~ 
portabilis  (Tertullian). 

Importune,  vi.  29  ;  viii.  38  ;  x. 
15  ;  xi.  7,  violent,  savage  ;  occurs 
in  Chaucer  ;  Lat.  importunus,  trou 
blesome,  grievous,  lit.  difficult  of 
approach,  hard  of  access, '  hence 
unsuitable,  etc.,  from  portua,  a 

Importunely,  with  importunity. 

Impresse,  viii.'  18,  to  make  an 
impression ;  so  Shakespeare,  see 

In,  i.  59  ;  xii.  32,  'death  .  .  .  the 
common  In  of  rest,'  lodging, 
house  of  entertainment,  lit.  a  place 
to  which  one  turns  in  ;  M.  E.  in, 
inne  (Chaucer  i);  A.  S.  in,  inne 
(Leo).  Gloss,  i. 

Infant,  viii.  56 ;  xi.  25,  used  here 
for  '  a  young  knight '  (of  Prince 
Arthur) ;  see  Nares ;  cp.  O.  Fr. 
enfant,  a  young  aspirant  to  knight 
ly  honours  (Bartsch),  and  see  es 
pecially  Chanson  de  Roland,  3196, 
'  de  bachelers  que  Carles  cleimet 
enfanz1;  'bacheliers  que  Charles 
appelle  "  enfants  "  ' ;  hence  our 
'  infantry'  =  foot-soldiers ;  Lat.  in- 
fans,  lit.  '  one  who  cannot  speak.' 
Cp.  childe. 

Ingowe,  vii.  5,  ingot,  a  mass  of 
metal  poured  into  a  mould,  a  mass 
of  unwrought  metal ;  M.  E.  ingot 
(Chaucer  3)  ;  A.  S.  in  +  goten, 
poured,  pp.  of  *ge6tan  (Sweet) ; 
cp.  Ger.  einguss.  From  ingot 
comes  Fr.  lingot ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Inquyre,  x.  1 2,  to  call ;  Lat.  in- 

Intend,  iv.  46,  to  stretch.  Gloss,  i. 

Irrenowmed,  i.  23,  inglorious. 
Gloss,  i.  Renowmed. 

Jade,  xi.  31,  an  old   woman;  pri 
marily,  a  sorry  nag ;   M.  E.  iade 



(Chaucer  a)  ;  cp.  Scottish  yade, 
yaud  (Jamieson) ;  see  Skeat. 

Jarre,  ii.  26,  quarrel,  discord ;  see 
Schmidt  for  Shakespearian  uses; 
from  the  vb.  to  jar  which  stands 
for  char  (found  in  charken,  to 
creak,  Prompt.  Parv.) ;  cp.  O.  S. 
karon,  to  lament  (Heliand)  ;  see 
Skeat  (s.  v.jar). 

Jeoperdie,  iv.  39,  43,  jeopardy, 
risk,  danger ;  only  once  in  Shake 
speare,  K.  John,  iii.  i.  346 ;  M.  E. 
jupartie  (Chaucer)  ;  the  orig.  sense 
was  a  game  in  which  the  chances 
are  even,  a  game  of  chance,  hence 
hazard,  risk;  O.  Fr.  jeu  parti 
(Bartsch),  lit.  a  divided  game; 
L.  Lzt.jocus  partitas  (Ducange)  ; 
see  Skeat. 

Jett,  vii.  28,  jet,  a  black  mineral; 
M.  E.  jet  (Chaucer)  ;  O.  Fr.  jet, 
jaet,  gagate ;  Lat.  gagatem,  from 
Gr.  yayarrjs,  from  Tdyas,  a  town 
in  Lycia  ;  see  Skeat. 

Joviall,  xii.  51,  propitious,  kindly 
(of  the  heavens) ;  Fr.  'jovial, 
joviall,  sanguine,  born  under  the 
planet  Jupiter'  (Cotgrave),  see 
Trench,  Study  of  Words;  Lat. 
Jovialis,  pertaining  to  Jove  ;  see 

Joy,  vi.  6;  x.  53,  to  enjoy;  so 
Shakespeare  often,  see  Schmidt. 
Gloss,  i. 


Keepe  care,  vi.  42,  to  take  care  ;  so 
Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt.  Gloss.  I. 

Ken,  i.  3,  to  know ;  M.  E.  Itenne 
(Chaucer)  ;  the  sense  '  to  know  ' 
is  Scandinavian,  so  O.  N.  kenna. 
The  vb.  is  inform  causal,  meaning 
'  to  make  to  know,  to  teach ' ; 
kenna  is  for  kannian,  cp.  Go. 
kannjan,  to  make  known,  from 
kunnan,  to  know  (base  kann)  • 
the  e  is  the  regular  substitute  for 
a,  when  i  follows  in  the  next  syl 
lable  ;  cp.  Feld,  Drent. 

Kesars,  vii.  5,  Caesars,  emperors. 

Kest,  xi.  42,  pret.  cast ;  so  Wiclif, 
Lu.  xxiii.  35,  '  thei  kesten  lottis/ 
they  cast  lots;  O.  N.  kasta. 
Gloss,  i. 

Kestrell  kynd,  iii.  4,  base  nature ; 
*  Jcestrell,  the  same  as  castril  or 
kastril,  a  hawk  of  a  base  unser 
viceable  breed,  and  therefore  used 
by  Spenser  in  the  sense  of  base ' 
(Nares) ;  cp.  Cotgrave,  '  Quer- 
cerelle,  a  kestrell,  kastrell  fiein- 
gall.'  The  corrupt  form  coystrell 
occurs  in  Dryden,  Hind  and  Pan 
ther,  iii.  1119,  kestrel  in  Tenny 
son's  Boadicea,  15. 

Eight,  viii.  16,  kite,  a  bird  of  prey; 
A.  S.  cyta. 

Kinred,  x.  35,  kindred ;  so  Shake 
speare  kinred  sometimes  in  old 
editions  (Schmidt)  ;  M.  E.  kinrede 
(Wiclif  N.T.);  A.S.  cyn,  kin  + 
suffix  -raden,  condition,  lit.  law  = 
Ger.  -rath  in  Heirath,  marriage, 
see  Earle,  p.  307. 

Knife,  v.  9,  sword.     Gloss,  i. 

Kynd,  ii.  36,  nature ;  A.  S.  (ge)cynd 


Lap,  iii.  30,  to  fold,  entwine;  M.E. 

lappen,    cp.    Wiclif,   Matt,  xxvii. 

59,  'lappide  it'  (in  an  earlier  ed. 

'  w lappide   it ')  ;    wlappen  =  wrap- 
pen,  to  wrap. 
Lamm-bell,   ix.  25,  alarum-bell; 

alarum  =  alarm ;   Fr.  alarme;  It. 

air  arme,  to  arms  ! ;  see  Alarmes. 
Launch,   i.   38,  to  pierce ;  O.  Fr. 

lanchier.     Gloss.  I. 
Laver,    xii.   62,    basin;    in    A.  V. 

Exod.   xxxviii.    8;    M.E.   lavovr 

(Chaucer)  ;  Fr.  lavoir  from  lover, 

Lat.  lavare,  to  wash. 
Lay  up,  xii.  3,  to  throw  up. 
Lay,  x.  42,  law ;  M.  E.  lay  (Chaucer 

2) ;    Norm.   Fr.  lei   in    William's 

Laws,  see  Schmid,  p.  322 ;  O.Fr. 

lai,  lei  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  legem. 

T  2 


»  i-  35.  cry  5  prob.  a  poetical  use 
of  the  word  lay,  a  song ;  Fr.  lay 
(Cotgrave)  ;  O.  Fr.  lots,  prob.  of 
Celtic  origin,  a  Breton  word ;  cp. 
Wei.  llais,  a  voice,  sound,  cry; 
see  Diez,  p.  623. 

Leasing,  ix.  51 ;  xi.  10,  a  lie;  in 
Ps.  iv.  2,  v.  6  (A.  V.);  M.E. 
lesynge  (Chaucer)  ;  A.  S.  ledsung 
(Sweet),  from  leas,  false,  orig. 
empty ;  see  Skeat. 

Leave,  x.  31,  to  levy ;  O.  Fr.  lever, 
to  raise  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  levare,  lit. 
to  make  light,  from  Lat.  levis. 
With  the  form  leave  cp.  the  sb. 
leaven  =  Fr.  levain,  lit.  that  which 

Lefte,  iii.  34,  pret.  of  'to  lift'',  in 
the  Bible  of  1611  the  two  pret. 
forms  lift,  lifted  were  used  indis 
criminately,  see  Earle,  p.  288 ; 
M.  E.  liften,  pret.  lifte  (Strat- 
mann)  ;  O.  N.  lypta  (pronounced 
lyfta),  to  lift,  from  lopt,  the  air; 
cp.  Go.  luftus,  air. 

Leman,  v.  28 ;  x.  18,  a  lover;  M.E. 
lleman,  amasius,  amasia'  (Catho- 
licon  Anglicum),  also  lemtnan,  lef- 
mon,  leofmon  (M.  S.  i).  Gloss.  I. 

Lenger,  i.  13;  viii.  46,  longer ; 
M.E.  lenger  (Chaucer  2);  A.S. 
lengra,  comp.  of  lang  (Sweet). 

Lett,  xi.  31,  a  hindrance;  M.E. 
letten,  to  cause  delay  (Chaucer  3)  ; 
A.  S.  (ge)lettan,  to  hinder,  from 
laet,  late.  Gloss.  I. 

Lett,  vi.  1 6,  to  leave,  entrust;  M.  E. 
leten ;  A.  S.  Icetan  (Sweet),  also 
letan ;  see  Skeat. 

Level,  xii.  34,  '  their  course  they 
levelled'  directed;  M.E.  lively 
O.  Fr.  livel ;  Lat.  libella,  dimin. 
of  libra,  a  balance  ;  see  Skeat. 

Lewd,  i.  10,  base,  licentious ;  for 
the  successive  stages  in  the  mean 
ing  of  this  word  see  Skeat,  and 
for  exx.  of  usage  cp.  Trench  ;  A.S. 
lawed,  prop,  a  pp.  the  weakened, 
enfeebled,  as  an  adj.  feeble;  from 

lawan,  to  weaken,  but  more 
usually  to  betray,  cognate  with 
Go.  lewjan,  to  betray,  from  lew, 
an  occasion,  opportunity,  hence, 
opportunity  to  betray.  From  the 
sense  of  '  feeble '  Icewed  came  to 
mean  'ignorant,  untaught,'  hence 
'the  laity'  as  opposed  to  the 
clergy  (Sweet).  From  this  sense 
the  word  took  a  downward  moral 
course,  connoting  gradually  base 
ness,  vileness,  licentiousness.  Note 
that  the  usual  sense  of  M.  E.  lewed 
is  '  ignorant.' 

Libbard,  iii.  28,  leopard;  M.E. 
lyberde  (Catholicon  Anglicum) ; 
O.  Fr.  liepart  (Bartsch).  Gloss,  i. 

Liefe,  i.  16 ;  ix.  4,  dear;  A.  S.  Ie6f. 
Gloss,  i. 

Liege,  iii.  8  ;  viii.  55  ;  ix.  4,  a  free 
lord;  M.E.  lege;  O.  Fr.  lige,  cp. 
Chanson  de  Roland,  2421,  'lur 
liges  seignurs';  O.  H.  G.  ledec, 
lidic,  free  from  all  obligations  ;  cp. 
Germ,  ledig;  see  Skeat,  Weigand. 

Liegeman,  iii.  9;  viii.  51,  prop,  a 
man  connected  with  his  lord  by 
feudal  tenure,  and  so  free  from  all 
other  obligations;  cp.  Ducange, 
'  ligitts  homo  quod  Teutonice  dici- 
tur  ledigman.' 

Light-foot,  viii.  10,  nimble  in  run 
ning;  cp.  Shakespeare,  Rich.  III. 
iv.  4.  440,  '  some  light-foot 

Like,  vii.  27,  'thing  that  liltt  him,' 
that  pleased  him  ;  M.  E.  liken,  to 
please,  used  impersonally  (Chaucer 
i)  ;  A.  S.  (geyician  (Sweet). 

List,  vi.  26 ;  x.  66,  to  desire  ;  vii. 
1 8,  'if  then  thee  list,''  if  it  please 
thee,  if  thou  wish  ;  A.  S.  gelystan, 
impers.  (Sweet). 

Lists,  i.  6,  the  ground  enclosed  for 
a  tournament ;  used  to  translate 
O.  Fr.  lices  (Burguy)  ;  cp.  L.  Lat. 
licicB  dnelli,  the  lists  (Ducange). 

Livelyhead,  ix.  3,  liveliness;  for 
suffix  see  Bountihed. 



Livelyhed,  ii.  2,  means  of  living, 

way  of  life  ;  a  corruption  of  M.  E. 

livelode,  liflode,  also  lyfelade  (Ca- 

tholicon  Anglicum)  ;  A..S*lif-lade, 

way  of  life  (Leo)  j  see  Earle,p.  309. 
Loathly,    viii.   44,   hateful ;    A.  S. 

Id&lic  (Sweet). 
Logris,    x.   14,   cp.    Wei.   Lloegr, 

Losell,  iii.  4,  a  loose  idle  fellow; 

Shakespeare,  Winter's  Tale,  ii.  3. 

iog,lozel'}  M.E.  losel,  also  spelt 

lorel   (Stratmann) ;    see  P.  Plow 
man,  p.  197. 
Lothfull,  xi.  46,  unwilling;   from 

M.  E.  loth  ;  A.  S.  IdV,  hateful ;  see 

Skeat  (s.v.  loath). 
Lott,  vii.  19,  apportionment ;  A.  S. 

hlot  (Sweet),  usually  hlyt,  a  lot; 

cp.  O.  N.  hlutr ;  Go.  hlauts. 
Loup,  ix.  10,  a  fastening. 
Loute,  iii.  13;  ix.  26,  to  stoop,  to 

bow  ;  M.  E.  lout  en  (Chaucer  2)  ; 

A.S.  lutan  (Sweet)  ;  cp.  O.  N.  luta. 
Lug,  x.  II,  a  perch  or  rod  of  land; 

so  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  dialect ; 

also  spelt  log,  see  Halliwell;  M.E. 

lugge,  a   log  (Coleridge) ;   O.  N. 

lag,  a  log,  a  felled  tree,  so  called 

from  its  lying  flat  on  the  ground. 
Lumpish,  xi.  42,  heavy,  spiritless ; 

so  Shakespeare,  Two  G.  of  Verona, 

iii.  2.  62.     Gloss.  I. 
Lusty-hed,  i.  41,  youthful  vigour; 

cp.  Shakespeare,  Much  Ado,  v.  I. 

76,  '  his  May  of  youth  and  bloom 

of  lustihood.' 
Lyte,  viii.  38,  to  light  (of  a  stroke); 

M.  E.    lihten ;    see    Skeat    (s.  v. 

light  3). 


Mace,  x.  4,  a  sceptre  ;  M.  E.  mace 
(Coleridge) ;  O.  Fr.  mace,  make 
(Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  matea  ;  see  Skeat. 

Magnes-stone,  xii.  4,  magnet,  the 
loadstone;  Lat.  magnes  lapis  — 
Magnesian  stone,  from  the  country 

Mahoune,  viii.33,  Mahomet;  M.E. 
Mahoun,  also  Makomete  (Chaucer 
3)  ;  O.  Fr.  Mahum,  Mahumet,  see 
Chanson  de  Roland ;  Arab.  Mu- 
hammed,the  praised,  so  E.Deutsch, 
Quarterly  Rev.  1869,  'Islam.' 

Maine,  xii.  21,  the  ocean,  the 
great  sea;  so  in  Shakespeare,  see 

Male,  v.  9,  steel  net- work  form 
ing  body-armour  ;  M.  E,  maille 
(Chaucer  2)  ;  O.  Fr.  maille 
(Bartsch),  a  ring  of  metal,  a  mesh  ; 
Lat.  macula,  a  spot,  hole,  mesh  of 
a  net. 

Marke,  iii.  34,  to  aim  at;  cp.  in 
Shakespeare  mar£  =  butt,  target, 
aim  (Schmidt). 

Marie,  xi.  33,  ground,  soil ;  Milton, 
P.L.i.  296;  M.E. marie  (Chaucer, 
C.  T.  3460) ;  O.  Fr.  marie  (still 
used  in  Normandy)  ;  L.  Lat.  mar- 
gila,  marl,  from  Lat.  marga,  used 
by  Pliny,  who  considers  it  to  be 
a  word  of  Gaulish  origin;  see 
Brachet  {s.  v.  marne). 

Marshall,  ix.  28,  the  official  who 
places  the  guests  in  their  proper 
order  ;  the  orig.  sense  is  a  '  horse- 
servant,'  a  farrier  or  groom  ;  M.  E. 
marschal  (Stratmann)  ;  O.  Fr. 
mareschal ;  O.  H.  G.  maraschalh 
from  mar  ah,  a  battle-horse  +  scalh, 
a  servant ;  see  Skeat,  also  Weigand 
(s.v.  marschair). 

Matchable,  x.  56,  to  be  compared 
with;  cognate  with  make,  see 
Gloss,  i. 

Maugre,  v.  12,  a  curse  on!  The 
lit.  sense  of  the  word  is  '  ill-will ' 
or  'displeasure' ;  O.  Fr.  maugre, 
manlgre,  malgre  (Bartsch) ;  Lat. 
malum  +  gratum;  see  Skeat. 
Gloss,  i.  Gree. 

Mazer,  xii.  49,  '  a  mazer  bowle,'  a 
large  drinking  bowl;  mazer  used 
still  in  this  sense  by  itself,  cp.  Cot- 
grave,  s.v.  'jadeau,  a  bowle  or 
mazer,'  see  also  Halliwell  (s.v. 


wzas*r)andNares(s.v. mazer);  M.E. 
maser  (Stratmann).  Mazers  were 
so  called  because  often  made  of 
maple,  which  is  a  spotted  wood, 
the  orig.  sense  of  the  word  being 
4  a  spot/  a  knot  in  wood,  cp.  O. 
Du.  maser,  a  knot  in  a  tree,  O.  N. 
mosurr,  a  maple-tree,  spot-wood  ; 
an  extension  of  the  form  which 
appears  in  O.  H.  G.  mdsd,  a  spot ; 
see  Skeat.  Cp.  Fr.  madre,  spotted 

Medsewart,  viii.  20,  meadow-wort. 

Medle,  i.  6 1,  to  mix  ;  M.  E.  medlen 
(Stratmann)  ;  O.  Fr.  medler  (Bur- 
guy),  a  corruption  of  mesler ;  for 
intrusive  d  remaining  after  a 
dropped  out  s  see  Brachet  (s.v. 
cidre),  and  Skeat  (s.v.  medlar  = 
O.  Fr.  meslier).  Mesler  =  L.  Lat. 
misculare  from  Lat.  miscere,  to 
mix.  Cp.  Gloss.  I.  Mell. 

Meed,  iii.  10,  14;  vii.  55  ;  viii.  55, 
reward ;  A.  S.  med  (Sweet),  also 
meard,  Luke  6.  35,  Lindisfarne 
Gospels  ;  the  r  stands  for  an  old  s, 
cp.  Go.  mizdo  ;  Gr.  fuaOos. 

Menage,  ii.  28  ;  ix.  27 ;  iv.  i.  8,  to 
manage,  to  handle,  wield  arms,  to 
control  a  horse ;  to  manage  in 
Shakespeare,  see  Schmidt  ;  from 
the  sb.  manage,  control;  Fr.  ma 
nege  (Cotgrave)  ;  It.  maneggio, 
a  handling  (Florio). 

Mendes,  i.  20,  amends ;  mendes  is 
a  mere  corruption  of  amends;  M.E. 
amendes  (Skeat) ;  O.  Fr.  amende 
(Bartsch),  from  amender ;  Lat. 
emendare,  to  free  from  fault ;  ex  + 
menda,  a  blemish  ;  for  the  unusual 
change  from  e  to  a  in  the  prefix 
see  Brachet,  Hist.  Gram.  sect.  28, 
and  cp.  fray. 

Mercie,  i.  27,  grace,  clemency;  O. 
Fr.  merci,  mercid  (Bartsch)  ;  L. 
Lat.  mercedem  (ace.  of  merces)y  a 
gratuity,  pity,  mercy  (Ducange)  ; 
in  Lat.  pay,  reward. 

Merimake,  vi.  21,  merry-making; 

see  Nares  (s.v.  merry-make'}  ;  A.  S. 
myrig  (Leo),  meriment,  vi.  3, 
sport,  a  hybrid  word  with  a  French 
suffix.  i 

Mermaid, xii.  17,  a  siren  (in  English 
Romance)  ;  M.  E.  mere-maidens, 
Rom.  of  the  Rose,  628,  '  men 
clepe  hem  sereyns  in  Fraunce,' 
Chaucer  vi.  21 ;  A.  S.  mere,  a 
lake  +  mcEgden  (Sweet).  The 
sense  of  mere  was  easily  exchanged 
for  that  of  '  sea '  under  the  in 
fluence  of  Fr.  mer.  a  cognate  word. 

Mesprise,  vii.  39,  contempt  ; 
Fr.  ( mespris,  contempt,  neglect' 
(Cotgrave),  mod.  mepris ;  from 
mespriser,  to  contemn  ;  mes  + 
priser ;  the  prefix  mes-  =  Lat. 
mimis,  used  in  a  bad  sense,  see 
Brachet,  and  cp.  Gloss,  i.  Mis 
creant.  Priser  is  from  O.  Fr. 
pris,  preis  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  pretium. 

Mesprize,  xii.  19,  mistake,  mis 
understanding  ;  O.  Fr.  mespris, 
error  (Bartsch),  mod.  meprise; 
from  mesprendre  ;  Lat.  minus  + 

Mew,  v.  27;  vii.  19,  close  confine 
ment,  prison;  orig.  a  cage  for 
hawks  when  mewing  or  moulting ; 
Fr. '  mue,  a  change  .  . .  the  mewing 
of  a  hawk  .  .  .  also,  a  hawk's  mue 
or  coop'  (Cotgrave),  from  '  muer, 
to  change,  to  mew'  (ib.) ;  Lat. 
mutare.  iii.  34,  to  enclose,  confine. 
Gloss,  i. 

Mickle,  i.  6 ;  x.  59,  great ;  so  Mil 
ton,  Comus,  31 ;  A.  S.  micel 
(Sweet) ;  cp.  O.  N.  mikill.  Gloss. 
i.  Muchell. 

Middest,  ii.  13,  the  middle  one  (of 
three).  Gloss.  I. 

Mind,  ii.  10,  to  call  to  mind ;  from 
mind  in  the  sense  of  memory,  the 
usual  sense  in  M.  E. ;  A.  S.  gemynd, 
memory,  thought  (Sweet). 

Mineon,  ii.  37,  a  lover,  with  a 
sinister  sense ;  minion,  often  in 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  see  Trench 



for  exx.  of  usage  in  a  good  sense  ; 
Fr.  '  mignon,  dainty,  kind '  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  cp.  It.  mignone,  a  darling. 
The  Fr.  -on  is  a  suffix ;  the  base 
is  due  to  M.  H.  G.  minne,  O.  H.  G. 
minna,  memory,  love  ;  see  M. 
Miiller,  Chips,  iii.  58. 

Miscall,  xii.  86,  to  abuse,  revile; 
still  common  in  many  dialects  in 
North  Britain,  Oxfordshire,  &c. ; 
the  prefix  mis-  is  here  Teutonic ; 
see  Skeat  (s.v.  Mis-  i). 

Miscreant,  viii.  31,  unbeliever,  in 
fidel,  vile  fellow;  for  exx.  see 
Trench;  O.Fr.mescram^(Bartsch); 
for  prefix  mes-  cp.  mesprize. 
From  miscreant  is  formed  mis- 
creaunce,  viii.  51,  false  belief; 
Fr.  'mescreance,  miscreancie,  mis- 
beleefe'  (Cotgrave). 

Miscreate,  x.  38,  illegitimate  ;  cp. 
Shakespeare,  Henry  V,  i.  i.  1 6. 

Miser,  i.  8,9;  iii.  8,  a  miserable 
wretch ;  so  Shakespeare,  I  Henry 
VI,  v.  4.  7 ;  for  different  uses 
of  the  word  see  Trench;  Lat. 
miser,  wretched ;  see  Skeat. 

Misseeming,  ii.  31,  unseemly; 
from  vb.  to  seem  with  Teutonic 
suffix;  M.  E.  semen,  to  be  fitting 
(Coleridge)  ;  A.  S.  (ge)seman,  to 
satisfy,  reconcile  (Sweet). 

Misweene,  Introd.  3,  to  ween, 
think  amiss ;  M.  E.  ivenen  (Chaucer 
i)  ;  A.  S.  wenan,  to  imagine,  ex 
pect  (Sweet)  ;  cp.  Ger.  w'dhnen. 

Moe,  vii.  63,  more  ;  M.  E.  mo,  ma 
(M.S.  i);  A.S.  ma, magis  (Sweet). 
Gloss.  I. 

Molt,  v.  8,  melted;  M.  E.  malt, 
pret.  of  melten  (M.  S.  i.  p.  Ixxiii ; 
A.  S.  mealt,  pret.  of  meltan  (Sweet, 

Moniment  (for  monument},  x.  56, 
memorial,  anything  by  which  a 
thing  is  remembered  ;  xii.  80,  used 
of  dints  on  a  shield  ;  vii.  5,  an  in 
scription  stamped  on  coin;  Lat. 

Monoceros,  xii.  23,  the  sword- 
fish  ;  see  quotation  from  Gesner 
in  Notes ;  Gr.  povos  alone  +  Ktpas 
a  horn. 

Monstruous,  xii.  85,  monster-like; 
M.  E.  monstruous  (Chaucer);  Fr. 
monstrueux  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  mon- 
struosus,  from  monstrum,  a  mon 
ster,  a  divine  omen,  from  monere, 
to  warn,  to  make  to  think ;  see 

Morands,  x.  43,  the  Moriani  (Ho- 
linshed) ;  see  Notes. 

Mortall,  ii.  22,45  ;  fr.  33  5  v»-  52, 
deadly,  fatal;  so  in  Shakespeare 
often,  see  Schmidt ;  Lat.  mortalh, 
only  in  the  sense  of  'liable  to 
death,'  sharing  the  inevitable  fate 
of  mankind. 

Mote,  i.  23,  29;  ii.  12  ;  viii.  25,  33; 
ix.  42;  xi.,17;  xii.  23,  70,  may, 
must ;  for  M.  E.  exx.  see  M.  S.  I  ; 
A.  S.  m6t,  i  pers.  sing. ;  mdst,  2 
pers.  sing.;  mdste, pret.  Gloss.  I. 

Mould,  iii.  41,  to  become  mouldy, 
to  rot ;  mould  is  for  moul  =  M.  E. 
moulen,  as  in  Chaucer,  '  Let  us 
not  moulen  thus  in  idlenesse,'  C.  T. 
445  2 ,  also  muwlen  in  Ancren  Riwle ; 
O.  N.  mygla  to  grow  musty,  from 
mugga,  mugginess ;  see  Skeat,  p. 

Moyity,  xii.  31,  half;  Fr.  moitie 
(Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  medietatem,  from 
'medius,  middle. 

MunifLence,  x.  15  (ed.  1590),  for 
tification  ;  cp.  to  muntfie,  to  for 
tify,  in  Nares  ;  Lat.  moenia,  walls  + 
facere,  to  make. 

Muse,  i.  19,  to  wonder ;  M.  E. 
musen  (Chaucer  3).  Gloss,  i. 


Nathemoe,  iv.  8  ;  nathemore,  Y. 

8  ;    xi.  37,  38,  none  the  more  ; 

M.  E.    nathemo  (M.  S.    2)  ;    see 

Nathlesse,  i.  5,  20,  22;  vi.  24; 



vii.    45,   none   the   less  ;    M.  E. 

natheles  (M.  S.  2). 
Ne,  i.  15,  nor;  M.  E.  ne  (M.S.  i); 

A.  S.   ne  .  .  .  ne,    neither  .  .  .  nor 

Needes,  x.  I,  '  spirit  needes  me,' 

is  wanting  to  me,  I  need  more 

ample  spirit. 
Needes,  xii.   3,  '  we  needes  must 

passe  ' ;  M.  E.  needes,  nedes,  adv. 

(Chaucer) ;    the    final  -es    is    an 

adverbial    ending,    orig.    due    to 

A.  S.  gen.  cases  in  -es,  see  Earle, 

p.  410 ;  but  in  this  case  nedes  is 

for  an  older  nede  (M.  S.  i)  =A.  S. 

nyde,  gen.  case  of  nyd  ;  see  Skeat. 
Nephewe,  viii.  29;  x.  45,  grand 
child  ;  so  in  i  Tim.  v.  4  ;   O.  Fr. 

neveu,  a  nephew  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat. 

nepotem,  a  grandson,  nephew  ;  see 

Skeat.     Gloss,  i. 
Mill,  vii.  33,  will  not.     Gloss.  I. 
Nimble,  viii.   8,  active;    the  b  is 

intrusive  ;    M.  E.  nitnel ;    formed 

from  A.  S.  niman,  to  take,  with  the 

A.  S.    suffix    -ol't    see    wench. 

Gloss,  i.  Griple. 
Nobilesse,    viii.    18;    nobleness; 

O.  Fr.  noblesse,  noblece  (Bartsch). 

Gloss,  i. 
Noriture,  iii.  2,  nurture,  bringing 

up ;    O.  Fr.  noriture    (Burguy)  ; 

Lat.  nutritura ;  on  the  suffix  -tura 

see  Brachet,  cxxiv. 
Note,  iv.  4,  1 3 ;  vii.  39,  wot  not, 

know  not ;  M.  E.  noot,  not  (M.  S.' 

i)  ;  A.  S.  ndt  =  ne  wdt  (Sweet). 
Would,  iv.  12;  viii.  30,  would  not ; 

M.  E.  and  A.  S.  nolde  =  ne  wolde 

Noyous,    ix.    16,    32,    harmful ; 

M.  E.  noyaus  (Wiclif,  N.  T.). 


OberoD,  i.  6;  x.  7;,  the  fairy  king ; 

Fr.  Auberon,  Auberich  ;  M.  H.  G. 

Albrich,    in    the    Nibelungenlied. 

Gloss.  I.  Elfe. 
Obsequy,  i.  60,  funeral  rite;  Mil 

ton,  Samson,  1732  ;  L.  Lat.  '  ob- 
sequium,  officium  ecclesiasticum, 
praesertim  pro  mortuis'  (Ducange); 
instead  of  the  classical  exsequiae,  a 
funeral,  from  exsequor,  to  follow 
or  accompany  to  the  grave.  In 
classical  Latin  obsequium  =  com 
pliance,  obedience. 

Offall,  iii.  8,  worthless  refuse  ;  for 
exx.  of  usage  see  Trench  ;  e.  g.  it 
was  once  used  of  chips  of  wood 
falling  from  a  cut  log  ;  a  com 
pound  of  off '+ fall. 

Offend,  i.  3 ;  viii.  8,  21  ;  xi.  16,  to 
harm  ;  M.  E.  offenden  (Chaucer 
i);  Fr.  'offendre,  to  hurt'  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  Lat.  offenders,  lit.  to  strike 

Ofspring,  ix.  60  ;  x.  69,  origin  ;  so 
in  Fairfax,  Tasso,  vii.  18.  Gloss.  I. 

Onely,  i.  2,  chief,  especial ;  only 
often  in  this  sense  in  Shakespeare, 
see  Schmidt ;  A.  S.  dnlic  (Grein). 

Order,  ix.  15,  rank  of  army;  M.  E. 
order  (Coleridge)  ;  O.  Fr.  ordre, 
ordene  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  ordinem; 
for  change  of  n  to  r  cp.  Fr.  coffre, 
diacre,  Londres  (Brachet) ;  ix.  28, 
to  arrange. 

Ordinaunce,  ix.  30,  arrangement; 
xi.  14,  ordnance,  artillery;  with 
this  latter  meaning  it  orig.  meant 
the  bore  or  size  of  the  cannon,  and 
was  thence  transferred  to  the  can 
non  itself;  cp.  Cotgrave,  'engin 
de  telle  ordonnance,  of  such  a 
bulke,  size,  or  bore';  L.  Lat.  or- 
dinantia,  a  regulation  (Ducange). 

Organ,  i.  33,  instrument;  Gr. 

Otherwhere,  xii.  45,  elsewhere. 

Otherwhiles,  xii.  45,  at  other 

Outrage,  ii.  38 ;  vi.  29,  excess, 
violent  conduct;  O.  Fr.  outrage, 
oltrage  (Bartsch),  from  oltre  (ul- 
tre)  =  Lat.  ultra,  beyond.  Gloss,  l . 

Outwrought,  vii.  65,  passed,  com 



Overhent,  x.  18,  overtook;  see 

Oversee,  ix.  44,  to  overlook,  to 
fail  to  see. 

Owre,  vii.  5,  36,  ore ;  A.  S.  dr, 
brass  (Leo) ;  cp.  M.  Miiller,  ii.  256. 

Oystrige,  xi.  12,  ostrich;  M.  E. 
oystryche,  also  ostrice,  in  Ancren 
Riwle  ;  O.  Fr.  ostrusce,  austruce ; 
Lat.  avis  struthio,  i.  e.  the  bird 
struthio ;  struthio  —  Gr.  ffrpovOicav, 
the  struthio  camelus  of  Pliny  (Lid- 
dell  and  Scott),  from  arpovOos,  a 
bird,  particularly  of  the  sparrow 
kind.  See  Skeat,  also  Brachet 
(s.  v.  autruche). 

Pace,  i.  26;  viii.  10,  17,  to  step, 
walk  ;  so  in  Shakespeare  often, 
see  Schmidt.  Gloss.  I. 

Pagan,  viii.  32  ;  x.  62,  a  heathen, 
one  not  believing  in  Christ ;  so 
L.  Lat.  paganus  (Ducange)  ;  Lat. 
a  peasant,  villager,  a  civilian,  as 
opp.  to  a  soldier,  hence  rustic,  un 
learned.  Gloss,  i.  Paynim. 

Page,  viii.  10,  a  servant  j  M.  E. 
page  (Stratmann) ;  O.  Fr.  page 
(Bartsch)  ;  L.Lzt.  pagium,  ace.  of 
pagius,  famulus,  cp.  paganus,  pa- 
gensts  (Ducange).  The  word  there 
fore  orig.  meant  a  peasant,  rustic, 
hence  a  serf,  a  servant. 

Pageant,  i.  33,  36,  exhibition,  spec 
tacle  ;  it  orig.  meant  a  moveable 
scaffold,  such  as  was  used  in  the 
representation  of  the  old  myste 
ries;  M.E.  pa  gent  (Prompt.  Parv.), 
also  pagyn,  Wiclif,  see  Skeat,  p. 
796  ;  L.  Lat.  pagina,  a  scaffold, 
stage,  in  Lat.  a  plank  of  wood, 
from  pag,  base  of  pangere,  to 
fasten,  fix. 

Pall,  ix.  37,  a  long  garment  with 
skirt ;  cp.  Milton,  II  Pens.  98  ; 
Lat.  palla,  a  mantle,  loose  dress. 

Palmer,  i.  7  ;  viii.  26,  a  pilgrim, 
lit.  one  who  bears  a  palm-branch 

in  token  of  having  been  to  the 
Holy  Land  ;  M.E.palmere,  Chau 
cer,  C.  T.  13  ;  L.  Lat.  palmarius 

Pap,  ii.  6,  teat,  breast ;  M.  E.  pappe 
(M.  S.  I)  ;  see  Skeat  (s.v.pap,  2). 

Paramour,  ii.  35  ;  vi.  16 ;  ix.  34, 
a  lover.  Gloss.  I. 

Parentage,  x.  27,  parent;  Fr. 
'parentage,  kindred'  (Cotgrave). 

Partake,  iv.  20,  to  make  to  share. 

Pas,  ii.  17,  to  surpass,  to  go  be 
yond  ;  Fr.  passer  from  Lat.  passus, 
a  step,  a  pace. 

Passioned,  ix.  41,  deeply  affected  ; 
in  Shakespeare  passion  often  oc 
curs  in  the  sense  of  'deep  sorrow.' 

Patronage,  viii.  26,  defence  ;  Fr.  pa- 
tronnage  (Cotgrave)  from  patron, 
Lat.  patronum,  ace.  of  patronus, 
lit.  one  in  place  of  a  father. 

Paynim,  viii.  10,  18,  heathen. 
Gloss,  i. 

Payse,  x.  5,  to  poise,  balance ;  M. 
E.  peisen  (Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  O.  Fr. 
peiser,  to  weigh  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat. 
pensare  from  pendere,  to  weigh. 
Gloss,  i.  Poyse. 

Peece,  a  structure,  xi.  14,  a  for 
tress  ;  xii.  44,  used  in  connexion 
with  'the  wondered  Argo/  so 
Morris.  Gloss.  I. 

Pelfe,  vii.  7,  booty;  cp.  O.  Fr. 
pelf  re  (Burguy). 

Pendragon,  x.  68,  title  borne  by 
Uther,  see  Notes,  quotation  from 
Hardyng;  Shakespeare,  I  Henry 
VI,  iii.  2.  95  ;  cp.  Gibbon,  Decl.  & 
Fall,  ch.  xxxi;  Wei.  pendragon, 
i.  e.  the  head  or  chief  dragon,  see 
Rhys,  Celtic  Britain,  p.  133. 

Perdie,  iii.  18  and  freq.,  a  common 
oath ;  M.  E.  pardee,  parde  (Chau 
cer  2)  ;  O.  Fr.  par  deu  =per  Deum. 

Pere,  iii.  39 ;  x.  33,  an  equal ;  iv. 
18,  a  companion;  x.  62,  'Com 
mons  and  Peares,y  i.  e.  the  nobles  ; 
O.  Fr.  />gr  =  Lat.  parem,  equal. 
Gloss,  i. 


Perlous,  Vi.  9,  perilous;  in  most 
modern  edd.  of  Shakespeare  par 
lous  ;  from  peril  (Fr.)  =  Lat.  peri- 
clum,  periculum,  danger,  lit.  a 
trial,  proof. 

Persant,  iii.  ,23,  piercing ;  Fr.  per- 
fant ;  see  Thrillant. 

Person,  xi.  40,  the  outward  ap 
pearance  ;  Lat.  persona,  the  mask 
worn  by  the  actors  of  antiquity ,  then 
the  part  or  role  in  the  play,  cp. 
use  of  Gr.  irpoaonrov.  In  L.  Lat. 
persona  means  dignity,  rank,  a 
parson,  man,  person  (Ducange); 
see  Skeat  (s.  v.  parson}. 

Personage,  iii.  5,  dignity,  import 
ance  ;  see  above.  O.  F.  person- 
nage  (Bartsch). 

Pesaunt,  iii.  43,  peasant;  O.  Fr. 
pa'isant  (Bartsch),  and  pa'isan  (cp. 
It.  paisano)  from  pa'is,  a  country; 
L.  Lat.  pagense  adj.  neut.  pertain 
ing  to  a  village ;  see  Pagan, 

Pieturale,  ix.  53,  pictures. 

Pight,  vii.  35  ;  xii.  4,  fixed ;  M.  E. 
piht,  pp.  of  picchen',  see  Skeat 
(s.  v.  Pitch,  2).  Gloss,  i. 

Pitteous,  x.  44,  compassionate  ;  so 
Shakespeare  often,  see  Schmidt 
(s.  v.  piteous) ;  M.  E.  pilous 
(Chaucer)  ;  O.  Fr.  piteus,  merciful 
(Bartsch);  L.  Lat.  pietosus  (Du 
cange),  from  Lat.  pietas. 

Pitthy,  ii.  28,  pithy,  forcible,  im 
pressive  ;  Shakespeare,  T.  of  Shrew, 
iii.  I.  68;  pith  occurs  in  Shake 
speare  in  the  sense  of  marrow, 
strength,  force,  the  essential  part 
of  a  thing,  see  Schmidt ;  M.  E. 
pithe,  Chaucer,  C.T.  6057;  A.  S. 
pida,  medulla  arborum  (Leo) ;  see 

Plate,  v.  9,  plate  armour;  lit.  a 
thin  piece  of  metal ;  O.  Fr.  plate ; 
cp.  L.  Lat.  plata  (Ducange). 

Playn,  i.  30,  to  complain  ;  Shake 
speare,  K.  Lear,  iii.  I.  39;  M.  E. 
pleyne  (Chaucer  3)  ;  O.  Fr.  plain- 

dre  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  plangere,  to 
strike,  beat,  esp.  to  beat  the  breast 
as  a  sign  of  grief;  see  Brachet. 

Pleasaunce,  vi.  n  ;  pleasauns, 
xii.  50,  pleasantness ;  M.  E.  ples- 
aunce  (Chaucer  i)  ;  O.  Fr.  plais- 
ance  (Bartsch). 

Plesh,  viii.  36,  a  shallow  pool ; 
plash  in  Shakespeare,  T.  of  Shrew, 
i.  i.  23  ;  M.  E.  '•plasche  or 
flasche,  where  rain  water  stand- 
eth '  (Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  cp.  O.  Du. 
plasch ;  see  Skeat. 

Plight,  vi.  7,  to  plait  or  pleat,  to 
weave ;  ix.  40,  a  fold ;  Milton, 
Comus,  301  ;  Shakespeare  has 
'Plighted  cunning,'  K.  Lear,  i.  i. 
283  (in  quartos  pleated).  The 
word  is  misspelt,  and  should  be 
plite  =  M.  E.  pliten,  to  fold,  a 
variant  of  plait ;  see  Skeat. 

Pollicie,  ix.  48,  53;  x.  39,  state 
craft  ;  M.  E.  polieie,  Chaucer, 
C.  T.  12534;  Fr-  'police,  polieie' 
(Cotgrave),  Lat.  politia;  Gr.  iro- 
AtT€«z,  citizenship. 

Portaunce,  iii.  5,  21;  vii.  41, 
bearing ;  so  parlance,  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt) ;  cp.  Nares. 

Portcullis,  ix.  24,  a  sliding  door 
pointed  with  iron,  let  down  to 
protect  a  gateway;  M.  E.  port- 
cullise',  Fr.  porte  coulisse  (Cot- 
grave),  in  O.  Fr.  porte  cole'ice; 
cole'ice  =  Li.  La.t.colaticius*,  sliding, 
flowing,  from  colatus,  p.  p  of  colare, 
to  flow  (through  a  sieve) ;  see 

Pourtraict,  i.  39,  viii.  43,  portrait; 
Fr.  pourtraict  (Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat. 
protractum,  p.  p.  of  protrahere,  to 
paint,  depict ;  orig.  to  drag  for 
ward,  reveal. 

Poynant,  viii.  36,  piercing ;  now 
spelt  poignant;  M.  E.  poynant 
(Chaucer)  ;  O.  Fr.  poignant,  pres. 
part,  ofpoindre,  to  prick  (Bartsch); 
Lat.  pungere. 

Practick,    i.    3;    iii.    9,    deceitful, 



treacherous  ;  cp.  L.  Lat.  praclicus, 

skilful,   and  practica,    a   plotting, 

a  piece  of  treachery  (Ducange); 

from   Gr.  TrpauriK6s}  able  to  do, 

practical.     Gloss.  I. 
Prancke,  ii.  36,  iii.  6,  to  display, 

to  adorn  gaudily;  M.  E.  pranken 

(Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  see  Skeat. 
Preace,    vii.    44,    46,     to    press, 

throng  (x.  25,  as  a  subst.)  ;  M.  E. 

present   O.  Fr.  presser ;  Lat.  pres- 

sare.     Gloss.  I. 
Prejudize,    ix.    49,    forethought; 

Lat.  praejudiciurn. 
Pretend,  xi.  15,  to  attempt;    cp. 

Shakespeare,    I  Henry  VI,   iv.   I. 

16;    Fr.   '  pretendre,   to   aim    at, 

intend'  (Cotgrave),  Lat.  praeten- 

Pricke,  i.   50;    v.    2,   to   spur   on 

quickly.     Gloss,  i. 
Pricke,   xii.    i,    point,    centre    of 

target;    see   Shakespeare's   use   in 

Schmidt,  and  cp.  Nares. 
Prickling,  v.  -29,  having  prickles. 
Priefe,  i.  48;  iv.  28;  vi.  51,  proof, 

probe ;    M.  E.  preef,  preoue ;    O. 

Fr.  prueve ;  L.  Lat.  proba. 
Prime,  ix.   25,    morning ;   x.    58 ; 

xii.  75,  springtide  of  prosperity  or 

life ;    cp.  Fr.  prime,  the  first  hour 

of  the  day,  printemps,  the  spring 

(Cotgrave).     Gloss.  I. 
Privitie,  iv.   20,   private  life ;    Fr. 

'  privoite,  private  friendship'  (Cot- 
grave),    mod.    privaute,    O.    Fr. 

privalte;   L.  Lat.  privalitatem* ; 

see  Brachet. 
Procure,  ii.    32,   to   arrange;   see 

L.  Lat.  procurare. 
Proper,   iv.    28;    x.    57,    (one's) 

own ;    so  Shakespeare   (Schmidt)  ; 

O.    Fr.    propre ;    Lat.   proprium, 

ace.  of  proprius. 
Prowesse,  ii.  25,  bravery;  O.  Fr. 

proece     (Bartsch) ;      see     Skeat. 

Gloss,  i. 
Prowest,  iii.  15;  v.  36;   viii.  18; 

xi.  30,  bravest ;   see  Bartsch,  s.  v. 

preu,  prudent,  brave,  for  French 
forms.  Gloss.  I. 

Prune,  iii.  36,  to  pick  out  damaged 
feathers  and  arrange  the  plumage 
with  the  bill;  in  Shakespeare 
(Schmidt) ;  M.E.proine (Chaucer); 
prob.  from  Fr.  provigner  (Cot- 
grave),  a  dialectic  form  of  which 
was  progner  (Littre),  meaning  to 
plant  a  slip,  from  provin,  O.  Fr. 
provain,  a  slip  or  sucker  planted 
(Brachet) ;  Lat.  propaginem,  a 
layer,  sucker.  So  the  M.  E. 
proinen  seems  to  have  meant  (i) 
to  take  cuttings  in  order  to  plant 
them  out,  (2)  to  cut  away  super 
fluous  shoots,  to  prune  trees,  (3) 
to  prune  feathers  (of  birds),  as  in 
this  passage  ;  see  Skeat. 

Puissant,  iii.  i,  powerful;  O.  Fr. 
putssanl  (Bartsch). 

Pumy,  v.  30,  'pumy  stones,'  pumice 
stones ;  A.  S.  pumic-stdn ;  Lat. 
pumic,  base  ofpumex;  see  Skeat. 

Purchase,  iii.  18 ;  v.  26,  to  ob 
tain;  O.  Fr.  purchaser.  Gloss, 

Purfled,  iii.  26,  embroidered  on  the 
edge;  Milton,  Comus,  995  ;  M.E. 
purfilen\  O.  Fr.  porfiler,  from 
filer  to  twist  threads,  from  fil,  \ 
thready  Lat.  filum.  Gloss,  i. 

Purge,  iv.  31,  to  cleanse;  Fr. 
purger ;  Lat.  purgare  from  purus 
+  agere. 

Purloyne,  iii.  4,  to  steal;  lit.  to 
put  far  away ;  Milton,  P.  L.  ii. 
946 ;  M.E.  purlongen  (Prompt. 
Parv.)  ;  O.  Fr.  purloignier,  por- 
loignier,  to  prolong  (Burguy) ; 
Lat.  prolongare. 

Purpose,  ii.  45  ;  vi.  6 ;  viii.  56, 
conversation,  discourse;  xii.  16, 
to  converse ;  Fr.  pourpos,  a  variant 
of  Fr.  '  propos,  talk,  speech,  dis 
course  '  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  propo- 
situm,  a  thing  put  forward,  see 
Brachet.  This  word  is  distinct  in 
origin  from  to  purpose,  to  intend  = 


Fr.  proposer,  Lat.  pro+pausare. 
Gloss,  i. 

Pursuivant,  viii.  2,  herald;  Fr. 
'  poursuivant  d'armes,  a  herald 
extraordinary,  or  young  herald,  a 
bachelor  in  the  art  of  heraldry ' 
(Cotgrave),  poursuivant,  pursuing, 
following ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  pur 

Purvay,  iii.  15,  to  provide;  M.  E. 
purveien,  porveien ;  O.  Fr.  por- 
veier ;  Lat.  providers  ;  see  Skeat. 

Puttocke,  xi.  n,  a  kite;  in  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt);  M.  E.  puttok, 
miluus  (Prompt.  Parv.). 

Pyonings,  x.  63,  diggings,  work  of 
the  pioneer  =  Fr.  pionnier  (Cot- 
grave),  O.  Fr.  peonier  (Burguy), 
an  extension  of  peon,  a  foot- 
soldier,  then  one  who  works  at 
digging  ;  L.  Lat.  pedonem  a  foot- 
soldier  ;  cp.  It.  pedone. 


Quaile,  viii.  35,  to  shrink,  to  fail 
in  spirit ;  the  old  meaning  of  the 
word  was  '  to  suffer  torment,  to 
die ' ;  the  spelling  quail  is  not 
quite  exact,  but  it  must  stand  for 
M.  E.  quelan,  to  die ;  A.  S.  cwelan 
(Sweet)  ;  cp.  O.  H.  G.  quelan,  to 
suffer  torment  (Tatian).  iii.  16, 
to  defeat,  discomfit,  a  misspelling 
for  quell.  Gloss,  i. 

Qualifyde,  vi.  51,  abated,  soothed; 
for  exx.  of  this  use  of  qualify  see 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  Fr.  qua 
lifier;  L.  Lat.  qualificare  (Du- 

Quarrel,  xi.  24,  33,  a  square- 
headed  crossbow  bolt ;  M.  E. 
quarelle  (M.S.?);  O.  Fr.  quarrel, 
Chanson  de  Roland,  2265  (mod. 
carreau) ;  L.  Lat.  quadrellum,  ace. 
of  quadrellus  (Ducange),  from 
Lat.  quadrus,  square. 

Quarrey,  xi.  43,  the  animal  slain 
in  hunting  &c. ;  M.  E.  querre 
(Skeat);  O.  Fr.  cuiree,  formed 

(with  suffix  -ee  =  Lzi.  -ata)  from 
cuir,  skin,  hide  =  Lat.  corium 
(Scheler).  The  quarry  as  given 
to  the  dogs  was  wrapped  up  in 
the  skin  of  the  slain  animal ;  see 
Skeat,  ed.  2,  p.  824. 

Quart,  x.  14,  quarter. 

Quarter,  i.  18,  (heraldic  term)  to 
divide  the  field  of  the  shield  into 
four  parts,  see  Clark's  Heraldry, 
p.  1 79 ;  O.  Fr.  quartier  (de  1'  ecu), 
see  Chanson  de  Roland,  3867. 

Queene,  i.  i,  'soveraiue  Elfin 
Qiieene"1 ;  A.  S.  cwen,  A.  S.  Chron. 
an.  672  ;  cp.Go.  kwens,  a  woman, 
wife,  cognate  with  Gr.  71^1/17. 

Queint,  v.  n,  quenched;  M.  E. 
queint,  p.  p.  of  cwenchen  (Strat- 
mann) ;  A.  S.  cwencan  in  com 
pounds,  a  causal  of  cwincan,  to  be 
extinguished :  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Quell,  ii.  20;  vii.  40;  x.  II,  to 
crush,  subdue ;  M.  E.  quellen,  to 
kill;  A.  S.  cwellan,  causal  of 
cwelan,  to  suffer  torment,  see 
Quaile.  With  A.  S.  cwellan,  cp. 
O.  N.  kvelja,  to  torment ;  see 

Quick,  i.  39;  x.  26,  71,  living; 
A.  S.  cwic ;  cp.  Lat.  vivus,  see 
Curtius,  p.  469. 

Quigh.t,  v.  4 ;  viii.  9,  quite,  en 
tirely  ;  lit.  freely ;  O.  Fr.  quite, 
discharged,  freed,  released;  Lat. 
quietum,  ace.  of  quietus,  at  rest, 
free  (said  of  the  debtor). 

Quilted,  v.  4,  stuffed  with  wool  or 
cotton;  the  vb.  from  quilt,  a 
bed-cover;  M.  E.  guylte  (Prompt. 
Parv.);  O.  Fr.  cuilte;  Lat.  cul- 
cita,  a  mattress,  pillow ;  see  Skeat. 

Quoth  (passim),  he  said ;  M.  E. 
quoft,  quaft,  pret.  of  queften  to 
speak  =  (M.  S.  i).  Gloss.  I. 


Bablement,  xi.  8,  12,  17,  a  rabble, 
a  disorderly  crowd ;  Shakespeare, 


Jul.  Caes.,  i.  2.  245,  '  the  rabble- 
ment  shouted.'  Gloss.  I. 

Race,  xii.  83,  to  raze,  to  level  with 
the  ground ;  M.  E.  rasen,  to  scrape 
(Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  Fr.  raser  (Cot- 
grave);  L.  Lat.  rasare  (Ducange), 
frequentative  of  Lat.  radere,  to 

Ranck,  iii.  6,  '  to  ride  ranch?  to 
ride  furiously  ;  for  exx.  see  Nares ; 
M.  E.  rank,  ronk,  strong ;  A.  S. 
ranc,  strong,  proud ;  see  Skeat. 

Randon,  iv.  7,  'at  randon,'  with 
rushing  force,  left  without  guidance ; 
so  in  Spenser's  Sheph.  Cal.  May,  46 ; 
O.  Fr.  randon,  force,  impetuosity 
(Bartsch),  whence  aller  a  grand 
randon,  to  go  very  fast  (Cotgrave). 
Randon  is  the  swiftness  of  a 
brimming  river,  from  Germ,  rand, 
a  rim,  brim;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Ransacke,  vii.  32,  x.  23,  to  pil 
lage,  plunder;  lit.  to  search  a 
house.  A  Scandinavian  word,  O.  N. 
rannsaka,  from  rann,  a  house  + 
sak,  base  of  scekja,  to  seek ;  rann  is 
for  rasn  (Icel.  Diet.) ;  cp.  Go. 
razn,  a  house. 

Rash,  iii.  30,  quick ;  M.  E.  rase h 
(Stratmann);  a  Scandinavian  word, 
cp.  Dan.  and  Swed.  rask,  brisk, 
quick  ;  Germ,  rasch. 

Raskall,  ix.  15;  xi.  19,  mean,  base 
(always  used  before  a  subst.); 
prop,  a  subst.;  for  Shakespeare's 
use  see  Schmidt  (s.  v.  rascal) ; 
'rascall,  refuse  beast'  (Palsgrave); 
O.  Fr.  rascaille*  =  mod.  '  racaille, 
the  base  and  rascall  sort'  (Cot- 
grave).  Gloss.  I. 

Raught,  iii.  2  ;  iv.  5 ;  xi.  20,  25, 
reached ;  so  Shakespeare  (Schmidt); 
M.  E.  raughte,  pret.  of  rechen,  to 
reach  (Chaucer  2)  ;  A.  S.  rdehte, 
pret.  of  rcBcan  (Sweet).  Gloss.  I. 

Ray,  i.  40,  to  soil,  dirty ;  for  exx. 
see  Nares ;  '  I  araye  or  fyle  with 
myer,  j'emboue'  (Palsgrave). 

Rayle,  viii.  37,  to  flow;  M.  E. 
reilen,  used  by  Chaucer,  see  Strat 

Rayne,  vii.  21,  kingdom;  so 
Milton,  P.  L.  i.  543,  '  the  reign 
of  Chaos  and  old  Night' ;  M.  E. 
regne  (Chaucer  2) ;  Fr.  regne,  a 
realm  (Cotgrave)  ;  Lat.  regnum. 

Read,  Reede,  xii.  70,  to  interpret, 
discern;  i.  18 ;  iv.  36;  vii.  2; 
viii.  54,  to  declare;  i.  17;  vii.  7, 
1 2,  to  consider,  hold;  viii.  12,  to 
advise;  ix.  2,  to  experience;  M.  E. 
reden ;  A.  S.  rcedan,  to  discern, 
advise,  read  ;  see  Skeat. 

Resedifye,  x.  46,  to  rebuild;  L. 
Lat.  reaedificare  (Andrews). 

Reare,  i.  61  ;  ii.  ii;  xii.  22,  to 
raise;  A.  S.  raran,  Deut.  28.  30; 
r<£ran  =  r(zsan  =  raisian,  causal  of 
risan,  to  rise ;  see  Skeat. 

Reave,  i.  17  ;  viii.  15;  xi.  19,  to 
take  away  by  violence ;  M.  E. 
reven  (Chaucer  3)  ;  A.  S.  redfian. 
Gloss,  i. 

Recke,  viii.  15,  to  care,  heed;  M. 
E.  rekken,  reccnen  (Chaucer  3)  ; 
A.  S.  recan  =  rdcian ;  cp.  O.  S.  r6- 
kian  (H&iand). 

Recoyle,  xii.  19,  to  get  a  stranded 
ship  off  from  a  quicksand;  M.E. 
recoilen,  to  drive  back ;  O.  Fr. 
redder  (Bartsch).  Gloss.  I, 

Recreaunt,  vi.  28,  base,  cowardly  ; 
O.  Fr.  recreant,  pres.  part,  of 
recroire  to  desist,  to  give  up 
(Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat.  se  recredere  to 
own  oneself  beaten  in  a  duel  or  ju 
dicial  combat  (Ducange).  Gloss.  I. 

Reeure,  i.  54;  iv.  16 ;  x.  23;  xi. 
21,  to  restore  to  health,  to  cure  ; 
L.  Lat.  recurare  (Ducange). 

Reeure,  xii.  1 2, 19,  to  recover ;  M. 
E.  recoueren  ;  O.  Fr.  reciivrer 
(Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  recuperare ;  see 
Skeat  (s.v.  recover). 

Red,  i.  30,  declared  ;  pret.  of 

Redeemer,  v.  20,  deliverer  ;  from 



redeem,  Lat.  redimere,  to  buy  or 
take  back. 

Bedoubted,  iv.  38 ;  v.  26 ;  viii. 
25,  dread,  feared ;  redoubt,  to 
fear  (Minsheu) ;  O.  Fr.  redoubter, 
to  fear  (Bartsch),  mod.  redouter; 
Lat.  re  +  dubitare.  Gloss.  I . 

Beft,  iv.  13,  taken  by  violence  ;  p.p. 
of  reave;  Milton,  Lycidas,  107. 

Begalitie,  i.  57,  rights  of  royalty  ; 
cp.  L.  Lat.  regalitates  (Ducange). 

Begardes,  vii.  33,  subjects  for  con 
sideration  or  attention ;  cp.  Shake 
speare,  Lear  i.  i.  242,  'love's  not 
love  when  it  is  mingled  with  re 
gards  that  stand  aloof  from  the 
entire  point ' ;  Fr.  '  regard,  a  re 
gard,  respect,  consideration  of 
(Cotgrave),  from  regarder,  to 
look,  re-  -t-  garder,  O.  Fr.  guarder, 
in  Chanson  de  Roland,  warder 
(Bartsch)  =  O.  S.  wardon  (He- 
liand)  ;  cp.  Eng.  ward. 

Begester,  i.  32,  a  record  of  names ; 
Fr.  registre  (Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat. 
registrum,  more  correctly  regestum 
(Ducange),  lit.  something  brought 
back,  recorded. 

Begiment,  ix.  59  ;  x.  30,  govern 
ment  ;  cp.  Shakespeare,  Ant.  &  Cl. 
iii.  6.  95  ;  O.  Fr.  regiment,  sway 
(Littre)  ;  Lat.  regimentum. 

Belent,  xi.  i,  27,  to  give  way,  to 
slacken  ;  Fr.  ralentir  ;  Lat.  re  -i- 
ad  +  lentus,  slack,  slow,  also  tena 
cious,  pliant. 

Bemeroie,  xi.  16,  to  thank ;  O.  Fr. 
remerciier (Bartsch);  see  Mercie. 

Bencounter,  i.  26,  to  meet  in  com 
bat;  Fr.  rencontrer  (Cotgrave),  for 
reencontrer  from  re  +  en  +  contre 

Benfierst,  viii.  45,  made  more 

Benforst,  iv.  14,  he  recovered 
strength ;  x.  48,  pp.  enforced 

Benowmed,  iv.  41 ;  vi.  35,  re 
nowned,  famous  ;  cp.  More's  Uto 

pia,  p.  166,  'the  renowmed  tra- 
vailer  Ulysses';  O.  Fr.  renomme, 
rename  (Bartsch),  from  worn  =  Lat. 
nomen,  a  name.  Gloss.  I. 

Bepaire,  xii.  52,  to  resort  to;  M.E. 
repairen  (Chaucer  3) ;  O.  Fr. 
repairier,  repadrer  (Bartsch)  ; 
L.  Lat.  repatriare,  to  return  to 
one's  country  (patria).  Gloss.  I. 

Beport,  x.  3,  to  carry  off;  Lat. 
report  are. 

Bepriefe,  iv.  28,  reproof;  see 

Beprive,  i.  55,  to  release,  set  free  ; 
repriv e  =  reprieve,  cp.  F.  Q^  iv. 
12.  31  ;  M.  E.  repreven,  Wiclif, 
Lu.  20.  17;  see  Priefe. 

Beprize,  xi.  44,  to  take  again ;  see 
Nares;  cp.  Mesprize  2. 

lie  seized,  x.  45,  reinstated,  re 
possessed  ;  O.  Fr.  saisir,  seisir,  to 
put  one  in  possession  of,  also  to 
take  possession  of  (Bartsch) ; 
O.  H.  G.  sazzan,  sezzan  =  sazjan, 
to  set,  place,  hence  to  put  in  pos 
session  of;  cognate  with  Germ. 
setzen  ;  see  Skeat  (s.v.  seize). 

Bespondence,  xii.  71,  correspond 
ence  (in  music). 

Bespyre,  iv.  16 ;  vi.  44,  to  breathe 
again,  to  breathe ;  Fr.  respirer : 
L.  Lat.  respirare. 

Betourne,  iii.  19,  to  turn  back  (the 

Betraitt,  ix.  4,  picture,  portrait ; 
It.  ritrdtto,  a  picture,  lit.  drawn 
out  (Baretti) ;  iii.  25,  'graces 
working  belgards  and  amorous 
retrate* ;  retrate  prob.=*  retrofit, 
and  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  look, 
cast  of  countenance ' ;  so  Nares. 

Bevest,  i.  22,  to  dress  again. 

Bevilement,  iv.  12, reviling;  M.E. 
revilen  ;  re-  +  Fr.  aviler,  to  make 
vile  (Bartsch);  see  Skeat  (s.v. 

Bew,  i.  25  ;  x.  66,  to  rue,  to  be 
sorry,  to  pity  ;  M.  E.  rewen 
(Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S.  hredwan,  to 



grieve,  from  hreow,  sad  (Sweet); 
see  Skeat. 

Ribauld,  i.  10,  a  low,  licentious 
person ;  M.  E.  ribald,  riband  (P. 
Plowman)  ;  O.  Fr.  ribaut,  ribault 
(Bartsch)  ;  cp.  It.  ribdldo,  ribaudo, 
a  rascal  (Florio)  ;  L.  Lat.  ribaldus 
(Ducange).  The  origin  of  the 
word  appears  to  be  lost. 

Bichesse,  vii.  24,  31,  wealth;  M. 
E.  richesse  (Chaucer  i);  O.  Fr. 
richesse,  richece,  power,  wealth 
(Bartsch).  ii.  41,  richesse  is 
treated  as  a  plural;  for  Shake 
speare's  use  in  this  respect  see 
Skeat  (s.v.  riches').  Gloss.  I. 

Rife,  v.  9,  excessively;  M.  E.  rif, 
adv.  rive ;  O.  N.  rifr,  munificent, 
abundant.  Gloss.  I. 

Rifte,  vii.  23,  pp.  riven,  rent;  M.  E. 
riven  (Coleridge) ;  O.  N.  rifa,  to 
tear,  to  rend ;  cp.  Germ,  reiben, 
to  grate  (Weigand). 

Rime,  x.  50,  verse,  poetry;  A.  S. 
rim,  number,  reckoning  (Sweet), 
then  in  M.  E.  rime  (Chaucer  2). 
The  word  is  used  of  verse,  from 
the  numerical  regularity  of  verses 
as  to  syllables  and  accents  ;  lastly 
it  is  used  to  denote  a  particular 
accident  of  modern  verse,  viz.  the 
consonance  of  final  syllables ;  see 
Skeat.  Gloss.  I. 

Rosiere,  ix.  19,  a  rose-bush  ;  O.  Fr. 
rosier  (Bartsch);  L.  Lat.  rosa 

Rosmarine,  xii.  24,  a  sea-monster 
that  was  supposed  to  feed  on  the 
dew  on  the  tops  of  the  rocks,  so 
Morris  in  Glossary  to  Spenser. 

Rote,  x.  3,  lyre  (of  Apollo)  ;  the 
name  of  an  old  musical  instrument; 
in  fact  there  appear  to  have  been 
two  kinds  of  rotes,  one  a  sort  of 
psaltery  or  harp  played  with  a 
plectrum  or  quill,  the  other  much 
the  same  as  the  fiddle ;  M.  E.  rote, 
Chaucer,  C.  T.  236  ;  O.  Fr.  rote, 
rotta  (Bartsch)  ;  O.  H.  G.  rota, 

hrota  ;  L.  Lat. '  chrotta  Britanna,' 
a  word  of  Celtic  origin,  the  proto 
type  in  point  of  form  of  Wei. 
crotk,  the  womb,  the  calf  of  the 
leg,  and  in  point  of  meaning  of 
crwth,  a  crowd  or  rote ;  cp.  Ir. 
cruity  a  fiddle,  also  a  hump  on  the 
back  (O'Reilly).  The  crwth  was 
so  called  from  its  curved  shape; 
cp.  Gr.  Kvpros;  see  Rhys,  p.  114, 
and  Skeat.  From  the  Wei.  crwth 
came  M.  E.  croude,  '  he  herde  a 
symfonye  and  a  croude?  Wiclif, 
Luke  15.  25,  see  also  Catholicon 
Anglicum  (s.v.  crowde). 

Routs,  ix.  15,  crowds,  troops;  M. 
E.  route,  a  number  of  people, 
troop  (Chaucer  i);  Fr.  ' route, 
(i)  a  rout,  overthrow,  (2)  a  rowt, 
troop,  company,  multitude  of  men 
or  beasts;  (3)  a  rut,  way,  path, 
street '(Cotgrave) ;  L.  Lat.  rupta, 
(i)  a  defeat,  (2)  a  troop  of  men, 
(3)  a  way  cut  through  a  forest 
(Ducange).  The  different  senses 
of  rupta,  'broken,'  may  be  thus 
explained: — (i)  a  broken  mass  of 
flying  men,  a  defeat ;  (2)  a  com 
pany  in  broken  ranks,  a  disorderly 
array;  (3)  a  way  broken  or  cut 
through  a  wood,  a  route ;  see 

Bubine,  iii.  24  ;  xii.  54,  ruby ;  It. 
rubino  ;  L.  Lat.  rubinum,  ace.  of 
rubinus,  from  the  stem  of  rubere, 
to  be  red ;  cp.  Sp.  rubin. 

Euinate,  xii.  7,  '  to  ruinate  itself 
(of  a  rock),  to  fall  down  ;  for 
exx.  of  ruinate  in  Shakespeare, 
see  Schmidt ;  formed  from  L.  Lat. 
ruinare  (Ducange). 

Ruth,  ii.  I,  45;  iii!  2;  v.  24;  x. 
62,  pity,  sorrow ;  M.  E.  rewthe 
(Chaucer  2);  see  Rew.  Gloss,  i. 


Sacred,  xii.  37,  accursed ;  cp.  Fr. 
sacrer,  to  consecrate,  also  to  ex 
communicate  (Cotgrave),  mod. 



sacre,  cursed  (in  oaths) ;  cp.  also 

•  Lat.  sacer,  devoted  to  a  divinity 
for  destruction,  accursed ;  sacred 
is  the  pp.  of  M.  E.  sacren,  to  con 
secrate  (M.  S.  i)  ;  Lat.'  sacrare, 
to  consecrate,  to  doom  to  destruc 

Sad,  i.  45  ;  viii.  30,  heavy ;  ii.  14, 
28 ;  vi.  19,  37,  grave,  serious ; 
xi.  3,  sober,  dark- coloured  (of 
attire)  ;  M.  E.  sad,  with  various 
meanings,  see  Halliwell ;  the  oldest 
sense  is  'sated';  A.  S.  seed,  sated, 
filled  (Leo,  p.  53)  ;  cp.  O.  S.  sad, 
satisfied,  filled  (Heliand),  Goth. 
saths,  Germ,  satt,  full,  weary ;  see 

Saliaunce,  i.  29,  onslaught ;  from 
the  vb.  salie,  vi.  38,  to  sally,  to 
rush  out  suddenly ;  O.  Fr.  salir, 
to  leap  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  salire. 

Salvage,  vi.  39 ;  viii.  42,  wild ; 
lit.  living  in  the  woods ;  O.  Fr. 
salvage  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat.  salva- 
ticus,  in  Reichenau  Glosses  8th 
cent.  (cp.  It.  salvdtico\  for  Lat. 
silvaticus  (Pliny)  ;  see  Brachet. 

Salue,  viii.  23,  to  salute  ;  spelt 
salew,  F.  Q^iv.  6.  25  ;  Fr. '  saluer, 
to  salute,  greet,  give  the  time  of 
day  unto'  (Cotgrave);  O.  Fr.  sa- 
luder  (Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  salutare. 

Salve,  x.  21,  to  remedy;  whence 
salving,  i.  20,  the  making  clear 
and  fair  ;  in  Shakespeare,  to  salve 
occurs  in  sense  of  '  to  remedy,  to 
palliate,'  see  Schmidt;  from  the 
subst.  salve,  xi.  21,  medicinal 
substance  applied  to  wounds  and 
sores ;  A.  S.  sealf,  ointment,  Mk. 
14.  5  ;  cp.  Ger.  salbe. 

Sanguine,  i.  39,  blood-colour  ;  M. 
E.  sanguin,  Chaucer,  C.  T.  335, 
'of  his  complexion  he  was  san 
guin''  ;  Fr.  sanguin  ;  Lat.  sangui- 
neum,  from  sanguin-,  stem  of  san- 
guis,  blood ;  cp.  Fr.  sang ;  see 

Sarazin,   viii.  49  ;    Sar'zin,  viii. 

1 8,  Saracen,  a  pagan  ;  M.  E.  sare- 
zin,  saracen  (Skeat) ;  O.  Fr.  sarra- 
zin,  sarrasin  (Bartsch);  L.  Lat. 
saraceni,  a  people  of  Arabia  Felix, 
in  Ammianus,  A.D.  380,  and  Pliny ; 
Gr.  aapa.Kr)v6s,  Ptolemy,  A.D.  160. 
Etymology  unknown  ;  for  the 
various  guesses  see  Gibbon's  learned 
note,  Decl.  and  Fall,  ch.  50. 

Saufgard,  v.  8,  guard  in  fencing, 
defence ;  for  Shakespeare's  use  of 
safeguard,  subst.  and  vb.,  see 
Schmidt ;  Fr.  '  sauve  garde,  safe 
guard,  protection'  (Cotgrave)  ; 
hence  L.  Lat.  salvagardia  (Du- 

Scarmoge,  vi.  34,  skirmish,  a 
slight  battle ;  scaramouch  is  an 
other  form,  see  Halliwell ;  O.  Fr. 
escarmouche  (Bartsch) ;  It.  scara- 
muccia,  a  skirmish,  also,  a  scara 
mouch,  an  actor,  posture-master 
(Florio),  from  O.  H.  G.  skerman, 
to  defend,  fight ;  see  Diez,  p.  284, 
Skeat  (s.v.  skirmish}. 

Scath,  v.  1 8,  hurt,  harm  ;  in  Shake 
speare,  Rich.  Ill,  i.  3.  317  ;  M.E. 
scathe  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.  S.  sceafie 
(Leo).  Gloss.  I. 

Scattered,  ii.  2,  let  drop;  A.  S. 
scateran,  to  squander,  A.S.  Chron. 
an.  1137;  the  suffix  -er  is  fre 
quentative,  see  Morris,  p.  221. 

Scatterlings,  x.  63,  persons  scat 
tered  about ;  cp.  '  losells  and  scat- 
terlings?  in  View  of  Ireland, 
Spenser,  p.  624;  -ling  is  an  A.S. 
suffix,  see  Sweet,  Ixxxv;  for  its 
widespread  Teutonic  use,  and  for 
its  analysis  l  +  ing,  see  Weigand 
(s.v.  -ling}. 

Sclave,  vii.  33,  slave,  one  under  the 
power  of  another ;  O.  Fr.  esclave 
(Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat.  sclavus,  cap- 
tivus,  servus  (whence  Ger.  sclave) ; 
Gr.  2/c\d/3os,  a  Slav ;  the  L.  Lat. 
sclavus  was  orig.  applied  by  the 
Germans  to  Slavonian  prisoners. 
The  old  name  for  the  Slav,  Slovene, 



is  connected  with  Old  Slavonic 
slovo,  '  a  word,'  meaning  '  the  in 
telligibly  speaking  people,'  the 
Slavs  thus  distinguishing  them 
selves  from  foreigners  whom  they 
called  Nemci,  i.  e.  '  the  mute, 
dumb.'  See  Weigand  (s.v.  sclave}. 

Scolopendra,  xii.  23,  a  fish  resem 
bling    a    centipede;     Lat.    scolo- 
pendra,  a  kind  of  sea-fish  (Pliny) 
Gr.  ffKoXoirfvSpa  in  Aristotle,  see 
Liddell  and  Scott. 

Scorse,  ix.  55,  exchange ;  to  scorse, 
to  exchange,  see  F.  Q.  iii.  9.  16, 
and  Jonson's  Tale  of  a  Tub,  i.  2, 
and  Bartholomew  Fair,  iii.  I  ;  cp. 
Cotgrave  s.  v.  '  courtier,  a  broker, 
horse-scowrser,  messenger,'  and 
•  courratage,  brokage,  scoursing, 
horse-scowrsm^' ;  to  scorse,  to  ex 
change,  is  still  in  use  in  Devon 
shire  and  East  Cornwall,  and  occurs 
in  Pegge's  Kenticisms. 

Scoule,  ii.  35,  to  look  angry  or 
gloomy ;  M.  E.  scoulen,  seowle 
(Prompt.  Parv.).  A  Scandinavian 
word,  cp.  Dan.  skule,  to  scowl ; 
see  Skeat. 

Scrine,  ix.  56,  a  case  or  chest  for 
keeping  books  or  documents ;  Lat. 
scrinium,  a  chest,  box,  case  ;  shrine 
is  the  same  word ;  cp.  Ger.  schrein. 
Gloss.  I. 

Scruze,  xi.  46  ;  xii.  56,  to  squeeze, 
crush;  for  exx.  see  Richardson; 
scrouge  in  various  dialects  (Halli- 

Sea-satyre,  xii.  24 ;  see  Notes. 

Seele  up,  i.  38,  '  (a  hind)  up  her 
eyes  doth  seele,'  doth  close;  Fr. 
siller,  ciller  (Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I. 

Seely,  iii.  6,  harmless.     Gloss.  I. 

Seeth,  x.  26,  to  seethe,  to  boil ; 
M.  E.  set  Am  (Chaucer  i)  ;  AS. 
seoftan  (Leo) ;  cp.  Go.  souths,  a 

Sell,  ii.  ii;  iii.  12;  v.  4 ;  viii.  31, 
a  saddle  ;  Fr.  '  selle,  a  saddle ' 
(Cotgrave)  ;  O.Fr.  in  the  Chanson 


de  Roland ;  Lat.  sella,  a  'seat,  also 
a  saddle  in  the  Theodosian  code ; 
see  Brachet. 

Semblaunt,  i.  21 ;  ix.  2,  39,  ap 
pearance,  likeness. 

Semblants,xii.48,  49,  appearances. 
Gloss,  i. 

Serve,  x.  55,  to  bring  to  bear  upon  ; 
cp.  the  phrase  '  to  serve  a  writ ' ; 
viii.  I,  'to  serve  to  wicked  men, 
to  serve  his  wicked  foe/  '  to  serve 
to '  is  Shakespearian,  see  Schmidt ; 
the  second  serve  =  to  do  with,  to 
deal  with,  i.  e.  to  subdue  and 

Sew,  ii.  17;  vii.  9,  to  follow;  spelt 
sewe  in  Palsgrave ;  M.  E.  suen, 
Wiclif,  Mt.  8.  19,  22 ;  O.  Fr. 
suir,  one  of  the  forms  of  sivre 
(Bartsch),  mod.  snivre ;  L.  Lat. 
seqvere  for  Lat.  sequi  •  see  Brachet. 

Shame,  i.  30 ;  xii.  23,  to  be 
ashamed;  so  M.  E.  shamie,  tamie 
(M.  S.  i)  ;  A.  S.  sceamian,  to  be 
ashamed,  to  blush  (Grein). 

Shamefast,  ix.  43,  modest;  so 
Shakespeare  (in  the  quarto  ed.), 
Rich.  Ill,  i.  3.  142,  see  Schmidt; 
M.  E.  schamefast  (Chaucer  i) ; 
A.  S.  scamfcest ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 
shamefaced).  Gloss.  I. 

Shard,  vi.  38,  division,  boundary ; 
A.  S.  sceard,  adj.  broken  (Grein). 
Spenser  appears  to  use  shard  ac 
tively  of  that  which  divides, 
namely  '  a  channel.' 

Shay  re,  x.  37,  a  part,  division ; 
A.  S.  scearu,  as  in  land-scearu, 
a  share  in  land  (Grein). 

Sheares,  viii.  5,  shears,  used  of 
wings  wherewith  to  '  cut '  the  air ; 
A.  S.  sceara  (sing.)  =  Lat.  forfex  ; 
see  Skeat ;  from  A.  S.  sceran,  to 
cut;  see  Shere. 

Shed,  vii.  30,  '  lives  were  shed,' 
with  reference  to  spilling  life- 
blood  ;  A.  S.  sceddan,  to  part 

Shee,  xi.  49,  she  ;  so  spelt  in  Morris' 



ed. ;  for  M.  E.  forms  of  A.  S.  seo 
see  Stratmann  (s.  v.  scheo).  Seo 
is  fern,  of  se,  used  as  def.  art.,  but 
orig.  a  demonstrative  pronoun, 
meaning  '  that' ;  see  Skeat. 

Sheene,  i.  10 ;  ii.  40 ;  x.  8,  bright, 
clear,  beautiful ;  M.  E.  schene,  fair, 
beautiful  (Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S.  scene, 
scedne,  fair ;  cp.  O.  S.  scdni,  Ger. 

Shend,  vi.  35  ;  viii.  1 2,  to  disgrace, 
abuse;  shent,  v.  5  (pret.) ;  i.  1 1, 
2 7  (pp.);  M.E.  schenden,  Wiclif, 
Ps.  119.  31;  A.  S.  (ge}scendan 
(Sweet)  ;  cp.  O.  H.  G.  (gi)skenten, 
Tatian,  p.  437. 

Shere,  vi.  5,  to  shear,  cut ;  A.  S. 
sceran ;  see  Sheares. 

Shop,  i.  43,  the  body  is  said  to  be 
the  'shop'  of  life;  M. E.  schoppe, 
Chaucer,  C.  T.  4420,  cp.  Fr. 
eschoppe(Cotgrave);  A.S.  sceoppa, 
a  stall  or  booth,  used  to  translate 
Lat.  gazophilacium,  the  treasury, 
Lu.  21.  i. 

Shrightes,  vii.  57,  subst.  pi.  shrieks ; 
for  shright,  pret.  of  shriek,  see 
Nares ;  M.  E.  shrlghte,  pret.  of 
shriken,  see  Stratmann,  p.  431. 

Shrub,  vii.  3,  a  low  tree ;  M.  E. 
schrub,  shrob  (Skeat)  ;  A.  S.  scrob, 
in  Scrob'scir,  'Shropshire,  A.  S. 
Chron.,  an.  1094,  and  in  Scrobbes- 
byrig,  Shrewsbury,  ib.  an.  1016. 

Siege,  ii.  39  ;  vii.  44,  a  seat ;  xi.  i, 
a  sitting  down,  with  an  army, 
before  a  fortified  place ;  siege  = 
seat  in  Shakespeare,  cp.  Meas.  for 
M.  iv.  2.  101 ;  M.  E.  sege,  a  seat, 
Wiclif,  Mt.  25.  31  ;  O.  Fr.  sege, 
later  siege ;  from  a  vb.  sieger  *  = 
L.  Lat.  sediare*  (as  in  assediare), 
from  sedium*  (as  in  assediurn), 
from  Lat.  sedere,  to  sit. 

Sight,  i.  47,  sighed ;  so  in  ed. 
1590;  M.E.  stye,  pret.  of  si$en, 
to  sigh ;  A.  S.  sican,  pret.  sdc  : 
see  Skeat. 

Sightes,  v.  27,  appearances,  forms; 

M.  E.  sigte,  cyhte  (M.  S.  i)  ;  A.  S. 
(ge}siht;  see  Skeat.  For  sub 
stantival  forms  in  -/  see  Earle, 
p.  299. 

Sith,  i.  2  (and  passim),  since  ;  M.E. 
sith,  sippe,  seppe  (M.  S.  2) ;  A.  S. 
siftftan,  since  (Sweet) ;  vi.  48, 
sithens,  since ;  M.  E.  sitkens, 
sithenes  (Stratmann) ;  the  -s  or 
-es  is  due  to  the  old  adverbial 
ending,  as  in  needes,  twi-es,  thri- 
es,  really  a  genitival  form,  see  Earle, 
p.  431.  A.S.  si$$an  =  si®  ftdm, 
after  that ;  A.  S.  sift  was  orig.  an 
adv.  with  the  force  of  a  com 
parative,  meaning  '  later' ;  cp.  Go. 
seithus,  late  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v. 

Skie,  viii.  10,  cloud;  M.E.  skie 
(Stratmann)  ;  O.  N.  sky,  a  cloud  ; 
cp.  A.  S.  scua,  a  shade. 

Skill,  i.  54,  reason,  prop,  discern 
ment  ;  M.  E.  skile,  reason  (Chaucer 
2)  ;  O.  N.  skil,  a  distinction,  cp. 
skilja,  to  separate,  from  root 
SKAL,  orig.  to  cleave ;  see  Skeat. 

Skippet,  xii.  14,  a  little  boat ;  the 
stem  skip  =  ship,  cp.  O.N.  skip, 
and  Du.  schip,  a  pronunciation 
preserved  in  skipper  =  Du.  schip- 
per;  -et  is  a  French  diminutive 
form,  as  in  bosquet,  bouquet ;  see 
Earle,  p.  317. 

Sleight,  i.  3  ;  xii.  81 ;  slight,  i.  4, 
contrivance,  trick;  M.E.  sleighte 
(Chaucer  i)  ;  O.  N.  slag®,  sly 
ness ;  see  Sly.  Gloss.  I. 

Slug,  i.  23,  to  be  inactive;  slogge  in 
Palsgrave ;  M.E.  sluggen  (Prompt. 
Parv.);  a,  Scandinavian  word,  cp 
Dan.  slug,  drooping ;  see  Skeat. 

Sly,  viii.  47  ;  ix.  46,  clever,  inge 
nious  ;  xii.  49,  cleverly ;  M.  E. 
slie  (Chaucer)  ;  O.  N.  slcegr  (for 
slcegr),  sly,  cunning.  The  word 
is  from  the  Teutonic  base  SLAG, 
to  strike,  which  appears  in  the  vb. 
to  slay;  smith's  work — striking 
with  the  hammer  being  taken  as 



the  type  of  clever  handicraft ;  see 

Smouldring,  v.  3,  suffocating  (of 
dust)  ;  there  may  perhaps  be  also 
an  idea  of  mouldering,  crumbling 
in  Spenser's  use  of  the  word  here  ; 
M.  E.  smolder,  a  stifling  smoke 
(P.  Plowman)  ;  see  Skeat. 

Snag,  xi.  23,  a  lump  on  a  tree 
where  a  branch  has  been  cut  off. 
Gloss.  I. 

Sold,  ix.  6,  pay,  remuneration; 
O.  Fr.  solde ;  L.  Lat.  soldum,  pay, 
from  L.  Lat.  solidus,  a  piece  of 
money,  lit.  '  solid '  money,  from 
Lat.  solidus.  We  still  use  £  s.  d. 
to  signify  libra,  solidi,  and  denarii. 
From  O.  Fr.  solde  come  soldeier, 
in  the  Chanson  de  Roland,  our 
soldier,  ix.  5. 

Sooth-sayes,  ix.  51,  foretellings ; 
A.  S.  sdft,  true ;  see  Skeat.  Gloss.  I . 

Souse,  xi.  36,  the  swoop  (of  a 
hawk)  ;  cp.  Shakespeare,  K.  John, 
v.  2.  150,  'like  an  eagle  ...  to 
souse  annoyance  that  comes  near 
his  nest';  see  Halliwell. 

Sovenaunce,  vi.8;  viii.  51,  remem 
brance  ;  Fr.  'souvenance,  memorie, 
remembrance,  also  a  ring  with 
many  hoopes,  whereof  a  man  lets 
one  hang  downe  when  he  would 
be  put  in  mind  of  a  thing '  (Cot- 
grave),  from  souvenir;  Lat.  sub- 
venire;  see  Brachet. 

Soveraine,  vi.  1 7,  supreme ;  O.  Fr. 
souverain  (Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat. 
superanum  from  Lat.  super, 

Sowne,  v.  30 ;  vi.  47,  sound ;  M.E. 
soun  (Chaucer  3) ;  O.  Fr.  son ; 
Lat.  sonum,  ace.  ofsonus.  Gloss.  I. 

Spalles,  vi.  29,  the  shoulders; 
Scotch  spauls,  see  Jamieson  (s.  v. 
spald)  ;  O.  Fr. '  espalle,  espalde 
(Bartsch),  mod.  epaule;  cp.  It. 
spdlla,  a  shoulder ;  Lat.  spatula, 
a  broad-bladed  knife  for  spreading 

Spel,  vi.  51,  a  form  of  magic  words ; 
so  in  Shakespeare  (Schmidt,  s.  v. 
spell)  ;  A.  S.  spel,  a  saying. 

Spight,  i.  3;  ii.  23,  spite;  the  gh 
employed  carelessly  or  arbitrarily, 
see  Earle,  p.  150;  cp.  Gloss.  I, 

Spill,  ix.  37,  to  destroy  ;  cp.  Shake 
speare,  Hamlet,  iv.  5.  20,  '  (guilt) 
spills  itself  in  fearing  to  be  spilt ' ; 
M.  E.  spillen  (Chaucer)  ;  A.  S. 
spillan  forspildan  (Leo).  Gloss,  i. 

Spoile,  vii.  25,  to  plunder,  pillage ; 
Fr.  spolier  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  spo- 
liare,  to  strip  of  spoil,  from  spolium, 
orig.  the  skin  or  hide  of  an  animal 
stripped  off,  hence  the  armour  of 
a  slain  warrior. 

Sprent,  xii.  45,  sprinkled ;  M.  E. 
spreynd  (Chaucer  3),  pp.  of  spren- 
gen,  to  scatter  (Stratmann)  ;  A.  S. 
sprengan,Mt.  25.  24,  lit.  to  make 
to  spring  or  leap  abroad,  being 
the  causal  of  A.  S.  springan,  to 
spring,  regularly  formed  by  the 
change  of  a  {in  the  pret.  sprang) 
to  e,  as  if  from  sprangian  *  ;  cp. 
O.  N.  sprengja  (Icel.  Diet.) ;  M.  E. 
sprenkelen  (our  sprinkle)  is  the 
frequentative  form  of  sprengen. 

Sprighti  iv.  7;  vii.  10;  ix.  36;  xi. 
38,  spirit;  for  spelling  cp.  Spight. 

Spring-headed,  xii.  23,  having, 
heads  that  spring  afresh. 

Spyal,  i.  4,  a  spy ;  so  Shakespeare, 
I  Henry  VI,  i.  4.  8,  spial  =  espial, 
see  Schmidt ;  cp.  Cotgrave,  s.  v. 
'espie,  a  spie,  scowt,  espial /' ; 
M.E.  espial;  from  O.  Fr.  espier; 
O.H.G.  spehdn,  to  observe  closely; 
cp.  Lat.  spec-ere;  see  Skeat  (s.v. 

Squadrons,  viii.  2,  used  of  angelic 
hosts;  the  word  occurs  in  Shake 
speare,  see  Schmidt;  It.  'squad- 
rone,  a  squadrone,  a  troupe  or 
band  of  men'  (Florio),  from 
squadra,  a  square,  a  part  of  a 
company  of  soldiers,  formed  from 

U   2 



a  L.  Lat.  exquadrare*,  intensive 
of  Lat.  quadrare. 

Squire,  i.  58,  a  square,  a  car-? 
p enter's  rule;  'by  the  squire' 
occurs  three  times  in  Shakespeare, 
see  Schmidt;  M.  E.  squire  (Strat- 
mann)  ;  Fr.  esquierre  (Cotgrave), 
another  form  of  esquarre  =  It. 
squadra,  see  above. 

Squire,  i.  13,  17;  xi.  48,  an  at 
tendant  on  a  knight  ;  O.  Fr. 
esquier,  Chanson  de  Roland,  2437. 
Gloss.  I. 

Stale,  i.  4,  a  decoy,  a  snare ; 
Shakespeare,  T.  of  Shrew,  iii.  i.  90, 
'to  cast  thy  wandering  eyes  on 
every  stale1 ;  M.  E.  stale,  theft 
(M.  S.  i),  hence  stealth,  deceit 
or  a  trap ;  A.  S.  stalu,  theft 
(Sweet) ;  cp.  A.  S.  st&lhrdn,  a 
decoy  reindeer ;  see  Skeat. 

Starke,  i.  42,  rigid ;  see  Skeat. 
Gloss,  i. 

Stayne,  iv.  26,  to  spoil  the  colour 
of,  to  dim;  M.  E.  steinen  for 
disteinen ;  Fr.  '  desteindre,  to  dis- 
tain,  to  dead  or  take  away  the 
colour  of  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  dis- 
away  +  linger e,  to  dye;  see  Skeat 
(s.  v.  stain).  ,  s 

Stead,  ii.  21;  iv.  42;  xii.  I,  a 
place ;  M.  E.  stede  (Chaucer  2) ; 
A.  S.  stede  (Sweet).  Gloss.  I. 

Stead,  ix.  9,  to  help,  avail ;  so  in 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt). 

Steare,  ix.  13,  a  steer,  a  young  ox; 
A.  S.  steor ;  cp.  Lat.  taurus,  Gr. 
ravpos;  see  Skeat. 

Sterne,  vi.  27,  to  steam.  See 

Stent,  iv.  12  ;  stint,  v.  8,  to  cease; 
M.  E.  stenten,  stinten,  to  shorten, 
to  pause ;  see  Skeat. 

Sterve,  vi.  34;  viii.  58,  to  die; 
M.  E.  sterven  (Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S. 
steorfan,  A.  S.  Chron.  an.  1124; 
cp.  Germ,  sterben. 

Steward,  one  who  has  charge  of  a 
household ;  M.  E.  stiward  (M.  S. 

i) ;  A.  S.  stiward,  Chron.  an. 
1093.  Gloss,  i. 

Stile,  viii.  1 2,  cognisance;  a  heraldic 
term,  cp.  quotation  from  Burke  in 
Webster-Mahn) ;  Fr.  stile-,  Lat. 
stilus,  an  iron-pointed  peg  used 
for  writing  on  wax  tablets,  also, 
a  manner  of  writing. 

Stire,  i.  7,  to  direct,  guide ;  A.  S. 
styran,  to  steer  (Grein). 

Stire,  v.  2  ;  ix.  30,  to  stir,  spur  on  ; 
A.  S.  styrian,  to  stir  (Sweet). 

Stomacke,  vii.  41,  pride,  arrogance; 
Shakespeare,  Henry  VIII,  iv.  2. 
34,  '  a  man  of  an  unbounded  sto 
mach  '  (of  Wolsey)  ;  cp.  Fr.  '  s'es- 
tomaquer,  to  take  the  pet,  or 
pepper  in  the  nose,  at '  (Cotgrave) ; 
Lat.  stomachus,  the  stomach,  also 
chagrin,  vexation;  Gr.  ffropaxos 
stomach,  in  oldest  Gr.  the  throat, 
gullet,  strictly,  a  mouth,  dimin.  of 
oTo/na,  the  mouth. 

Stownd,  viii.  32 ;  xi.  25,  '  the 
bitter  stownd,'  the  moment  of 
peril ;  M.  E.  stounde,  time,  in 
stant  (Chaucer  2);  A.  S.  stund, 
short  space  of  time  (Sweet)  ;  cp. 
Germ,  stunde,  an  hour.  Gloss.  I. 

Stowre,  v.  10,  battle ;  viii.  35,  48, 
onset;  vi.  16,  conflict;  iii.  34; 
viii.  43,  peril ;  M.  E.  stoure,  battle 
(Chaucer  2) ;  O.  Fr.  estour,  estur, 
combat  (Bartsch);  O.  N.  styrr, 
the  tumult  of  battle.  Gloss.  I. 

Strakes,  iv.  15,  streaks ;  cp.  Gen. 
30.  37  (A.  V.);  M.  E.  strelte 
(Prompt.  Parv.)  ;  cp.  Swed.  slrek, 
a  dash,  stroke,  line. 

Strayne,  vii.  21,  to  grasp  tightly; 
M.  E.  streinen ;  O.  Fr.  estreindre 
(Bartsch)  ;  Lat.  stringers. 

Strayt,  vii.  40,  street;  M.  E.  strete, 
Wiclif,  Mt.  12.  19;  A.  S.  street 
(Sweet) ;  Lat.  strata  (via),  a 
paved  way. 

Streight,  xi.  32,  strait,  close,  nar 
row,  contracted  ;  for  the  spelling 
with  gh  cp.  Spight ;  M.  E.  streit 



(Chaucer  i) ;  O.  Fr.  estreit 
(Bartsch),  mod.  etroit',  Lat. 
strictum,  pp.  of  stringers. 

Stressed,  x.  37,  distressed;  the 
word  here  is  doubtless  a  short 
form  for  the  pp.  of  to  distress; 
cp.  O.  Fr.  destresse  (Bartsch); 
see  Skeat. 

Strich,  xii.  36,  the  screech-owl; 
Lat,  strlgem,  ace.  of  strix;  Gr. 

Strond,  viii.  10,  a  shore;  M.  E. 
strand  (Chaucer  i)  ;  A.  S.  strand, 
Mt.  13.  48. 

Stryful,  ii.  13,  strife-full,  con 
tentious  ;  O.  Fr.  estrif  (Bartsch)  ; 
O.  N.  strtiS,  strife ;  cp.  O.  S.  strid 
(Heliand),  Ger.  streit.  For/=8 
cp.  Eng.  stiJf=A.  S.  sti®  (Sweet). 

Sty,  vii.  46,  to  ascend,  to  mount ; 
M.  E.  ste^en  (M.S.  2)  A.S.  stigan 
(Sweet) ;  cp.  Ger.  steigen,  Gr. 
arfixtw.  Gloss.  I. 

Suborned,  i.  I,  procured  privately; 
Lat.  subornare,  =  sub,  under,  se 
cretly,  +  ornare,  to  furnish,  adorn. 

Surbet,  ii.  22,  (a.  traveller)  with 
feet  surbet,  bruised,  as  the  feet  by 
travel ;  for  exx.  see  Nares,  and  cp. 
Webster  -Mahn  (s.  v.  surbctte); 
cp.  Fr.  '  siirbatture,  a  surbating ' 
(Cotgrave),  see  also  soubatture, 

Sure,  iii.  14,  assuredly;  Shakespeare, 
Henry  V,  i.  2.  8,  ' sure,  we  thank 
you';  for  other  exx.  see  Schmidt. 

Surquedry,  xii.  31,  39,  pre 
sumption,  petulance ;  for  exx.  see 
Nares;  M.  E.  surquidrye,  pre 
sumption,  see  definition  in  the 
Persones  Tale,  Chaucer,  iii.  295 ; 
O.  Fr.  surcuiderie  (Roquefort) ; 
cp.  seurcuide  petulant  (Bartsch), 
from  sur  =  Lat.  super  +  O.  Fr. 
cuider  (in  the  Chanson  de  Roland 
quider)  =  Lat.  cogitare,  to  think; 
see  Brachet  (s.  v.  cuider}  ;  hence 
Fr.  outrecuidance.  See  Diez,  p. 

Surview,  ix.  45,  to  survey  ;  view  = 
O.  Fr.  veue  (Bartsch),  prop,  the 
fern,  of  veu,  seen,  pp.  of  veoir  = 
Lat.  videre. 

Swart,  x.  15,  dark  (of  visage)  ; 
Milton,  Comus,  436,  '  no  goblin, 
or  swart  faery  of  the  mine ' ;  M.  E. 
swart  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.  S.  sweart, 
black  (Leo)  ;  cp.  Germ,  schwarz. 

Sway,  x.  49,  to  move  with  force ; 
M.  E.  swe^en,  to  go,  walk,  come 
(Skeat)  ;  O.  N.  sveigja,  to  bend. 

Swayne,  viii.  40 ;  ix.  14;  xi.  28; 
xii.  79,  a  youth;  swein  a  Scandi 
navian  word  found  in  A.  S.  Chron. 
an.  1128;  O.  N.  sveinn,  a  boy, 
servant.  Gloss.  I. 

Swiiick,  vii.  8,  36,  58,  to  toil; 
Milton,  Comus,  293,  '  swink'd 
hedger.'  hedger  overcome  with 
toil ;  M.  E.  swinlten  (Chaucer  3)  ; 
A.  S.  swincan  (Sweet). 

Symbole,  ii.  10,  a  token,  memo 
rial  ;  Fr.  '  symbole  a  token '  (Cot- 

'  grave)  ;  Lat.  symbolum  (Plautus) ; 
Gr.  avpfioXov,  a  sign  by  which 
one  calls  to  mind  a  thing ;  from 
the  base  of  av/j.0d\\eiv  to  throw 
together,  compare.  See  Trench. 


Table,  iii.  24,  a  smooth  surface  for 
a  picture;  see  Trench.  Gloss.  I. 

Tand,  vii.  3,  tanned ;  M.  E.  tannen 
(Skeat),  to  tan,  from  tan  =  Fr. 
tan,  oak-bark  (Cotgrave).  Origin 

Targe,  v.  6,  shield  ;  O.  Fr.  targe 
in  Chanson  de  Roland ;  targe 
occurs  in  an  A.  S.  charter  an.  970, 
but  it  is  prob.  a  borrowed  word ; 
cp.  O.  H.  G.  zarga,  a  frame,  a 
side,  wall;  see  Pick,  vii.  119, 
Skeat  (s.  v.  target). 

Teene  (i),  i.  59,  'both  alike  .  .  . 
religious  reverence  doth  burial 
teene,'  query,  misprint  for  leene  = 
give  (M.  S.  i.  s.  v.  lene)  ? 


Teene  (2),  i.  15,  21,  58,  trouble, 
sorrow;  M.  E.  tene  (M.  S.  i) ; 
A.  S.  tedna,  injury,  insult  (Sweet) ; 
cp.  O.  S,  tiono,  facinus  (Heliand) ; 
see  Tine  (2). 

Termagaunt,  viii.  30,  an  imagi 
nary  God  of  the  Mahometans ; 
cp.  Shakespeare,  Hamlet,  iii.  2. 
15  ;  M.  E.  Termagaunt  (Chaucer 
2,  p.  157);  O.  Fr.  Tervagan, 
in  Chanson  de  Roland  one  of  the 
three  supposed  Gods  of  the  Sara 
cens,  the  other  two  being  Mahum 
(see  Mahoune)  and  Apollin ;  cp. 
It.  Trivigante,  Ariosto,  O.  F.  xii. 
59.  Derivation  uncertain,  see 

Tetra,  vii.  52,  deadly  nightshade; 
see  Notes. 

Thee,  i.  33,  xi.  17,  '  Well  mote  yee 
thee,'  '  fayre  mote  he  thee,'  cp. 
M.  E.  'so  mote  I  thee'  (Chaucer 
2);  M.  E.  thee,  to  thrive,  prosper; 
A.  S.  ]>e6n,  \ihan  (Sweet) ;  cp. 
Germ,  gedeihen,  Go.  gcfyeihan. 

Then,  iv.  7  (and  often),  than; 
then  =  than  common  in  Shake 
speare  (ist  folio)  see  Schmidt; 
M.  E.  thanne,  thenne;  A.  S.  ftonne', 
see  Skeat.  Gloss.  I. 

Thewes,  i.  33;  x.  59,  manners, 
good  qualities ;  M.  E.  ]>eawes, 
habits,  practices ;  A.  S.  ]>edw, 
habit,  in  pi.,  manners,  morals 
(M.  S.  i).  The  original  sense  of 
the  word  was  sinew  or  strength  ; 
see  Skeat.  Hence  thewed,  vi. 
26,  mannered. 

Thicke,  iii.  21,  thicket,  a  close 
wood  or  copse;  M.  E.  \ikke  (adj.) ; 
A.  S.  \icce  (Leo)  ;  cp.  Germ.  dick. 

Tho,  iii.  13  (and  passim),  then; 
M.  E.  J>o  (M.  S.  i);  A.  S.  }>d; 
cp.  O.  S.  th6  (Heliand). 

Thorough, ix.  23;  xii. 45,  through; 
M.  E.  ]>oru  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.  S.  J>orA, 
]>urh,  ]>uruh.  Gloss.  I. 

Thrall,  iii.  8;  iv.  16;  v.  18;  vi.  17, 
a  slave;  M.  E.  \ral  (M.  S.  i) ; 

O.  N.  tycdl ;  'SrcE/  =  servus  occurs 
in  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  Luke 
7.  3,  not  an  A.  S.  word,  but  bor 
rowed  from  Norse ;  Iprall  prob. 
meant  orig. '  a  runner,'  representing 
a  Teutonic  type  THRAGILA; 
cp.  Go.  thragjan,  to  run,  Gr. 
Tpkytw,  see  Skeat.  Hence  to 
thrall,  i.  54 ;  vi.  17,  to  enslave. 

Threasury,  viii.  4,  treasury ;  cp. 
Cotgrave,  '  thresorerie,  a  threa- 
surie,  the  place  wherein  threasure 
is  kept ' ;  from  Lat.  thesaurus ; 
Gr.  Orjffavpos,  a  treasure. 

Threat,  iv.  44,  '  rancour  threats 
his  rusty  knife,'  brandishes  in  a 
threatening  manner;  M.  E.  fyreten; 
A.  S.  (ge)]>redtian,  to  threaten 
(Sweet),  from  ]>redt,  a  throng  of 
people  (Leo),  also,  a  great  pres 
sure,  trouble,  a  threat.  The  orig. 
sense  was  '  pressure '  ;  see  Skeat. 
Hence  threatfull,  xii.  5,  threaten 

Thrillant,  iv.  46,  piercing;  to 
thrill  =  M.  E.  \irlen\  A.  S.  tyrlian 
for  tyyrel-ian,  to  make  a  hole 
(Vyrel);  see  Skeat.  For  the  Fr. 
pres.  part,  form  in  -ant  cp.  Earle, 
p.  378.  See  Persant. 

Thrist,  vi.  17,  thirst;  M.  E.  \>rist 
(M.S.  i).  Gloss. i.  Hence thristy, 
v.  30,  thirsty  ;  see  Thrust. 

Throwes,  v.  9;  viii.  41,  attacks 
causing  pain,  lit.  pangs;  M.  E. 
Crowes,  pangs ;  A.  S.  \red  (Sweet), 
for  \>redw,  a  rebuke,  pain :  see 
Skeat  (s.  v.  throe). 

Thrust,  ii.   29,   to   thirst ;    M.  E. 

v  thrusten,  Troylus  and  Cryseyde, 
1406  (Chaucer)  ;  cp.  Thrist. 

Thunder-light,  vi.  50,  lightning. 

Till,  i.  16,  to;  M.  E.  til,  till,  to 
(M.  S.  i) ;  til  is  a  mark  of  the 
Northumbrian  dialect,  cp.  Mt. 
26.  31  (Lindisfarne  Gospels) ; 
O.  N.  til,  to,  till,  too,  see  Icel. 
Diet.  Till  <=  to  is  still  a  note  of 
the  Scottish  language. 



Tine  (i),  viii.  n,  to  kindle,  to 
light ;  so  in  various  dialects  (Halli- 
well) ;  prop,  spelt  tind, — in  Min- 
sheu,  ed.  162  7, //«<&;  M.E.  tenden, 
Wiclif,  Luke  u.  33;  A.  S.  tendan 
(in  compounds),  see  Leo  ;  cp.  Go. 

Tine  (2),  xi.  21,  to  feel  pain;  from 
/me  =  teene  (2);  cp.  F.  Q^  iv. 
12.  34,  'cruell  winter's  tine,''  and 
iii.  ii.  I,  'bitter  milke  of  tine.' 

Tire,  i.  57;  ii.  36;  ix.  19,  40, 
attire,  a  head-dress;  an  abbre 
viation  for  attire  ;  M.  E.  '  tyre  or 
a-tyre*  (Prompt.  Parv.),  atiren,  to 
dress;  O.  Fr.  atirier,  to  dispose, 
adorn,  from  a  tire,  in  order  ;  tire  = 

0.  H.  G.  ziari,  Germ,  zier,  orna 
ment  ;  A.  S.  tier,  a  row,  order. 

Told,  vii.  4,  counted ;  pr'et.  of  to 
tell ;  M.  E.  tolde,  pret.  of  tellen, 
often  in  the  sense  'to  count' 
(Stratmann) ;  A.  S.  tellan,  pret. 
tealde ;  cp.  Germ,  zahlen. 

Tomb-blacke,  viii.  16,  epithet  of 
a  steed. 

Toole,  iii.  37,  weapon ;  so  in  Shake 
speare,  Rom.  &  Jul.  i.  I.  37, '  draw 
thy  tooV  ;  A.  S.  t6l;  see  Skeat. 

Tort,  v.  17,  wrong;  so  in  F.  Q^iii. 
2.  12;  prop,  a  legal  term,  cp. 
extract  from  Blackstone's  Com. 
in  Richardson  ;  O.  Fr.  tort 
(Bartsch);  L.  Lat.  tortum  (Du- 
cange)  from  Lat.  tortus,  twisted ; 
see  Brachet.  Hence  tortious, 
ii.  1 8,  injurious,  wrongful. 

Tourney,  i.  6,  to  joust,  lit.  to  turn 
about ;  Shakespeare,  Pericles,  ii. 

1,  1 1 6,  150;    O.  Fr.  tournoier,  to 
joust    (Bartsch),    from    tornoi,    a 
wheeling  about. 

Touze,  xi.  33,  to  pull  about,  to 
worry ;  Shakespeare,  Meas.  for  M. 
v.  i.  313;  M.  E.  tosen  (Strat 
mann)  ;  cp.  Ger.  zausen. 

Toward,  iv.  2  2, approaching,  future ; 
A.  S.  tdiveard  as  in  '  on  tdweardre 
worulde,'  in  the  future  world,  in 

the  life  to  come,  Mk.  10.  30 ; 
see  Skeat. 

Toyes,  vi.  7 ;  xii.  60,  sports ;  toy, 
vi.  ii,  21 ;  ix.  35,  to  play;  Pals 
grave,  '  Toy,  a  tryfell,'  also  '  I 
toye  or  tryfell  with  one' ;  Du.  tuig, 
tools,  stuff,  trash;  cp.  Ger.  zeug. 

Trace,  viii.  10,  to  walk ;  O.  Fr. 
tracer,  to  follow  (Bartsch) ;  see 
Brachet.  Gloss.  I. 

Tract,  vi.  39,  to  trace;  L.  Lat. 
tractiare*  ;  see  Skeat  (s.  v.  trace). 

Trade,  vi.  39,  a  path ;  cp.  Surrey's 
Virgil,  JEn. .ii.  593,  'a  common 
trade  to  passe  through  Priam's 
house ' ;  from  A.  S.  tredan,  to 
tread  (Sweet) ;  xii.  30,  frequent 
resort;  see  Trench.' 

Tramels,  ii.  15,  nets  for  the  hair; 
cp.  Cotgrave,  '  tramail,  a  tramell, 
or  a  net  for  partridges';  cp.  It. 
tramaglio,  a  drag-net;  L.  Lat. 
tramacula,  tramagula,  in  the  Lex 
Salica;  see  Skeat,  and  note  in 
Prompt.  Parv.  (s.  v.  tramayle). 

Transmew,  iii.  37,  to  transmute ; 
Fr.  transmuer (Cotgrave).  Gloss.  I . 

Travel!,  xi.  44,  the  same  word  as 
travail,  labour.  The  two  forms  are 
used  indiscriminately  in  old  editions 
of  Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  cp. 
Cotgrave,  '  travail,  travell,  toile.' 
The  Fr.  travail  is  from  a  L.  Lat. 
travare*,  to  build  with  beams,  to 
pen,  shackle,  hence  to  cause  em 
barrassment  and  trouble  ;  for  traces 
of  travare*  see  Skeat  (s.v.  travail); 
it  is  from  Lat.  trabetn,  a  beam, 
ace.  of  trabs. 

Trayle,  xii.  61,  a  trailing  tangle 
(of  ivy) ;  from  Lat.  trahere,  to 
draw  or  drag  along;  see  Skeat 
(s.v.  trail). 

Trayne,  i.  4,  a  snare;  Fr.  trains, 
a  drag-net  (Cotgrave).  Gloss,  i. 

Trayne,  iii.  27,  to  drag,  trail;  Fr. 
' trainer,  to  traile,  drag'  (Cot- 
grave)  ;  L.  Lat.  trahinare  (Du- 
cange),  from  Lat.  trahere. 


Treachour,  i.  12 ;  iv.  27,  a  traitor ; 
M.  E.  trechoure,  a  trickster,  cheat 
(Chaucer),  spelt  trychor  earlier ; 
cp.  Prov.  trichaire,  a  traitor,  from 
O.  Fr.  trickier,  trecher,  to  trick 
(Bartsch);  M.  H.  G.  trechen,  to 
push,  pull,  also  to  entice;  see 
Diez,  p.  326  (s.  v.  treccare\  and 
Skeat  (s.  v.  trick). 

Treachetour,  x.  51,  a  traitor;  so 
F.  CK  vi.  8.  7 ;  Nares  suggests 
that  this  Spenserian  word  may  be 
a  corrupt  form  of  Chaucer's  trege- 
tour,  a  juggler,  who  also  uses 
tregetrie,  a  piece  of  trickery; 
treget,  guile,  trickery,  see  Morris* 
Glossary,  and  cp.  Halliwell,  and 
Prompt.  Parv.  Tregetour  =  O.  Fr. 
tresgettere,  a  magician  (Roque 
fort),  from  tresgeter,  trasgeter,  to 
form  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  trans  + 
jactare ;  see  Burguy. 

Treague,  ii.  33,  a  temporary  ces 
sation  of  hostilities ;  Sp.  It.  tregua, 
a  truce ;  cp.  L.  Lat.  treuga,  as  in 
the  historical  *  Treuga  Dei/  la 
Treve  de  Dieu.  Cp.  Ducange, 
'  Treuga,  securitas  praestita  rebus 
et  personis,  discordia  nondum 
finita' ;  tregua,  treuga,homQ.}l.G. 
triwa,  triuwa,  faith,  a  covenant ; 
cp.  Go.  triggwa,  a  covenant ;  see 
Diez,  p.  326. 

Treble,  xii.  33,  the  highest  part 
'  in  music ;  =  triple,  cp.  Fairfax, 
Tasso,  xviii.  24;  O.  Fr.  treble, 
triple  (Burguy) ;  Lat.  triplus  ; 
for  b=p  cp.  Fr.  double  =  1^^.. 

Trespass,  viii.  28,  crime;  M.  E. 
trespas,  so  O.  Fr. ;  Lat.  trans, 
across,  over+passus,  a  step. 

Troth,  i.  n;  ii.  34,  a  variant  of 
truth ;  M.  E.  trewthe,  trouthe 
(Chaucer) ;  A.  S.  trefoft  (Sweet) 
from  A.  S.  tredwe,  true  (Grein). 

Trow,  v.  13,  to  think,  suppose  to 
be  true ;  M.  E.  trowen  (Chaucer 
i)  ;  A.  S.  tredwan  (Grein),  from 

A.  S.  treowa,  trust,  Mk.  n.  52, 
from  tredwe,  true  ;  see  above. 

Troynovant,  x.  46,  London,  the 
capital  of  the  British  tribe,  the 
Trinobantes,  according  to  Caesar ; 
by  popular  etymology  however 
Troynovant  was  connected  with 
'  Troia  nova,1  and  supposed  to 
mean  'new  Troy,'  cp.  legend 
taken  from  Nennius  by  Geoffrey 
of  Monmouth,  Bk.  i.  (near  end). 

Truncked,  v.  4,  decapitated,  trun 
cated  ;  from  Fr.  '  tronc,  a  head- 
lesse  body '  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat. 
truncum,  ace.  of  truncus,  a  piece 
cut  off,  from  truncus,  maimed. 

Tway,  vi.  31,  'in  tway,'  in  two; 
M.  E.  tweie  (M.  S.  i). 


Unbrace,  iv.  9,  to  loosen;  so 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  hombrace, 
a  firm  hold  ;  O.  Fr.  brace,  the  two 
arms  (Bartsch) ;  Lat.  brachia,  pi. 
of  brachium,  the  arm. 

Uncivile,  vii.  3,  wild,  uncivilised. 

Uncouth,  i.  8,  24,  29,  strange ;  in 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt),  and  see 
Trench  ;  M.  E.  uncouth  (Chaucer 
i) ;  A.S.  uncuft,  unknown  (Sweet) ; 
from  cuft,  pp.  of  cunnan,  to  know; 
cp.  Scot.  unco\  Gloss.  I. 

Undight,  xii.  15,  undressed;  see 

Uneath,  i.  27,  49,  56;  x.  8,  with 
difficulty ;  also  uneathes,  vi.  I . 
Gloss,  i. 

Unkindly,  x.  9,  unnatural;  see 
Trench  (s.  v.  kindly). 

Unmannurd,  x.  5,  not  cultivated  ; 
the  old  sense  of  to  manure  was 
'  to  work  at  with  the  hand,'  being 
a  contracted  form  of  maiKEiivre, 
see  Trench,  Skeat ;  Fr.  manoeuvre; 
L.  Lat.  manuopera  (Ducange). 

Unreproved,  vii.  16,  blameless; 
Milton,  L'Allegro,  40,  '  in  unre- 
proved  pleasures  free.' 



Tinware,  iv.   17,  not  aware;  A.  S. 

unwcer  (Leo). 
TJnwares,  i.  4 ;  iii.  31;  iv.  17;  ix. 

38,  unawares,  unexpectedly ;  A.  S. 

unwares,  A.  S.  Chron.  an.   1004  ; 

from    wcer,    cautious;    cp.    Ger. 

TJnweeting,  iv.   17;   xii.    n,    22, 

not  knowing,  unconscious ;   M.  E. 

unwytyng  (Chaucer)  ;  see  Weet, 

Gloss,  i. 
Upbray,   iv.    45,   to    reproach ;    a 

Spenserian  form  for  the  sake  of 

the  rhyme,  cp.  F.  Q^  iii.  6.  50 ; 

iv.  I.  42  ;  M.  E.  upbreiden  (M.  S. 

i)  ;  A.  S.  upp  +  bredan,  bregdan, 

to  braid,  also,  to  lay  hold  of;    the 

orig.  sense  of  upbraid  was  prob. 

to  lay  hands  on ;  hence,  to  attack, 

lay   to   one's   charge;    so    Skeat. 

Gloss,  i,  Upbrayd. 
Upstaring,  xii.  39,  '  rearing  their 

upstaring  crests,'  i.  e.  standing  on 

end  ;  cp.  Shakespeare,  Tempest,  i. 

2.  213  'with  hair  upstaring'  Jul. 

Caes.  iv.  3.  280  'makest  my  hair  to 

stare,'  i.e.  to  be  stiff;  see  Skeat 

(s.  v.  stare). 
Urchin,  xi.  13,  a  hedgehog;    so  in 

Shakespeare    (Schmidt);     M.   E. 

urchone    (Prompt.     Parv.),     also 

spelt  irchone    (M.  S.  2) ;    O.  Fr. 

irefon,    herifon    (Burguy),    mod. 

herisson ;    from  Lat.  ericius  with 

dimin.    suffix   -on.     Ericius   is   a 

lengthened  form  from  er  =  her= 

Gr.  xnP>  a  hedgehog,  lit.  the  stiff, 

bristly  animal ;  see  Skeat. 
Usaunce,   vii.    7,    use ;    usance  in 

Shakespeare    (Schmidt);     O.   Fr. 

usance  (Bartsch). 
Use,  v.  19,  habit,  practice;    so  in 

Shakespeare  often  (Schmidt) ;  O.Fr. 

MS,  usage  (Burguy)  ;  Lat.  usus. 
Utter,  ii.    34,    outer ;    A.  S.  uttor, 

see  Grein  (s.  v.  utor). 


Valew,  vi.   29,  worth,  valour;    for 

exx.  of  this  use  see  Nares;  Fr. 
value  (Cotgrave),  fern,  of  valu, 
pp.  of  valoir,  to  be  worth ;  Lat. 

Valiaunce,  iii.  14 ;  viii.  51  ;  ix.  5  ; 
x.  38,  bravery  ;  O.  Fr.  vaillance 

Varlet,  iv.  37,  40,  45;  v.  2,  25, 
servant  to  a  knight ;  see  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt) ;  in  Berners* 
Froissart,  see  Richardson  ;  O.  Fr. 
varlet  (Bartsch),  used  as  a  title 
of  honour,  the  r  is  intrusive,  cp. 
hurler,  from  Lat.  ululare  (Littre)  ; 
other  forms  are  valet,  vallet,  vad- 
lez,  vaslet,  dimin.  of  O.  Fr.  vassal, 
a  brave  man,  a  dependent,  see 
note  in  Chanson  de  Roland  (glos 
sary)  ;  L.  Lat.  vassallus,  a  feudal 
tenant  (Ducange),  also  vassus, 
vasus,  a  servant,  a  word  of  Celtic  I 
origin ;  cp.  Wei.  gwas,  a  youth, 
a  servant,  see  Rhys,  p.  146. 

Vassall,  iii.  7,  servant  (figuratively)  ; 
see  above. 

Vauntage,  i.  4,  vantage  (Fr.  vant- 
ager  in  Palsgrave) ;  a  headless 
form  of  Fr.  avantage. 

Vaut,  vii.  28,  an  arched  roof;  O. 
Fr.  vaute,  voute,  volte  (Burguy), 
from  Lat.  voluta,  fern.  pp.  of  vol- 
.vere,  to  roll. 

Vellenage,  xi.  i,  servitude;  see 

Vengeable,  iv.  30,  46,  '  vengeable 
despight,'  revengeful;  see  Nares, 
Richardson  for  exx. 

Vermeil!,  iii.  22  ;  vermeil,  x.  24  ; 
xii.  45,  vermilion;  O.  Fr.  vermeil 
(Bartsch)  ;  L.  Lat.  vermiculus,  a 
little  worm,  in  Vulgate,  Ex.  35. 
25  as  a  rendering  of  the  Heb. 
tola'ath,  a  worm,  esp.  that  insect 
which  produces  the  scarlet  dye, 
the  coccus  insect.  See  Cremosin. 

Verse,  i.  55,  a  magic  formula,  a 
spell ;  cp.  the  use  of  Lat.  carmen, 
a  song,  then,  a  charm. 

Vertuous,    viii.    22;    xii.    86,   '  v. 



steele,'  '  v.  staffe,' possessing  virtue 
or  power ;  so  in  Shakespeare 
(Schmidt);  Fr.  vertueux  (Cot- 
grave);  L.Lat.virtuosus  (Ducange). 

Villein,  iv.  9,  17  (used  of  Furor); 
ix.  13  ;  xi.  26,  a  base-born,  low 
fellow,  a  clown,  a  scoundrel ;  M.  E. 
vilein  (Stratmann)  ;  O.  Fr.  vilein, 
vilain,  a  low  person,  a  rustic 
(Bartsch) ;  L.  Lat.  villanus,  a 
farm-servant,  a  serf  (Ducange), 
from  Lat.  villa,  a  farm.  Gloss.  I. 

Virginall,  i.  10;  ix.  20,  maidenly; 
in  Shakespeare  (Schmidt);  Fr. 
virginal  (Cotgrave) ;  Lat.  vir- 

Vitall,  i.  12,  life-giving;  Lat.  vitalis. 

Voyage,  i.  34;  v.  25,  journey;  Fr. 
voyage  (Cotgrave)  ;  O.  Fr.  veiage, 
in  Chanson  de  Roland ;  L.  Lat. 
viaticum,  from  via,  a  way,  journey. 
Gloss,  i. 


"Wage,  vii.  18,  to  barter,  exchange ; 
from  M.  E.  wage,  pay  (Prompt. 
Parv.)  ;  O.  Fr.  wage  (also  guage, 
gage],  see  Bartsch  ;  from  wager, 
to  pledge ;  L.  Lat.  wadiare,  from 
wadius,  a  pledge  ;  cp.  Goth,  wadi, 
a  pledge  ;  see  Skeat ;  cp.  gaged. 

Walke,  iv.  5  (of  the  tongue),  to 
roll  about,  wag ;  A.  S.  wealcan, 
to  roll  (Sweet). 

"Wan,  iv.  34 ;  vi.  32  ;  vii.  65,  weak, 
pale.;  M.  E.  wan,  pale  (Chaucer 
3)  ;  A.  S.  wann,  wonn,  dark,  black, 
an  epithet  of  the  raven,  of  night ; 
see  Skeat. 

"Wanton,  xii.  53,  76,  unrestrained, 
playful ;  M.  E.  wantoun  (Chaucer 
i),  wantowen  (P.  Plowman)  = 
wan-,  lacking,  wanting,  +  towen, 
A.S.  togen,  pp.  of  (eon,  to  draw, 
educate,  bring  up,  so  that  wanton 
meant  orig.  ill-bred ;  cp.  Ger. 
ungezogen,  ill-bred. 

"War -liable,  x.  62,  fit  for  war ;  see 

Warke,  i.  32,   work;    a  northern 

form,  see  Jamieson. 
Warne,  i.  36,  to  keep  off;    from 

a  Teutonic  root  WAR,  to  defend  ; 

see  Skeat. 
Warray,  x.  50,  72,  to  harass  with 

war  ;  x.  21,  '  Ebranck  warreyd  on 

Brunchild,'  made  war  on ;  M.  E. 

werreien    (Chaucer    2) ;    O.    Fr. 

werreier*,    guerroier    (Bartsch), 

from  O.  Fr.  werre,  war  (Burguy)  ; 

0.  H.  G.  werra,  strife ;   cp.  Eng. 
war',  see  Skeat.     Gloss,  i. 

"Wasserman,  xii.  24,  a  sea-mon 
ster;  Ger.  wassermann}  homo 

"Waste,  ix.  9, '  to  waste  much  way,* 

1.  e.  to  travel  some  distance  ;  cp. 
the  Lat.  viam  terere.     Gloss,  i. 

"Wastful,  vii.  2 ;  xii.  35,  unculti 
vated,  wild.  Gloss,  i. 

"Wawes,  xii.  4,  waves ;  M.  E.  wawe 
(Wiclif,  N.  T.),  see  also  Chaucer 
3,  from  wawen  =  A.  S.  wagian,  to 
move  to  and  fro  (Grein) ;  cp. 
O.  N.  vdgr,  Dan.  vove,  Ger.  voge, 
a  wave.  Our  wave  is  late,  and 
not  the  same  word  as  wawe,  as  it 
comes  from  A.  S.  wafian;  see 

Wayment,  i.  1 6,  to  lament ;  M.  E. 
waymenten  (Chaucer  i)  ;  O.  Fr. 
se  guaimenter,  gaimenter,  wai- 
menter  (Burguy),  cp.  also  note  in 
Prompt.  Parv.  (s.  v.  wamentyn). 

Weede,  i.  52  ;  iv.  35,  herb ;  A.  S. 
we6d;  cp.  O.  S.  wiod  (Heliand). 

"Weede,  iii.  21,  27;  iv.  29;  viii. 
16  ;  xii.  55,  dress ;  A.  S.  w<zde 
also  w<sd,  a  garment ;  cp.  O.  S. 
wddi,  giwddi  (Heliand). 

"Weeke,  x.  30,  wick ;  M.  E.  wuelte ; 
A.  S.  weoca ;  cp.  O.  Du.  '  wiecke, 
a  weeke  of  a  lampe'  (Hexham) ; 
lit.  the  soft  or  weak  part ;  see  Skeat. 

Weene,  ii.  3  ;  iii.  13  ;  vi.  45  ;  vii. 
30,  34,  to  think,  suppose,  intend ; 
M.  E.  wenen  (Chaucer  i) ;  A.  S. 
wenan  (Sweet).  Gloss.  I. 



Weet,  i.  4,  29  and  often,  to  know  ; 
M.  E.  witen,  to  know  (M.  S.  i)  ; 
A.  S.  witan  (Sweet).  Gloss,  i. 

Weetlesse,  v.  36,  ignorant  of; 
from  A.S.  w/zY,  knowledge  (Grein). 

Wefte,  vi.  18,  was  wafted  ;  a  Spen 
serian  pret.  of  the  vb.  to  wave,  to 
be  moved  about. 

Weld,  vii.  40 ;  ix.  56,  to  wield, 
govern ;  M.  E.  welden,  to  govern, 
possess  (Wiclif,  N.  T.) ;  A.  S. 
(ge)weldan  from  wealdan ;  see 

"Well  away,  vi.  32,  43 ;  viii.  46, 
an  exclamation  of  great  sorrow; 
M.  E.  weilawei  for  wa  la  wal 
A.  S.  wd  Id  wd,  lit.  woe !  lo ! 
woe  !  (Sweet).  Hence  welladay ! 
which  occurs  in  Shakespeare, 
Merry  Wives,  iii.  3.  106. 

Wench,  vi.  8,  girl ;  used  in  a  sense 
between  tenderness  and  contempt, 
as  in  Shakespeare  (Schmidt) ;  M.  E. 
wenche,  Mt.  9.  24,  Wiclif,  ed. 
1380;  earlier  wenchell,  in  Ormu- 
lum  3356,  where  it  is  used  of  a 
male  infant,  viz.  in  the  account 
of  the  annunciation  of  Christ's 
birth  to  the  shepherds ;  A.  S. 
ivinclo,  children,  allied  to  wencel, 
weak,  wancol,  tottery;  cp.  Ger. 
wanken,  to  totter  ;  see  Skeat.  For 
A.  S.  suffix  -o/,  see  Sweet  Ixxxvi, 
and  nimble. 

Wend,  i.  51 ;  vi.  10,  to  go,  take 
one's  way  ;  M.  E.  wenden  (Chau 
cer  i)  ;  A.  S.  wendan,  to  turn 
anything,  to  go ;  lit.  '  to  make  to 
wind,'  formed  by  change  of  a  to 
e  from  wand,  pret.  of  windan,  to 

Wexe,  i.  42  ;  iii.  9 ;  v.  20,  to  grow  ; 
M.E.  wexen  (Chaucer  2) ;  cp.  A.  S. 
weaxan  (Sweet) ;  cp.  Ger.  wach- 
sen,  Go.  wahsjan. 

Whelm,  ii.  43  ;  iv.  1 7,  to  overturn, 
submerge ;  Shakespeare,  Merry 
Wives,  ii.  2.  143  ;  M.  E.  whelmen, 
to  turn  over,  Chaucer,  Troilus,  i. 

139,  related  to  whelven,  hwelfen 
(Skeat),  a  vb.  related  to  Swed. 
hvalf,  an  arch;  thus  the  orig. 
sense  of  whelm  (  =  hwelf-m)  was 
to  arch  over,  hence  to  turn  a 
hollow  dish  over,  hence  to  upset, 
overturn.  The  final  -m  is  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  vb.  whelm  is 
formed  from  a  sb.  whelm 
(=whelf-m) ',  for  this  suffix  cp. 
the  word  qualm. 

Whenas,  iv.  16,  as  soon  as;  often 
in  Shakespeare  (Schmidt). 

Whereas,  vi.  2 ;  vii.  3 ;  xii.  30, 
where ;  so  inShakespeare(Schmidt). 

Where-so,  i.  18;  iii.  20,  38,  where 

Whiles,  ii.  5  ;  vi.  n,  while;  so  in 
Shakespeare  often  (Schmidt),  cp. 
Mt.  5.  25,  A.  V.  an.  1611,  and 
Revision,  an.  i88r;  M.  E.  whiles, 
Chaucer,  C.  T.  35  (Harleian  MS.), 
from  A.S.  hwil,  hwile,  time,  space, 
da  hwile  de,  while  (Sweet) ;  the  -s 
is  due  to  the  old  adverbial  ending 
in  -es,  which  was  orig.  a  gen.  case, 
as  in  ned-es,  needs,  elles,  else  (but 
note  that  the  A.  S.  gen.  of  hwil 
is  hwile,  the  sb.  being  fern.),  see 
Sweet  Ixxxix.  Hence  whilst,  ii. 
1 6,  with  added  t ;  see  emongst. 

Whirlpoole,  xii.  23,  a  large  fish, 
so  named  from  the  commotion 
which  it  makes ;  whirlpole,  in 
Palsgrave;  cp.  Job  41.  I  in  A.V. 
margin,  '  a  whale  or  a  whirlpool* 
the  explanation  of  the  Heb.  '  le 
viathan  ' ;  see  Davies  (s.  v.  whirl 
whale),  and  Richardson  (s.  v. 

Whistler,  xii.  36,  '  the  whistler 
shrill,'  some  bird  of  ill  omen  ;  cp. 
A.  S.  hwistlere,  Mt.  9.  23. 

Whott,  i.  58;  iv.  37;  ix.  29,  39, 
hot ;  for  the  initial  w  (once  pro 
nounced)  cp.  whole  =  M.  E.  hoi, 
A.  S.  hdlf  and  whoop  =  M.  E.  hou- 
pen,  also  wun  the  pronunciation  of 
one,  A.  S.  an ;  the  vowel  of  hot 



was  formerly  long,  M.  E.  kote, 
hoof ;  A.  S.  hat. 

Whyleare,  ii.  1 1  ;  viii.  3 ;  xi.  25, 
a  while  before.  Gloss.  I. 

Whylome,  ii.  13;  vii.  30;  x.  16; 
xii.  13,  41,  85,  in  time  past,  for 
merly;  Milton,  Comus,  827,  Death 
of  an  Infant,  24;  A.  S.  hwilum, 
sometimes,  dat.  plur.  of  hwil,  time 
(Sweet).  Gloss.  I. 

"Wield,  i.  1 8,  'to  wield  a  steed,'  to 
manage ;  see  Weld. 

Wight,  i.  36 ;  ix.  39  ;  xi.  8,  a  being, 
creature ;  A.  S.  wiht,  a  person, 
thing  (Grein).  The  orig.  sense  is 
'  something  moving,'  prob.  used 
for  something  seen  at  a  distance, 
which  might  be  a  man,  child,  ani 
mal,  or  a  supernatural  being,  so 
Skeat;  cp.  O.N.  vcettr,  Dan.  vatte, 
an  elf,  also  Scot,  seely  wights, 
a  term  applied  to  the  fairies 

Wild,  x.  32,  willed. 

Wisard,  ix.  53,  a  wise  man,  M.  E. 
wysard  (Prompt.  Parv.) ;  O.  Fr. 
wise-hard,  the  older  form  of  guise- 
hart,  guise-art,  prudent,  clever  (Bur- 
guy),  cp.  Guiscard,  the  surname 
of  the  famous  Norman  soldier,  see 
Gibbon,  Decl.  and  Fall, ch. 56;  from 
O.  N.  vizk-r,  clever,  with  Fr.  suffix 
-hard,  -ard  due  to  O.  H.  G.  -hart ; 
see  Brachet,  cxi,  M.  Miiller,  Chips, 
iv.  9.  The  O.  N.  vizkr  is  for  vit- 
skr ;  from  vita,  to  know,  with 
suffix  -sk  =  A.  S.  -isc  ('-ish'),  see 
Sweet,  Ixxxvi ;  and  Skeat  (s.v. 

Wist,  ii.  46  ;  vi.  22  ;  vii.  34,  knew  ; 
A.  S.  wiste,  pret.  of  witan  (Sweet)  ; 
see  Weet. 

Witch,  i.  54,  a  woman  having 
magical  power  ;  M.  E.  wicche,  for 
merly  used  also  of  a  man  ;  A.  S. 
wicca,  a  wizard,  wicce,  a  witch; 
wicca  =  witga  for  witiga,  a  sooth 
sayer,  from  witan,  to  see;  cp. 

Witch,  vii.  10,  to  bewitch ;  A.  S. 
wiccian  (Leo). 

Wite,  xii.  16,  to  blame;  M.  E.  wi- 
ten,  to  blame,  (M.  S.  i) ;  A.S.  witan, 
videre,  imputare  (Grein)  ;  cp.  our 
twit,  which  =  (Et-witanAo  reproach ; 
see  Skeat  (s.v.  twit). 

Withhault  (pret.),  xi.  9,  withheld; 
M.  E.  held,  heold  (M.  S.  i)  ;  A.  S. 
heold  pret.  of  healdan,  to  hold 

Witt,  vi.  13;  ix.  49,  mind ;  xii.  44, 
intellectual  power ;  A.  S.  wit,  mind, 
intellect  (Grein),  from  witan,  td 

Wize,  i.  35  (and  often),  manner. 
Gloss,  i. 

Woe,  viii.  53,  sorrowful ;  see  Nares ; 
M.  E.  wa  (M.  S.  i);  A.  S.  wd,  wed, 
woe  (Sweet). 

Wondred,  xii.  44,  marvellous  ; 
Shakespeare,  Tempest,  iv.  123, '  so 
rare  a  wondered  father." 

Wonne,  i.  51;  iii.  18;  vii.  49;  ix. 
52 ;  xii.  69,  to  dwell ;  M.  E.  wonen, 
wonien,  to  dwell  (M.S.  i)  ;  A.S. 
(ge)wunian  (Sweet).  Hence  wonne, 
vii.  20  ;  xii.  ii,  dwelling.  Gloss.  I. 

Wont,  i.  50 ;  ii.  42  ;  iii.  41 ;  vii. 
59,  to  be  accustomed  ;  so  in  Shake 
speare  (Schmidt) ;  Milton,  Comus, 
332  ;  wont  is  a  vb.  formed  from 
the  pp.  waned  (wont)  of  the  vb. 
wonen,  see  wonne,  and  cp.  Skeat 
(s.  v.). 

Wood,  iv.  ii ;  v.  20;  viii.  40, 
furious  ;  M.E.  wood,  mad  (Chaucer 
2)  ;  A.  S.  wod  (Sweet).  Gloss.  I. 

Worship,  i.  6;  honour  ;  M.  E.  wor- 
shipe  (Chaucer  2);  A.S.  weorfiscipe, 

1.  e.  worth-skip,  honour    (Grein); 
for  suffix  -scipe,  meaning  '  shape, 
condition, '     see     Sweet,     Ixxxvi. 
Gloss,  i. 

Worth,  vi.  32,  'wo  worth  the  man,' 
evil  be  to  the  man ;  cp.  Ezek.  30. 

2,  'woe  worth  the  day'  (A.V.)  = 
'vae,   vae    diei '    (Vulgate);    M.E. 
worsen,  to  become  (P.  Plowman)  ; 



A.  S.  weor'ftan,   wyrftan  (Grein)  ; 

cp.  Ger.  werden. 
"Wote,  i.  1 8  ;  iii.  16  ;    vii.  go  ;  viii. 

14,  pres.  t.,  know  ;  -wott,  iv.  45  ; 

M.  E.  pres.  t.,  sing.   1st  and  3rd, 

wat  (woot,  wot),  2nd  wost,  from 

witen,  see  M.  S.  I,  p.  Ixxxii ;  A.  S. 

wdt,  wast,  a   preterite-present  of 

witan,     to    know    (Sweet) ;     see 

Woxe,  vi.  13  :    viii.  9  ;   x.  17  ;  xii. 

22,  grew:  A.  S.  wox,  weox,  pret. 

of  weaxan,  to  grow,  Sweet,  Ixxiii ; 

see  "Wexe. 
"Wreak,  iii.  13,  to  avenge,  punish  ; 

M.  E.  wrelien  (Chaucer  2)  ;    A.  S. 

wrecan,   to  wreak,   orig.   to   urge 

(Grein)  ;   cp.  Germ,  rachen  ;   cog 
nate  with  Lat.  urgere ;  see  Fick. 
"Wreath,  i.   56,  to  turn,  to  twist; 

spelt  wretke,  in  Palsgrave;    M.  E. 

writhen  (Coleridge);  A.S.  wriftan, 

to  twist  (Grein). 
"Wrest,  xii.   81,  to  wrench,  twist ; 

A.  S.   wrckstan,  to   twist  forcibly 

(Grein)  ;  see  Skeat. 
"Wroke,  v.    21,   avenged;     pp.   of 



Y-.  In  this  book  this  prefix  repre 
sents  three  distinct  particles  :— 

(i)  Y-  stands  for  the  A.  S.  ge-,  an 
extremely  common  prefix,  both  in 
sbs.  and  vbs. ;  in  sbs.  ge-  has  often 
the  meaning  of  partnership,  com 
panionship,  as  ge-sift,  a  companion 
(on  a  journey),  from  sift,  a  journey; 
with  vbs.  it  sometimes  denotes 
success  or  attainment,  as  gefrig- 
nan,  to  hear  of,  learn,  fromfrignan, 
to  ask ;  but  is  often  prefixed  to 
various  parts  of  a  vb.  without  ap 
preciably  affecting  the  sense;  in 
M.  E.  as  in  mod.  Germ,  it  is  usually 
prefixed  to  the  pp.,  the  forms  in 
M.E.  being  i- y-.  Hencethe^- in 

yblent,  vii.   I,    confused,    ob 
scured  ;  see  Blent. 

yclad,  iii.  26,  clad ;  used  in 
Shakespeare  (Schmidt)  ;  pp.  of 
M.  E.  clothen,  from  A.S.  cltiS. 

ydred,  xii.  38,  afraid ;  from  A.S. 
drcedan  (in  compounds),  to  dread. 

ylincked,  vii.  4^,  linked ;  from 
A.  S.  gehlencian,  from  hlence  ;  cp. 
Ger.  gelenk,  see  Skeat. 

ymett,  i.  26,  met ;  from  A.S.  me- 
tan,  to  meet,  from  mdt,  also  gemot, 
a  public  assembly. 

yplight,  iii.  I ;  vii.  50,  plighted ; 
from  A.  S.  plihtan,  to  risk,  to 
pledge  (Leo). 

ywritt,  xii.  44,  written  ;  from 
A.  S.  writan. 

In  ybuilt,  ix.  29,  and  yglaunst, 
vi.  31  (pret.),  this  Teutonic  prefix 
is  put  before  vbs.  of  Scandinavian 
origin  ;  no  trace  however  of  ge-  as 
a  tense  or  participle  fqrmative  re 
mains  even  in  the  earliest  Icelandic 

One  word  more  remains  to  be 
noted  : — 

ywis,  i.  1 9,  certainly ;  M.E.  ywis, 
iwis ;  A.  S.  gewis,  certain ;  cp. 
Germ,  gewiss,  certainly. 

(2)  Y=K.  S.    d-,   forth,   away;    so 
ygoe,  i.  2  ;    viii.  53,  ago ;    A.  S. 
d-gdn,  gone  away,  past,  cp.  Mk. 
1 6.    i,    "Sa    saeternes    daeg    waes 
dgdn  =  cum  transivisset  sabbatum* 
(Vulgate)  ;  dgdn,  pp.  of  dgdn,  to 
go  away,  to  pass. 

(3)  r=A.  S.  in;   so  yfere,  i.  35; 
ix.  2,  in  company,  together ;  M.  E. 
iferen  (M.  S.  i),  i  fere,  Lajamon, 
27435,  in  fere,  see  Stratmann,  p. 
1 6 6,   from   A.  S.  fera,  gefera,    a 
companion.     Gloss,  i,  Fere. 

Yeed.  iv.  2,  to  go ;  cp.  Gloss.  I, 
Yede;  prop,  a  pret.,  cp.  M.  E. 
yede,  ^ede,  in  Mt.  8.  32,  '  thei 
%eden  out,'  i.  e.  they  went  out 
(Wiclif) ;  A.  S.  edde,  the  weak 
pret.  of  a  lost  vb.,  which  serves  as 
a  pret.  to  gdn,  to  go  ;  from  this 
e6de  comes  also  yode,  vii.  2  ; 



xi.  20,  went ;  M.  E.  yode,  $eode 
(M.S.  i,  p.  Ixxxi).  Etymology  of 
code  unknown. 

Yeoman,  ix.  28,  an  officer  in  a 
noble  household;  M.  E.  yeman 
(Chaucer  i\pko$oman;  the  word 
does  not  occur  in  A.  S.  texts,  but  it 
prob.  represents  an  older  ged-man*. 
The  sense  of  the  prefix  is  probably 
'district'  or  'village,'  cp.  O.  Friesic 
ga,  go,  whence  gatnan,  a  villager; 
see  Skeat  (Principles  of  English 
Etymology,  p.  429). 

Yond,  viii.  40,  fierce  (of  a  lion); 
F.  Q^iii.  7.  26,  cp.  Fairfax,  Tasso, 
i.  55,  'Lombards  fierce  and  yond'; 
M.  E.  yond,  $ond,  $eond  (Strat* 

mann);  A.  S.  geond,  at  a  distance, 

cp.  O.  Fr.  onltrageux,  outrageous, 

from  oultre,  Lat.  ultra,  beyond  ; 

so  Webster-Mahn ;  see  Nares. 
Youthly,  iii.  38,  youthful.  Gloss.  I. 
Yron-braced,  v.  7,  sinewed  like 

iron  (of  the  arm);    cp.    the   Fr. 

Fier-a-bras,  name  of  a   hero   of 


Zephyms,  xii.  33,  the  west  wind; 

Lat.;  Gr.  fe'^vpos. 
Ziffius,  xii.  24,  a  sea-monster;  prob. 

for  xiphias,  a  sword-fish  (Pliny); 

Gr.  £i<j>ias  (Aristotle),  also  £i<£tos 

(Liddell  and  Scott),  from  gityos,  a 





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J>   /> 

&erm^,  v        x?     ^ 

^  ^^W^^.x^^^^^^r^  T^r 




'M~^^T^f^^.  ^^^^^^ 

.  6tqfa&(^o.  Utp?--4-^*^'\ 

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PR  Spenser,   Edmund 

2358  Bookll  of  the  Faeryr  QueeneA 

A35K5  7th  ed.